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Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

Description: This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.
Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: OAK-B135 A complete set of detail drawings of the HRF-EU2 irradiation assembly was received from Petten. Petten has also indicated that the compacts were loaded into the assembly during December. The HFR-EU2 Irradiation Safety Test Report (to be prepared by the Petten Authority) has not been completed. During December, the following report was completed: ''Development Plan for Advanced High Temperature Coated-Particle Fuels'' General Atomics Report No. PC-00051. This report completes the work scope of Task 10, Advanced Fuel Studies.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Shenoy, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preirradiation Data summary for the GRIT-II HTGR irradiation test specimens

Description: This document comprises a report of preirradiation data on the NPR-5 and NPR-8 fuel types tested in the GRIT-II HTGR Irradiation Test in the Advanced Test Reactor. A summary of fuel characterization, GRIT-II test fabrication data, outlines of fabrication procedures, and a discussion of the GRIT technique for individual fuel bead testing is presented. Objective of the test is to provide individual irradiated HTGR fuel beads for post-irradiation valuation with total target burnups of 25, 50, and 75% fissions of initial metal atoms (FIMA).
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Hollenbeck, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Report for the Initiation of Compact Development for Particles with 425-micron Kernels

Description: The purpose of this research was the initiation of overcoating TRISO particles with 425 {micro}m kernels. In the AGR-1 task, the overcoating process was optimized for particles with an outer diameter (OD) of 780 {micro}m and a 350 {micro}m kernel. Therefore it needed to be determined how well the overcoating process used to fabricate AGR-1 compacts would perform on particles with an 855 {micro}m OD and a 425 {micro}m kernel. The matrix properties and overcoating procedures were altered from the AGR-1 processes in order to attempt to optimize the overcoating of TRISO particles with 425 {micro}m kernels. This report summarizes the changes that were made to the matrix and the overcoating process in order to achieve successful overcoating of the larger particles.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Pappano, Peter J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of Tungsten-UO 2 Hexagonal-Celled Fuel-Element Configurations

Description: The gas-pressure-bonding process is being evaluated as a means of fabricating tungsten-UO 2 hexagonal-celled fuel geometries. A two-part study was initiated to optimize the fuel materials and to develp the required fixturing and loading techniques. Production of fueled tungsten-coated UO 2 particles in in progress so that geometries embodying coated particles or coated particles plus fine tungsten powder can be evaluated. Tests to data have shown the rquirement for a pretreatment in which a gaseous oxide phase is removed. Initial loading and fixturing procedures were proven satisfactory by the fabrication of a 19-cylindrical-hole hexagonal-type composite.
Date: December 4, 1964
Creator: Goetsch, R.R.; Cover, P.W.; Gripshover, P.J. & Wilson, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defect fractions for fissile and fertile TRISO-coated fuel

Description: High quality TRISCO-coated UCO and ThO{sub 2} particles with reference MHTGR dimensions were produced in a coating campaign in August and September 1986 for irradiation tests. The heavy metal contamination and the defect levels were below the limits established for the MHTGR fuel. Over 9 kg of uranium in UCO and 30 kg of thorium in ThO{sub 2} were TRISCO-coated in 4 fissile and 3 fertile batches in the 240mm Development Coater. These coated fuel particles will be used to produce fuel rods for testing in the irradiation validation tests to be conducted in capsules HRB-19, -20 and -21 on the DOE Fuel and Fission Product Technology Program. 3 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Adams, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of improved TRISO-P fuel particle P-PyC coating

Description: Low defect fuels are required for the MHTGR to meet tighter fuel performance for this reactor design (Ref. 1). Exposed heavy metal (HM) contamination levels must be reduced to {le} 1E-5 fraction. Particle coating breakage during the fuel compact fabrication process has been shown to be a major source of HM contamination in the final fuel compacts. Excessive forces are experienced by the coated fuel particles during matrix injection, which leads to coating failure. Adding a sacrificial, low Young`s modulus, overcoating of low density PyC in a fluidized particle bed, was shown to greatly increase the crush strength of TRISO coated fuel particles in 1986 studies (Ref. 2). The new TRISO coated fuel particle design was designated the TRISO-P coated fuel particle type. In 1987, the TRISO-P particle type was used to produce low defect fuel compacts for irradiation in the HRB-21 Capsule (Ref. 3). However, the exposed HM contamination levels for that fuel barely met the product specification limit of {le} 1.0E-5. The small margin of safety between product quality and the specification limit dictated that additional process development of the TRISO-P particle design must be conducted. This document discusses the program scope, requirements, documentation and schedule.
Date: April 29, 1988
Creator: Adams, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An assessment of the methods for determining defect or failure fractions in HTGR coated particle fuels and their relationship to particle microstructure

Description: The methods for determining the fraction of defective or failed coatings in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel particles, the burn-leach and acid leach methods, are critically analyzed. Evaluation of the method reveals that (1) the efficacy of the methods is limited by access, for leaching and oxidizing fluids, to the interior of defective or failed coatings; (2) the coating defects can be characterized in terms of pores by a distribution of effective pore radii; (3) effective pore radii significantly less than several, hundred nanometers cannot be detected; and (4) pore radii less than the latter limit may contribute significantly to fission product release from the defective or failed particles. The currently used methods are thus inadequate for detecting defective or failed fuel particle coatings. The development of better methods is recommended; the intrusion method, by which a portion of the distribution of effective pore radii was determined in the analysis from limited previous measurements, is suggested as one suitable basis for the development. 32 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: April 1989
Creator: Meyers, B. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sphere-pac fuel development program. First semi-annual progress report, October 1979-March 1980

Description: Development of processes by Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. for fabricating spherical particle nuclear fuel (sphere-pac) during October 1979 through March 1980 is reported. The program surveyed available technology to develop an initial flowsheet as a design basis for process development. An 0.1 ton/day pilot plant was built to develop and demonstrate the fabrication of sphere-pac fuel. Process and equipment efforts have been directed towards the demonstration of processes and equipment necessary to fabricate sphere-pac fuel on a commercial scale.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Felt, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INERI-2006-003-F FY07 Annual Report

Description: Project Title: Comparison of Characterization Methods for Anisotropy and Microstructure of TRISO Particle Layers This INERI was created to support a comparative study between the newly developed two modulator generalized ellipsometry microscope (2-MGEM) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the more traditional optical polarimeter (RAPAX) at the Commissariat l' nergie Atomique (CEA). These two systems are used to measure the anisotropy of the pyrocarbon layers in tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel, which is an important parameter related to fuel performance. Although this project was only just started in June 2007, good progress has already been made. A kickoff meeting was held at ORNL on July 30-31, 2007 to present early progress and discuss details of the proposed work plan. This meeting was of great benefit to the participants, offering an opportunity to overcome the language barrier and more thoroughly communicate project relevant information. Each technical lead gave a presentation explaining the analysis techniques used in his task and presented data on early measurements of the German reference fuels. Plans were finalized regarding what work needed to be done and how to proceed with the comparative study. Possibilities for the inclusion of other coated particle samples, in addition to the two German reference fuels originally proposed, were also discussed. A list of these additional sample has now been generated and approved. Coating fragments from this series of different TRISO particle fuels have been sent from ORNL to the CEA and TEM analysis is in progress. Comparisons have already been made between the microstructure of the two German reference fuels which are the primary samples for this project. Specimens have also been prepared from the German reference fuels for comparative analysis between the 2-MGEM and RAPAX devices and initial measurements performed. Plans are to exchange specimens of the various fuel ...
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Hunn, John D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of deposition conditions on the properties of pyrolytic carbon deposited in a fluidized bed

Description: The high-density, isotropic pyrolytic carbon layer beneath the silicon carbide (IPyC) plays a key role in the irradiation performance of coated particle fuel. The IPyC layer protects the kernel from reactions with chlorine during deposition of the SiC layer, provides structural support for the SiC layer, and protects the SiC from fission products and carbon monoxide. The process conditions used by the Germans to deposit the IPyC coating produced a highly isotropic, but somewhat permeable IPyC coating. The permeability of the IPyC coating was acceptable for use with the dense German UO{sub 2} kernels, but may not be suitable when coating UCO kernels. The UCO kernels are typically more porous and thus have a larger surface area than UO{sub 2} kernels. The lower density and the higher surface area of UCO kernels could make them more susceptible to attack by HCl gas during the silicon carbide (SiC) coating process, which could result in heavy metal dispersion into the buffer and IPyC coatings and a higher level of as-manufactured SiC defects. The relationship between IPyC deposition conditions, permeability, and anisotropy must be understood and the appropriate combination of anisotropy and permeability for particle fuel containing UCO kernels selected. A reference set of processing conditions have been determined from review of historical information and results of earlier coating experiments employing 350 and 500 {micro}m UO{sub 2} kernels. It was decided that a limited study would be conducted, in which only coating gas fraction (CGF) and temperature would be varied. Coatings would be deposited at different rates and with a range of microstructures. Thickness, density, porosity and anisotropy would be measured and permeability evaluated using a chlorine leach test. The results would be used to select the best IPyC coating conditions for use with the available natural enrichment uranium carbide/uranium oxide (NUCO) kernels. ...
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Lowden, Richard Andrew; Hunn, John D; Nunn, Stephen D; Kercher, Andrew K; Price, Jeffery R & Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights June 2011

Description: During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for May 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/126, was distributed to program participants on June 9, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Fuel Performance Modeling - Fuel Performance Analysis; (2) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Behavior, (b) Thermomechanical Modeling, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport; (3) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; and (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Snead, Lance Lewis; Bell, Gary L & Besmann, Theodore M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Low Thermal Expansion Tungsten UO 2 Cermet Fuel

Description: An attempt was made to develop a tungsten-uranium dioxide cermet of high fue 1 loading with thermal expans ion approaching that of tungsten and with good dimensional stability on thermal cycling. These goals were sought through the use of tungsten-coated uranium dioxide particles with sufficient locally available void vo lume to accommodate the difference in thermal expansion between the uranium dioxide and the tungsten matrix and through limitation of plastic deformation in the particles during fabrication to avoid mechanical keying of the particles and the matrix. The particles were vibratorily compacted prior to hot pressing. The thermal expansion of the cermets was determined and they were thermal cycle tested. The thermal expansion of the cermets was considerably closer to that of tungsten than was observed with previously reported spec imens of similar composition. However, the thermal cycling of the cermets resulted in intolerable growth. This growth could be accounted for by the agglomeration of gases trapped in the uranium dioxide particles during deposition of the tungsten coating.
Date: March 31, 1970
Creator: Marlowe, M.O. & Kaznoff, A.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings

Description: Disclosed are method and apparatus for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P. & Barletta, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department