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Adult Discouragement: Traditonal College Students

Description: This study resulted in the development of the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA), an assessment instrument for the Adlerian construct of discouragement in adults more than 18 years of age. The DSA is a 60-item instrument that contains five sub-scales corresponding to five life tasks identified in Adlerian literature as work, love, society, self, and spirituality. Age, gender, and ethnicity norms were established for the DSA using a diverse sample (N=586). Additional normative data was developed with a presumed discouraged sample (N=47), and a special sample of traditional college students aged 18-27 years (N=531). Findings on the norm sample indicated that females are less discouraged than males on the Total DSA and on society and spirituality sub-scales. The 18-34 year old group was more discouraged than other age groups on the Total DSA and on work, society, and spirituality sub-scales. Presumed discouraged sample findings indicated that females were less discouraged than males on the society sub-scale. College student findings indicated that females were less discouraged than males on the Total DSA and sub-scales of love, society, spirituality, and work. A significant difference was found among ethnic groups in self sub-scales. Students with no absences per week were less discouraged than students with two absences per week. Students with lower grade point averages (GPA) were more discouraged on the Total DSA and work sub-scales. DSA internal consistency coefficients were .9392, .9496, and .9327 for norm, presumed discouraged, and college student samples respectively. Correlations between DSA and two social interest surveys reflect an inverse relationship between discouragement and social interest. Results indicate that the DSA is a useful assessment instrument for research and counseling purposes with college students. Further research should include greater geographical and ethnic diversity as well as validation among diverse college samples and non-traditional students. Additionally, a standard range ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Haggan, Paul S. (Paul Stephen)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Family Functioning on Identity Formation: a Model of Late Adolescent Identity Development

Description: The influence of theoretically prominent family processes on late adolescent college student identity development was the focus of this study. The primary purpose was to test a model of adolescent identity development. This model proposed that family health variables would predict identity development, and that attachment and separation-individuation would each make unique and additive contributions to identity development. The second purpose was to identify instruments which discretely measured the family processes. The third purpose was to better understand family influences by measuring the processes of exploration and commitment. Participants were 150 male and 150 female college students, between the ages of 18 and 23, and from intact families. Questionnaires completed measured family functioning and identity development. Family functioning measures covered three domains (family health, attachment to parents, and separation-individuation) which formed the set of independent variables. The identity measures (ego identity status and identity process) comprised the dependent variables. A hierarchical regression design was employed where family health variables were entered first, followed by attachment variables, then separation-individuation variables. The results indicated mixed support of the model. First, the proposed model was statistically supported for females as all domains predicted identity achievement and diffusion. For males, only family health predicted identity achievement, and only separation-individuation predicted identity diffusion. Other important findings were that the attachment and separation-individuation domains both assessed forms of connectedness, suggesting only one domain. Thus, the separation-individuation component of the model was not supported. Second, similarity of attitudes consistently predicted identity achievement, diffusion, exploration, and commitment. Third, despite the use of rigorous criteria to obtain discrete scales representative of the theoretical constructs, overlap was discovered within and across domains. The roles of similarity of attitudes between adolescent and parent, and the family environments associated with identity achievement, diffusion, exploration, and commitment are discussed. In addition, methodological and ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: George, David T. (David Titus)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Masculine Gender Role Conflict: Effects on College Men's Scores of Psychological Well-Being, Chemical Substance Usage, and Attitudes toward Help-Seeking

Description: This purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gender Role Conflict upon college men's scores of psychological well-being, substance usage, and attitudes toward psychological help-seeking. It was found that the Success, Power, and Competition variable of Gender Role Conflict was the one variable that was consistently related to the measures of interest. Moreover, it was found to be significantly related to a decrease in psychological well-being, including Trait Anger, Angry Reaction subtype of trait anger, Angry Temperament subtype of trait anger, and Trait Anxiety. It was also found that this same variable was significantly related to increased reports of alcohol usage. Where as four of the possible five Gender Role Conflict variables were related to a negative attitude toward help-seeking, the Success, Power, and Competition variable was most heavily weighted.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Blazina, Christopher (Christopher Douglas)
Partner: UNT Libraries