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Effect of Emotional Stimulation on Recognition and Inference

Description: The purpose of this study was to make an assessment of the probable effects of extraneous stimulation on both cognitive achievement or learning, and emotional reactions and autonomic arousals of students. While the focus of interest was upon possible disruptive effects, the kinds of measurements projected would make it possible to observe some effects of either kind, disruptive or facilitative.
Date: August 1966
Creator: Haddan, Eugene E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Organization

Description: Individual differences of cognitive organization and content were investigated as they relate to adaptation to remote, recent, and immediate life stress. Outside the field of stress, prior researchers have implicated cognitive organization with adjustment and cognitive content with specific psychopathology. As for behavioral adaptation to life stress, cognitive organization was viewed as a major factor in emotional vulnerability and adjustment, and cognitive content as a major factor in the mood disturbance of depression. Behavioral adaptation was defined in terms of current emotional vulnerability, adjustment and negative changes in the immediate (last six months), recent (over six months), and remote (over one year) past.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Hickox, Sherrie Danene
Partner: UNT Libraries

Judgment of Contingency and the Cognitive Functioning of Clinical Depressives

Description: Twenty-four psychiatric staff, 24 clinically depressed inpatients, and 24 nondepresssed schizophrenic patients at a state psychiatric facility completed five tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 30 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light appear. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for the final ten trials of each task. Cash incentives for judgment of control accuracy were added for Tasks 3, 4, and 5. Cognitive functioning was evaluated on each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, evaluation of performance, and attribution. Mood and self- esteem were measured before and after the procedure. No significant differences were observed across mood groups for expectancy of control or judgment of control accuracy. Subject groups also did not differ in the attributions they made or in how successful they judged their performances to be. They set realistic, attainable criteria for success which were consistent with relevant conditional probabilities. Subjects in reward gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performances. Punishment subjects demonstrated more stable, external attributions than those in reward. Across tasks, subjects overestimated when actual control was low and underestimated when actual control was high. Contrary to the "depressive realism" effect described by Alloy and Abramson (1979), clinical depressives did not display more accurate judgments of control than did nondepressives. All subjects appeared to base their control estimates on reinforcement frequency rather than actual control. Subjects showed a type of illusion of control for high frequency, low control tasks. Presumably, success in turning the light on led them to assume that their actions controlled light onset. Comparison to previous subclinical studies suggests a possible curvilinear relationship between judgment of control accuracy and level of psychopathology, with mild depressives displaying relatively greater accuracy than ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Cobbs, David Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Cognitive Style on Auditor Internal Control Evaluation

Description: The present auditing environment involves increasing audit costs and potential legal liability. Increasing audit costs mandate methods to make the audit more efficient, while the credibility of audited financial statements depends on audit effectiveness. Internal accounting control evaluation impacts both the efficiency and effectiveness of the audit process since this judgment establishes a basis for determining the timing, nature and amount of auditing procedures to be performed. Results of previous research, however, have indicated that variance does exist in auditors' evaluations of internal controls. While individual differences have been given as an explanation of the variance, no research has successfully isolated which individual differences relate to differences in judgment. This study examined the possibility that cognitive style, defined as the mode of processing which individuals use in their perceptual activities, was an individual difference which could explain some of the variance in internal control judgments. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to measure the cognitive style of auditors. A second instrument, an audit judgment case, was prepared by the researcher to elicit (1) an auditor's estimate of the reliability of internal controls in a computerized payroll application, and (2) his assessment of the perceived relevance of case information to his reliability judgment. Ninety auditors attending training sessions held by six Dallas CPA firms completed the MBTI and case description. These instruments were administered by the researcher during the Summer of 1984. The participants were primarily senior-level auditors with three years' experience. The statistical methods used in this study included the t-test and ANOVA. Results of the study indicated lack of consensus in the internal control reliability estimates of the participants. Differences were noted in the information the sensing and intuitive types identified as important to their reliability estimates. The number of cues identified as important by the participants was ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Moffeit, Katherine S. (Katherine Southerland)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Engagement in Later Life: Descriptive and Explanatory Findings

Description: Findings on the relationship between engagement in lifestyle and cognitive functioning are not consistent; some authors report that engagement in lifestyle predicts an individual's cognitive functioning; while other report that an individual's cognitive functioning predicts the type and level of engagement an individual participates in. The current study will use longitudinal data (N = 235) to investigate the bidirectional relationship between engagement (engaged lifestyle activities) and cognition (crystallized & fluid intelligence). Despite inconsistent findings it is proposed that cognitive functioning may be better understood when examining how stimulation of activity, need for cognition, and openness to experience affect engagement in an active lifestyle. As such the current study will investigate if stimulation of activity, need for cognition, and openness to experience moderate the relationship between engaged lifestyles and cognitive functioning. The results, limitations and implications are discussed.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Abdullah, Bashir
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neurocognitive Effects of Gist Reasoning Training in Student-Athletes with Concussions, ADHD, and Learning Disabilities

Description: Concussions, attention-deficit disorder (ADHD), and learning disabilities can adversely impact learning and academic achievement, particularly with respect to attention, memory, and executive functioning; fortunately, cognitive training can be beneficial and remediating these weaknesses. One such program, strategic memory advanced reasoning training (SMART), utilizes a top-down approach to train individuals in executive, higher-ordered thinking strategies including strategic attention, integration, and innovation to facilitate information synthesis and enhance cognitive efficiency. Thus, the purpose of the study is to examine whether SMART improved performances on various neuropsychological measures tapping into attention, processing speed, memory, and executive functioning for college student-athletes with neurological conditions (e.g., concussions, ADHD, LD). Student-athletes were randomly assigned to the SMART program or a "wait-list" control group and were administered a neuropsychological battery at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and after a four-month delay. Results showed that participants benefited from SMART with respect to working memory immediately following the intervention after controlling for baseline scores. The benefits of working memory also persisted after four months. Additionally, SMART was beneficial for improving attention, but only after four months after the intervention. The findings of the current study were consistent with previous studies which showed positive effects of SMART on working memory with a variety of populations (e.g., children, adolescents, older adults, Veterans, brain-injured patients); however, the current study did not see improved performance on other aspects of executive functioning which contradict prior research. Statistical differences between the present study and prior research regarding SMART may be explained in methodology, participant characteristics, research setting, and/or limitations. Future studies may include combining cognitive training as the intervention and utilizing neuroimaging alongside cognitive training to examine the relationship between structural/functional change with neuropsychological performance.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Nguyen, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Counselor Education Program Applicants’ Cognitive Complexity to Other Admission Criteria

Description: Counselor cognitive complexity is a counselor’s ability to recognize and organize multiple characteristics that might affect client needs. I examined whether various admissions criteria–Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Verbal, Quantitative, and Analytical Writing scores; previous coursework grade point averages; and faculty co-leaders’ admissions group interview ratings–for 182 applicants to a southwestern U.S. CACREP-accredited master’s counseling program predicted cognitive complexity scores on a modified Counselor Cognitions Questionnaire (CCQ). Participants were predominantly ages 20 to 30 years (91.8%), female (91.8%), and White (81.3%). Multiple regression analyses showed statistical significance with small effect sizes: the admissions criteria together significantly predicted cognitive complexity differentiation (p = .033), accounting for 6.6% of variance, and cognitive complexity integration (p = .003), accounting for 9.8% of variance. The small effect sizes and low variance percentages support the idea that cognitive complexity measured by the modified CCQ is a substantially different phenomenon from commonly-assessed academic aptitude and personality characteristics. If future researchers confirm these findings with additional samples, subsequent researchers could determine whether one or both domains of cognitive complexity, either alone or in combination with one or more of the commonly used admissions criteria, could help counselor educators better predict which applicants will be successful in master’s programs and the counseling field.
Date: August 2013
Creator: De La Garza Jr., Mario A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ability of Offenders with Psychopathic Traits to Simulate Cognitive and Affective Empathy

Description: The accurate assessment of psychopathy constitutes a critical component of forensic assessments addressing offender populations. Among the core characteristics of psychopathy, the interpersonal component of deception and empathic deficits are prominently observed in offenders with psychopathic traits. Given the negative consequences of being classified as a psychopath, offenders may be likely to minimize their psychopathic traits. In particular, no research has investigated whether offenders with psychopathic traits are able to simulate empathy in an effort to mask their cognitive or affective empathy deficits (e.g., lack of remorse about offenses). The present study aims to contribute to the literature with regard to the simulation of empathy. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, 81 male detainees were placed into (a) a low psychopathy group, (b) a moderate psychopathy group, or (c) a high psychopathy group based on the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised. For the within-subjects component, all offenders answered empathy questionnaires under genuine and simulation conditions. Results indicate the sample possessed cognitive empathy, but did not display affective empathy under genuine instructions. Under simulation instructions, participants significantly increased their scores on several empathy measures. The implications of simulated empathy and comparisons between groups regarding simulation abilities are discussed.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Robinson, Emily V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ethnicity and cognitive complexity of chronic pain patients

Description: Sixty subjects divided equally among Anglo-Americans, Black Americans, and Hispanic Americans participated in this study. They were classified as chronic pain patients by medical diagnosis and duration of pain. Their cognitive complexity-a measure of individuals' ability to construe their feelings, events of their lives, and their world in a meaningful manner-were evaluated.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Murry, Joe Mitchell
Partner: UNT Libraries

An experiment on the interactions of the learner, HCI, and training manual in learning a computer software package

Description: A fundamental purpose of this research is to study the interaction of such user variables as cognitive style, demographics, and reading to variables from education and psychology such as advanced organizers, reinforcement, and document layout.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Pettingell, Karen J. (Karen Jean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Masculinity Masquerade: the Portrayal of Men in Modern Advertising

Description: The depiction of gender in advertising is a topic of continuous discussion and research. The present study adds to past findings with an updated look at how men are represented in U.S. advertising media and the real effects these portrayals have on the male population under the theoretical framework of hegemony and social cognitive theory. This research is triangulated with a textual analysis of the ads found in the March 2013 editions of four popular print publications and three focus group sessions separated by sex (two all-male, one all-female), each of which is composed of a racially diverse group of undergraduate journalism and communications students from a large Southwestern university. The results of the textual analysis reveal little ethnic or physical diversity among male figures in advertising and distinguish six main profiles of masculinity, the most frequent of which is described as the "sophisticated man." The focus groups identify depictions of extreme muscularity and stereotypical male incompetence as the most negative representations, while humorous and hyperbolic portrayals of sexual prowess and hyper-masculinity are viewed positively as effective means of marketing to men.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Harper, Savannah
Partner: UNT Libraries

Meta-Parenting in Parents of Infants and Toddlers

Description: Meta-parenting, defined as parents thinking about their parenting, has been identified and is a new field of research. The purposes of this study were to add to the existing knowledge of meta-parenting and to compare the influences of gender, work status, and parenting experience on meta-parenting occurring in parents of infants and toddlers. Sixty parents participated either electronically or by completing a written survey and reported engaging from "sometimes" to "usually" in four domains of meta-parenting: anticipating, assessing, reflecting, and problem-solving. Gender, work status, and parenting experience did not significantly influence participants' meta-parenting scores. Parents were found to have a higher sense of satisfaction and overall sense of competence when they engaged in higher levels of meta-parenting.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Vlach, Jennifer L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationships Among Self-esteem, Psychological and Cognitive Flexibility, and Psychological Symptomatology

Description: Previous findings on the relationship between self-esteem and psychological outcomes are inconsistent. Therefore it appears that self-esteem, while related to crucial variables, does not provide a clear, direct, and comprehensive prediction of psychological symptoms. Thus, it was hypothesized that the relationship between self-esteem and symptomatology would be moderated by broader measures of how one interacts with emotional and cognitive stimuli.The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-esteem, psychological flexibility, and cognitive flexibility on psychological symptomatology. A sample of 82 undergraduate students at the University of North Texas completed self-report questionnaires measuring low self-esteem, psychological flexibility, measured inversely as inflexibility, cognitive flexibility, and psychological symptoms. Results of the study suggest that self-esteem (?= -0.59, p < 0.001) and flexibility (both psychological (?= 0.36, p = 0.001) and cognitive (?= 0.21, p < 0.05) are significant predictors of psychological symptoms. In other words, self-esteem is positively correlated with psychological symptoms, while psychological and cognitive flexibility are negatively correlated with psychological symptoms. Neither form of flexibility moderated the relationship between self-esteem and psychological symptoms in this sample. The findings of the current study are discussed as well as suggestions for further research related to self-esteem, psychological and cognitive flexibility, and their impact on psychological outcomes.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Al-Jabari, Rawya, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

Description: Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.
Date: September 28, 2004
Creator: Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S. & Cowley, Paula J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nature of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

Description: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), with as many as 70% of patients with MS affected. Individuals with MS who experience cognitive deficits are less likely to be employed, and may have more difficulty performing independent activities of daily living. Most commonly, deficits are observed in processing speed, complex attention, and memory. Because lesion location varies widely among individuals, no clear pattern of cognitive dysfunction in MS has emerged. However, a number of risk and protective factors may influence the likelihood of individuals to develop and/or express dysfunction, though the contribution of each to specific domains of cognition has not been fully explored. Recently, support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis (i.e., enriching life experiences protect against cognitive decline despite disease burden) has emerged in the MS literature. The current study investigated the contributions of cognitive reserve to learning and memory functioning in MS and the interaction of cognitive reserve variables and risk factors known to impact cognitive functioning in individuals with MS. Finding revealed cognitive reserve protects against decline in the domains of processing speed and complex attention. Furthermore, indirect protective effects of cognitive reserve through these domains were observed for verbal learning and memory. Finally, in line with previous literature, cognitive dysfunction predicted employment status of the current sample. Clinical implications and future directions for intervention efforts are discussed.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Carlew, Anne R
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Biofeedback and Cognitive Therapy in the Control of Blood Pressure Under Stress and No-Stress Conditions

Description: This study evaluated the efficacy of cognitive therapy and biofeedback training in lowering Dlood pressures of normotensives under no-stress and stress conditions. A cognitive therapy group was compared to biofeedback and habituation control groups with 32 normotensives. Subjects were taught to use the electronic sphygmomanometer that served as the device to measure blood pressure during pretreatment and posttreatment phases of the study. These measurement phases each consisted of three 19 minute periods. Trie first period consisted of no-stress, and then a stress period followed. Return-to-no-stress was the final period. Subjects in the cognitive therapy and biofeedbacK groups received five sessions of self-control training of 66 minutes each between the pre- and posttreatment phases. The cold pressor was the analogue stressor used to induce bxood pressure elevations,
Date: August 1982
Creator: Dafter, Roger E. (Roger Edwin)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Interaction of Cognitive Learning Style and Achievement of Selected Students of English as a Second Language

Description: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if the culture of the student's first language was a significant variable in field-dependent-independent cognitive learning style, and (2) if a student's second language achievement has a significant relationship to variables of grade level, sex, time in an English as a second language (ESL) program, second language proficiency level or cognitive learning style. It was hypothesized that (1) there are significant positive correlations between field-independence and the variables of achievement, proficiency level, and grade level, (2) there are significant positive correlations between second language achievement and proficiency level, grade level and time in an ESL program, (3) there are no significant differences in field-dependence between the sexes or the four cultures of Laotian, Spanish, Tongan, and Vietnamese, and (4) there is no significant difference in the mean achievement score between the sexes.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Ballard, Lynda Dyer
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Approach for Heterosocially Anxious Males

Description: The present study examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy package and a highly credible attention-placebo in the treatment of male heterosocial anxiety. Previous research provided evidence that cognitive factors are important in the etiology and maintenance of heterosocial anxiety, and suggested that a cognitive-behavioral approach should be effective in the treatment of this problem. Despite such evidence, relatively few therapy outcome studies have been conducted using cognitive-behavioral procedures.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Neumann, Karl F.
Partner: UNT Libraries