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Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Proposed Federal Plan Requirements for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electric Utility Generating Units Constructed on or before January 8, 2014; Model Trading Rules; Amendments for Framework Regulations

Description: Regulatory Impact Analysis report discussing benefits, costs and economic impacts of the Proposed Federal Plan Requirements for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electric Utility Generating Units Constructed on or before January 8, 2014; Model Trading Rules; Amendments for Framework Regulations where the EPA proposing a federal plan to implement the emissions guidelines for existing fossil fuel-fired EGUs under the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Date: October 23, 2015
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CASTNET Annual Report: 2013

Description: This report offers findings from site measurements related to air quality. The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) measures hourly averages of surface ozone concentrations and selected meteorological variables .
Date: February 2015
Creator: Environmental Engineering & Measurement Services, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: Emerging Mercury Control Technologies Have Shown Promising Results, but Data on Long-Term Performance Are Limited

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In March 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule that will limit emissions of mercury--a toxic element that causes neurological problems--from coal-fired power plants, the nation's largest industrial source of mercury emissions. Under the rule, mercury emissions are to be reduced from a baseline of 48 tons per year to 38 tons in 2010 and to 15 tons in 2018. In the rule, EPA set the emissions target for 2010 based on the level of reductions achievable with technologies for controlling other pollutants--which also capture some mercury--because it believed emerging mercury controls had not been adequately demonstrated. EPA and the Department of Energy (DOE) coordinate research on mercury controls. In this context, GAO was asked to (1) describe the use, availability, and effectiveness of technologies to reduce mercury emissions at power plants; and (2) identify the factors that influence the cost of these technologies and report on available cost estimates. In completing our review, GAO did not independently test mercury controls. GAO provided the draft report to DOE and EPA for comment. DOE said that it generally agreed with our findings. EPA provided technical comments, which we incorporated as appropriate."
Date: May 31, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: EPA Has Completed Most of the Actions Required by the 1990 Amendments, but Many Were Completed Late

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "While air quality in the United States has steadily improved over the last few decades, more than a hundred million Americans continue to live in communities where pollution causes the air to be unhealthy at times, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Clean Air Act, first passed in 1963, was last reauthorized and amended in 1990, when new programs were created and changes were made to the ways in which air pollution is controlled. The 1990 amendments included hundreds of requirements for EPA, as well as other parties, to take steps that will ultimately reduce air pollution. The amendments also established deadlines for many of these requirements. Since the 1990 amendments, various actions have been proposed to either amend the Clean Air Act or implement its provisions in new ways. GAO was asked to report on the current status of EPA's implementation of requirements under Titles I, III, and IV of the 1990 amendments. These titles, which address national ambient air quality standards, hazardous air pollutants, and acid deposition control, respectively, are the most relevant to proposed legislation and recently finalized regulations addressing emissions of air pollutants by power plants."
Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: Key Stakeholders' Views on Revisions to the New Source Review Program

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revisions to the New Source Review (NSR) program to control industrial emissions have drawn attention from state and local agencies that implement the program, as well as industry and environmental and health groups. Under the revisions, companies may not have to install pollution controls when making some facility changes. GAO was asked to obtain the opinions of state air quality officials and other stakeholders on the impact of both the final and proposed revisions EPA issued in December 2002. GAO obtained survey responses from NSR program managers in 44 states and certain localities and contacted six environmental and health groups, and eight industry groups active in the NSR debate. Survey details are available in GAO-04-337SP."
Date: February 2, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: EPA Should Improve the Management of Its Air Toxics Program

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) most recent data indicate that 95 percent of all Americans face an increased likelihood of developing cancer as a result of breathing air toxics--pollutants such as benzene and asbestos that may cause cancer or other serious health problems. Sources of air toxics include large industrial facilities, smaller facilities such as dry cleaners, and cars and trucks. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required EPA to regulate 190 pollutants from these sources through a multifaceted regulatory program. While EPA issues federal standards, state and local agencies generally administer these standards, and some develop their own rules to complement the federal standards. In this context, GAO was asked to assess (1) EPA's progress and challenges in implementing the air toxics program, (2) available information on the program's costs and benefits, and (3) practices of state and local air toxics programs."
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: Mercury Control Technologies at Coal-Fired Power Plants Have Achieved Substantial Emissions Reductions

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The 491 U.S. coal-fired power plants are the largest unregulated industrial source of mercury emissions nationwide, annually emitting about 48 tons of mercury--a toxic element that poses health threats, including neurological disorders in children. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that mercury emissions from these sources should be regulated, but the agency has not set a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard, as the Clean Air Act requires. Some power plants, however, must reduce mercury emissions to comply with state regulations or consent decrees. After managing a long-term mercury control research and development program, the Department of Energy (DOE) reported in 2008 that systems that inject sorbents--powdery substances to which mercury binds--into the exhaust from boilers of coal-fired power plants were ready for commercial deployment. Tests of sorbent injection systems, the most mature mercury control technology, were conducted on a variety of coal types and boiler configurations--that is, on boilers using different air pollution control devices. In this context, GAO was asked to examine (1) reductions achieved by mercury control technologies and the extent of their use at power plants, (2) the cost of mercury control technologies, and (3) key issues EPA faces in regulating mercury emissions from power plants. GAO obtained data from power plants operating sorbent injection systems. EPA and DOE provided technical comments, which we incorporated as appropriate."
Date: October 8, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: Observations on EPA's Cost-Benefit Analysis of Its Mercury Control Options

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Mercury is a toxic element that can cause neurological disorders in children. In January 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed two options for limiting mercury from power plants, and plans to finalize a rule in March 2005. The first would require each plant to meet emissions standards reflecting the application of control technology (the technology-based option), while the second would enable plants to either reduce emissions or buy excess credits from other plants (the cap-and-trade option). EPA received over 680,000 written comments on the proposal. EPA is directed by statute and executive order to analyze the costs and benefits of proposed rules, and the agency summarized its analysis underlying the two options in the proposal. In this context, GAO was asked to assess the usefulness of EPA's economic analysis for decision making. In doing so, GAO neither independently estimated the options' costs and benefits nor evaluated the process for developing the options or their consistency with the Clean Air Act, as amended."
Date: February 28, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: Historical Information on EPA's Process for Reviewing California Waiver Requests and Making Waiver Determinations

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Emissions from mobile sources, such as automobiles and trucks, contribute to air quality degradation and can threaten public health and the environment. Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates these emissions. The act generally allows one set of federal standards for new motor vehicle emissions and pre-empts states from adopting or enforcing their own standards. However, it also authorizes the EPA Administrator to waive this provision to allow the state of California1 to enact and enforce emission standards for new motor vehicles that are as protective, in the aggregate, as federal government standards. Other states may also adopt California's standards if they choose. The waiver provision was added to the Federal Air Quality Act (one of the precursors of the current Clean Air Act) in 1967 because of California's severe air pollution problems and because the state had already established its own emission standards for mobile sources. California has used this waiver provision regularly to establish and enforce standards for vehicle emissions more stringent than those required by federal law. However, California must request a waiver of federal pre-emption and the EPA Administrator must approve it before California or any other state can implement such standards. Since being given this authority, California has requested and been granted waivers more than 50 times. In December 2005, California requested a waiver from EPA to allow it to regulate motor vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases, which are closely linked to global climate change. At the time, EPA was responding to litigation initiated by environmental groups and state and local governments regarding whether greenhouse gas emissions were air pollutants that the agency had authority to regulate under the Clean Air Act. EPA delayed action on California's waiver request ...
Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: New Source Review Revisions Could Affect Utility Enforcement Cases and Public Access to Emissions Data

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revisions to the New Source Review (NSR) program--a key component of the federal government's plan to limit harmful industrial emissions--have been under scrutiny by the Congress, environmental groups, state and local air quality agencies, the courts, and several industry groups. The revisions more explicitly define when companies can modify their facilities without needing to obtain an NSR permit or install costly pollution controls, as NSR requires. GAO was asked to determine (1) whether EPA and the Department of Justice (DOJ) assessed the potential impact of the revisions on the ongoing enforcement cases against coal-fired utilities and, if so, what the assessments indicated; and (2) what effect, if any, the revisions might have on public access to information about facility changes and their resulting emissions."
Date: October 21, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: EPA Should Use Available Data to Monitor the Effects of Its Revisions to the New Source Review Program

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "A recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) final rule changing the Clean Air Act's New Source Review (NSR) program--a key means to protect public health and enhance air quality--has been under scrutiny by the Congress, industry, environmental groups, state and local air quality agencies, and the courts. GAO was asked to determine the basis of EPA's conclusions that (1) the rule's economic impacts would not be significant enough to merit a detailed analysis and (2) the NSR program, prior to the rule, discouraged some energy efficiency projects. GAO, among other things, reviewed EPA's analysis of the rule and its impacts, as well as guidance from EPA and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) on analyzing such impacts. GAO also met with industry and environmental stakeholders."
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act: Preliminary Observations on the Effectiveness and Costs of Mercury Control Technologies at Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The 491 U.S. coal-fired power plants are the largest unregulated industrial source of mercury emissions nationwide, annually emitting about 48 tons of mercury--a toxic element that poses health threats, including neurological disorders in children. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that mercury emissions from these sources should be regulated, but the agency has not set a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard, as the Clean Air Act requires. Some power plants, however, must reduce mercury emissions to comply with state laws or consent decrees. After managing a long-term mercury control research and development program, the Department of Energy (DOE) reported in 2008 that systems that inject sorbents--powdery substances to which mercury binds--into the exhaust from boilers of coal-fired power plants were ready for commercial deployment. Tests of sorbent injection systems, the most mature mercury control technology, were conducted on a variety of coal types and boiler configurations--that is, on boilers using different air pollution control devices. This testimony provides preliminary data from GAO's ongoing work on (1) reductions achieved by mercury control technologies and the extent of their use at coal-fired power plants, (2) the cost of mercury control technologies in use at these plants, and (3) key issues EPA faces in regulating mercury emissions from power plants. GAO obtained data from power plants operating sorbent injection systems."
Date: July 9, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

Description: The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Services, NSTec Environmental Technical
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Procedural Review of EPA's Greenhouse Gases Endangerment Finding Data Quality Processes

Description: This report discuss the findings of whether the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) followed key federal and Agency regulations and policies in developing and reviewing the technical data used to make and support its greenhouse gases endangerment finding.
Date: September 26, 2011
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Inspector General.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment

Description: Under Title IX of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Congress reauthorized the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to continue coordinating acid rain research and monitoring, as it had done during the previous decade, and to provide Congress with periodic reports. In particular, Congress asked NAPAP to assess all available data and information to answer two questions: (1) What are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of Title IV? This question addresses the costs and economic impacts of complying with the Acid Rain Program as well as benefit analyses associated with the various human health and welfare effects, including reduced visibility, damages to materials and cultural resources, and effects on ecosystems. (2) What reductions in deposition rates are needed to prevent adverse ecological effects? This complex questions addresses ecological systems and the deposition levels at which they experience harmful effects. The results of the assessment of the effects of Title IV and of the relationship between acid deposition rates and ecological effects were to be reported to Congress quadrennially, beginning with the 1996 report to Congress. The objective of this Report is to address the two main questions posed by Congress and fully communicate the results of the assessment to decision-makers. Given the primary audience, most of this report is not written as a technical document, although information supporting the conclusions is provided along with references.
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Uhart, M. & et al,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Opportunities for Promoting Renewable Energy; Final Report: December 11, 2000

Description: This report explores key aspects of the intersection between the nation's clean air and energy goals and proposes alternatives for encouraging renewable energy in the context of the federal Clean Air Act (CAA). As with most environmental statutes enacted in the early 1970s, the 1970 CAA embraced a somewhat rigid ''command-and-control'' approach to achieving its clean air goals. Although effective, this approach has been criticized for discouraging creative and cost-effective solutions to reducing air emissions. In response to this concern, Congress included the first significant market-based program to address an environmental problem-in this case, acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants-in the 1990 CAA Amendments. This program prompted the federal government and various state governments to pursue other market-based programs to address air pollution problems. Ten years have elapsed since the passage of the 1990 CAA Amendments, so the time is ripe to consider expanding opportunities for renewable energy development in the reform of clean air policies. A significant potential for renewables exists in conjunction with international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), including CO2. Unfortunately, Congressional opposition to international GHG reduction agreements makes it difficult to develop GHG emission-reduction programs, including a cap-and-trade alternative, that would enable the renewables industry to harness this potential. The renewable industry can, however, track developments both nationally and internationally to ensure that the programs developed adequately address renewables.
Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Wooley, D.R. & Morss, E.M. (Young, Sommer, Ward, Ritzenberg, Wooley, Baker and Moore, LLC, Albany, New York)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

Description: United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Tanzman, E. A. & Haffenden, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department