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The Coke Industry of the United States as Related to the Foundry

Description: From Introduction: "The present bulletin, published by the Bureau of Mines because of the analyzing and testing of fuels have been transferred from the Geographical Survey to the Bureau of Mines, briefly reviews the status of the coke industry, some features of practice in the use of coke in the foundry, the probable happenings of a cupola heat, and the reasons for modifying charging practice so that a particular coke can be used to best advantage."
Date: 1910
Creator: Moldenke, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metallurgical Coke

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies on metallurgical coke. As stated in the introduction, "in this paper the attempt is made to summarize the history of coke making in the United States, to indicate the development of different methods and the modern types of ovens, and to point out the composition and physical properties of the metallurgical cokes produced in this country" (p. 5). This paper includes tables, illustrations, photographs, and a map.
Date: September 1913
Creator: Belden, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of the Reactions of Carbon Dioxide and Steam with Coke

Description: From Summary: "To incorporate the role of diffusional resistance in the rate equations it is essential that the solid state of the carbons be better understood; that is, their microporosity, crystallinity, and electronic state of free and oxygen-containing reaction sites. The importance of the solid state to kinetic behavior has been stressed throughout the text."
Date: 1962
Creator: Ergun, Sabri
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Graphitization Processes in Cokes and Carbon Blacks

Description: Abstract: "The effect of heat treatment of 2000 to 4650 F on the structure of carbons from several sources have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction. Of particular interest was the effect of temperature on the degree of graphitization. The process of graphitization results in a larger graphite crystallite size in the ao direction, the plane of the layers, than in the co direction. No correlation was found between the structure of the coke heated at 2000 F and the degree of graphitization attained at 4650 F. Materials coked in a closed retort yielded a more perfect graphite structure than the same material coked with access to air. Carbon blacks yield graphite with a greater co lattice constant than cokes with comparable crystallite sizes."
Date: June 19, 1953
Creator: Austin, A. E. & Hedden, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burning of Coal and Coke Treated with Small Quantities of Chemicals

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on the use of chemicals to enhance the burning of fuels. Methods and results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1937
Creator: Nicholls, Percy; Rice, W. E.; Landry, B. A. & Reid, W. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coke from Low-Ash Appalachian Coals for Carbon Electrodes in Aluminum Industry with a Chapter on Comparison of Results Obtained by Trent Process for Cleaning Coal with Those by Float-and-Sink Methods

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on testing conducted on coking coal samples for carbon electrode use in aluminum production. The testing methods, and results are presented. This report includes tables.
Date: November 1943
Creator: Selvig, W. A.; Ode, W. H.; Gibson, F. H. & Davis, Joseph D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed workings of the team; Proposal to FETC for Phase II; Permitting and Environmental Work; and Engineering Progress.
Date: September 22, 1999
Creator: Calderon, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed studies of LTV's site for the installation of the commercial Demonstration Unit with site specific layouts; Environmental Work; Firm commitments for funding from the private sector; and Federal funding to complement the private contribution.
Date: June 23, 1999
Creator: Calderon, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Temperature Carbonization of Coal

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies on low-temperature carbonization of coal. Methods and equipment used during the studies are discussed. This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1926
Creator: Fieldner, Arno Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Byproduct Coke-Oven Tests of Washington Coals

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coking-coal testing done on Washington coal. Descriptions of the testing, and properties of the coals tested are presented. This report includes tables, and photographs.
Date: August 1943
Creator: Yancey, H. F.; Daniels, Joseph; McMillan, E. R. & Geer, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.
Date: June 21, 2000
Creator: Calderon, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Consolidation of the team of stakeholders; Move the site for the commercial demonstration to LTV Steel, Cleveland, Ohio; Permitting for new site; Site specific engineering; Cost update of the project as it relates to the Cleveland location; FETC update; DCAA audit; and Updated endorsement of Calderon process by Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA, Region 5.
Date: March 19, 1999
Creator: Calderon, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.
Date: March 22, 2000
Creator: Calderon, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor.
Date: December 23, 1998
Creator: Calderon, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996

Description: Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: O`Neal, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

Description: Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S. & Powell, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

Description: This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.
Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Kennel, Elliot; Chen, Chong; Dadyburjor, Dady; Heavner, Mark; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Magean, Liviu et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calderon cokemaking process/demonstration project

Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 set new emission standards for hazardous air pollutants from coke ovens. Congress, recognizing that the coke industry faces technological and financial difficulties in meeting these new, stringent emission standards, required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and DOE to conduct a joint six-year research and development program to assist the industry in developing and commercializing new technologies and work practices that would significantly reduce hazardous coke oven emissions. DOE`s purpose for sponsoring the proposed demonstration project is to provide the coke industry with a new option for the economical production of high quality coke that significantly reduces the quantity of pollutants entering the environment.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

Description: It is important that a mild gasification reactor interface easily with the subsequent product upgrading steps in which the market value of the products is enhanced. Upgrading and marketing of the char are critical to the overall economics of a mild gasification plant because char is the major product (65 to 75% of the coal feedstock). In the past, the char product was sold as a ``smokeless`` fuel, but in today`s competitive markets the best price for char as a fuel for steam generation would be that of the parent coal. Substantially higher prices could be obtained for char upgraded into products such as metallurgical coke, graphite, carbon electrode feedstock or a slurry fuel replacement for No. 6 fuel oil. In this effort, upgrading techniques are being developed to address these premium markets. Liquid products can similarly be upgraded to high market value products such as high-density fuel, chemicals, binders for form coke, and also gasoline and diesel blending stocks. About half of the non-condensable fuel gases produced by the gasification process will be required to operate the process; the unused portion could be upgraded into value-added products or used as fuel either internally or in ``across the fence`` sales. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: O`Neal, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

Description: The coke reactivity test furnace was installed and checked. Design of a long lasting reaction vessel is underway with emphasis on material of construction for elevated temperatures. Development of a formed coke formula is continuing in preparation of a 70 pound sample for evaluation by a major conventional coke producer. Ten CMGU test runs were made. Most of the quarter was used to replace the pyrolyzer screws, check-out the screws` pulse burners, and replace the screws` stub shafts. The objective of the determination of the pyrolyzer maximum capacity with the internal screws` heaters should be achieved in October 1992.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: O`Neal, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

Description: The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Cohen, L. R.; Hogsett, R. F.; Sinor, J. E.; Ness, R. O. Jr. & Runge, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department