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Nondestructive-Evaluation Needs for Coal Liquefaction

Description: Nondestructive-evaluation (NDE) needs for coal liquefaction have been identified by acquiring information from site visits, a literature review, and discussions with government personnel. Nondestructive evaluation has been highly rated in importance as a way to help alleviate problems in coal-conversion systems. The primary problems are associated with highly erosive and corrosive slurries being transferred throughout the coal-conversion process. Applicable NDE techniques for both pre-service and in-service inspection include high-temperature ultrasonics, acoustic emission, radiography, acoustic holography, and ultrasonic spectroscopy.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

Description: This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic Coatings for Components Exposed to Coal-Gas Environments : a Review

Description: The corrosive and erosive environments at high temperatures and pressures in coal gasifiers impose severe requirements on the alloys of fabrication. A concise review of the application of ceramic coatings to resist coal-gas environments has been conducted. The purpose of this review is to explore suitable ceramic or cermet materials that may resist or retard the degradation of metal components and to summarize the state of the art of various methods of producing such coatings.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Swaroop, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Ceramic Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers : Summary of Progress to Date

Description: Commercial refractories were tested for up to 500 h in both basic and acidic slags. The slag compositions typify those expected in slagging coal gasifiers. The slag temperatures ranged up to 1600 degrees C. Compositions tested have included silicon carbides, chrome-alumina-magnesia spinels, and alumina and magnesia-based refractories with various amounts of chromia and silica. In some tests, the cold faces were water cooled. With water cooling, the silicon carbides showed virtually no attack after 500 h. In the absence of water cooling, the chrome-alumina-magnesia spinels were the most resistant to slag attack but were subject to thermal-shock cracking. Alumina-chrome refractories performed well in acid slags when water cooled, are probably more stable than silicon carbide in coal-gasification atmospheres, and, in the form of ramming mixes, showed excellent thermal-shock resistances. Plans for future testing are described.
Date: September 1978
Creator: Kennedy, C. R.; Swaroop, R.; Jones, D. J.; Fousek, R. J.; Poeppel, R. B. & Stahl, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Progress Report: July-December 1977

Description: Progress report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies done on refractory concretes and metallic materials being used or intended for use in coal-conversion processes, erosive wear, nondestructive testing, corrosion, chemical degradation, and failure analysis.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma Radiography of Refractory-Lined Vessels and Components

Description: Materials used in coal-conversion systems are exposed to high pressure, high temperature, corrosive and erosive gases, and liquids containing particulate matter. These severe environments necessitate an assessment of the integrity of components to prevent premature failures. Gamma radiography was evaluated as a viable technique for testing such components in the laboratory or after operation in situ. Penetrameters (image-quality indicators) were developed for refractory-lined vessels and transfer lines, and exposure times for various combinations of refractory-steel thicknesses were determined. Radiography with /sup 60/Co was performed on gasifier vessels, combustor vessels, and critical transfer lines in existing pilot plants using the experience gained through laboratory experiments. The results show that gamma radiography is a practical and effective method to detect critical conditions in coal-conversion system components.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Lapinski, N. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

Description: The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.
Date: March 31, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

Description: The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.
Date: March 31, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

Description: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During the period 1 October 1994 to 31 March 1995, the project team completed essentially all the activities necessary to start detailed design. Major accomplishments in these activities are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994

Description: Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: October-Decemeber 1978

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials presently being used or intended for use in coal conversion processes. The program entails nondestructive testing, failure analysis, and studies of erosive wear, corrosion and refractory degradation.
Date: 1979?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: April-June 1979

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding economical conversion of coal into clean and usable fuels through the use of durable materials systems. This project is designed to provide part of the materials information necessary for successful operation of coal-conversion systems.
Date: November 1979
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: January-March 1980

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding economical conversion of coal into clean and usable alternate fuels will be advanced through the use of durable materials systems. This program is designed to provide part of the materials information necessary for successful operation of coal-conversion systems.
Date: June 1980
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: July-September 1980

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials presently being used or intended for use in coal-conversion processes. The program entails efforts in nondestructive testing and failure analysis, as well as studies of erosive wear, corrosion, and refractory degradation.
Date: 1980?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: January-March 1981

Description: Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding the economical, reliable, and safe conversion of coal into clean and usable alternate fuels through the use of durable materials of construction.
Date: 1980?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion and Mechanical Behavior of Materials for Coal Gasification Applications

Description: A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (hydrogen sulfide, SO2, and COS) as well as oxidants (carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide and water/hydrogen). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Natesan, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: July-September 1978

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials presently being used or intended for use in coal conversion processes. The program entails studies of erosive wear, nondestructive testing, corrosion, refractory degradation, and failure analysis.
Date: 1978
Creator: Ellingson, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: April-June 1980

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials presently being used or intended for use in coal-conversion processes. The program entails research in the fields of nondestructive testing and failure analysis, together with studies of erosive wear, corrosion, and refractory degradation.
Date: October 1980
Creator: Ellingson, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: January-March 1979

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials presently being used or intended for use in coal-conversion processes. The program entails nondestructive testing, failure analysis, and studies of erosive wear, corrosion and refractory degradation.
Date: 1979?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials Technology for Coal-Conversion Processes Quarterly Report: January-March 1978

Description: Quarterly report on the activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding studies on ceramic (refractory) and metallic materials being used or intended for use in coal-conversion processes.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department