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DOE's Grid Resiliency Pricing Rule

Description: This report discusses a recently proposed rule by the Secretary of Energy "The Grid Resiliency Pricing Rule" which directs the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) to establish "just and reasonable rates" for wholesale electricity sales in competitive markets. The rule is seen as as supporting coal-powered power plants, which have lost sales due to lower prices from more efficient and cheaper natural gas fired plants and alternative energy sources, because a recent report by the Department of Energy categorizes coal and nuclear powered plants as more fuel-secure and resilient due to supplies of fuel kept on hand that would allow the plants to be self-sufficient for a period after a a disaster.
Date: October 13, 2017
Creator: Campbell, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Assessment of the Health and Environmental Impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Coal as Applied to Electrical Utility Systems

Description: The objective of this study was to assess the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal (FBC), specifically as applied to base-load generation of electrical energy by utilities. The public health impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) plants are expected to be quite similar to those for Low Sulfur Coal (LSC) and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants because all appear to be able to meet Federal emission standards; however, there are emissions not covered by standards. Hydrocarbon emissions are higher and trace element emissions are lower for FBC than for conventional technologies. For FBC, based on an analytical model and a single emission data point, the polycyclic organic material decreases the anticipated lifespan of the highly exposed public very slightly. Added health protection due to lower trace element emissions is not known. Although there is a large quantity of solid wastes from the generating plant, the environmental impact of the FBC technology due to solid residue appears lower than for FGD, where sludge management requires larger land areas and presents problems due to the environmentally noxious calcium sulfite in the waste. Fixing the sludge may become a requirement that increases the cost of wet-limestone FGD but makes that system more acceptable. The potential for aquatic or terrestrial impacts from hydrocarbon emissions is low. If application of AFBC technology increases the use of local high-sulfur coals to the detriment of western low-sulfur coal, a sociological benefit could accrue to the FBC (or FGD) technology, because impacts caused by western boom towns would decrease. The infrastructure of areas that mine high-sulfur coal in the Midwest are better equipped to handle increased mining than the West.
Date: February 1977
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost of Steam Supply for Desalting Using Coal Fired Boilers

Description: Report studying the application and cost of using coal based steam power plants in desalination plants. Both Single Purpose Plants (wherein power is produced for the plant's needs) and Dual Purpose Plants (wherein extra power is produced for sale) are investigated.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Sichel, Peter & Nagelberg, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Assessment of the Health and Environmental Effects of Coal Utilization in the Midwest. Volume 1. Energy Scenarios, Technology Characterizations, Air and Water Resource Impacts, and Health Effects

Description: This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.
Date: January 1977
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Options for a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard

Description: This report discusses current ideas for a federal Renewable Electricity (or Energy) Standard (RES) and a broader Clean Energy Standard (CES). The goal of this report is to explore how such policies could potentially increase the amounts of renewable electricity generated in the United States, discussing other related public policy goals and rationales for renewable energy development, and the challenges/drawbacks of RES policy.
Date: November 12, 2010
Creator: Campbell, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

Description: In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The ...
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas & Apel, William Arnold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conference on High Temperature Sciences Related to Open-Cycle, Coal-Fired MHD Systems : Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, April-4-6, 1977

Description: This conference was organized to identify, encourage, and promote greater understanding through basic research of the problems encountered in open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators. The development of this system presents many challenging areas of research in materials sciences, thermodynamics, kinetics, solid state and ion-molecule chemistry and physics, all focused on phenomena occurring at high temperature. The scope of the conference has been designed to improve interdisciplinary communication by involving (1) persons in MHD science and engineering; (2) persons in industry interested in materials research and development; and (3) persons in universities and national laboratories engaged in related basic research. The presentations in the introductory session describe the nature of the MHD system and identify the near-term problems. Sessions following in Gas-Plasma Chemistry; Electronic, Ionic and Molecular processes; Materials; Slag/Seed Properties and Slag/Seed Interactions.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Thorn, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

Description: The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. ...
Date: March 12, 2008
Creator: Stewart, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 1978 Symposium on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants : June 19-21, 1978, Newport Beach Marriott, Newport Beach, California

Description: This conference covers various aspects of fossil-fuel power plants based on coal or coal-conversion products, as well as the process control equipment involved in the conversion or combustion processes.
Date: June 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

Description: This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of coal--the most ...
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Zitney, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating MEA Regeneration with CO2 Compression and Peaking to Reduce CO2 Capture Costs

Description: Capturing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants is a necessary component of any large-scale effort to reduce anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. Conventional absorption/stripping with monoethanolamine (MEA) or similar solvents is the most likely current process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the flue gas at these facilities. However, one of the largest problems with MEA absorption/stripping is that conventional process configurations have energy requirements that result in large reductions in the net power plant output. Several alternative process configurations for reducing these parasitic energy requirements were investigated in this research with the assistance of the Platte River Power Authority, based on recovering energy from the CO{sub 2} compression train and using that energy in the MEA regeneration step. In addition, the feasibility of selective operation of the amine system at a higher CO{sub 2} removal efficiency during non-peak electricity demand periods was also evaluated. Four process configurations were evaluated: A generic base case MEA system with no compression heat recovery, CO{sub 2} vapor recompression heat recovery, and multipressure stripping with and without vapor recompression heat recovery. These configurations were simulated using a rigorous rate-based model, and the results were used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. CO{sub 2} capture economics are presented, and the cost of CO{sub 2} capture (cost per tonne avoided) is compared among the base case and the alternative process configurations. Cost savings per tonne of CO{sub 2} avoided ranged from 4.3 to 9.8 percent. Energy savings of the improved configurations (8-10%, freeing up 13 to 17 MW of power for sale to the grid based on 500 MW unit ) clearly outweighed the modest increases in capital cost to implement them; it is therefore likely that one of these improved configurations would be used whenever MEA-based (or similar) scrubbing technologies are implemented. In fact, the payback ...
Date: June 9, 2005
Creator: Fisher, Kevin S.; Beitler, Carrie; Rueter, Curtis; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Dr. Gary & Jassim, Dr. Majeed
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department