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Syllabus of Clay Testing

Description: From Introduction: "One of the many services rendered by the Federal Bureau of Mines is the identification and general examination of ore and mineral samples. This publication describes methods of testing these samples. The object of this publication is to present the testing procedures in general use in the industry up to the point where the checking becomes a quantitative one for particular products."
Date: 1957
Creator: Klinefelter, T. A. & Hamlin, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Syllabus of Clay Testing: Part 1

Description: From Introduction: "This presentation (pt. 1) is what might be termed a qualitative syllabus, in that uses only are indicated, no attempt being made to evaluate a clay quantitatively, that is, to grade for particular uses. In part 2, which is to follow, the work will be amplified both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the first, preliminary tests are made to eliminate from consideration all nonclay minerals or clay minerals containing such large amounts of impurities as to render them unfit for normal uses and also to make a broad general classification of the clay minerals into the kaolinite (shales and clays) and montmorillonite groups. In the second step, the main tests, divided into two general headings, ceramic and noncermaic, are detailed."
Date: 1943
Creator: Klinefelter, Theron A.; O'Meara, Robert G.; Gottlieb, Sidney & Truesdell, Glenn C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refining and Utilization of Georgia Kaolins

Description: From Introduction: "The investigation described in this report was carried on to determine the practicability of applying technical control of clay disperse systems to the refining of kaolins and the utilization of the prepared clay in the manufacture of vitreous china and wall tile."
Date: 1916
Creator: Sproat, Ira E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ochers and Mineral Pigments of the Pacific Northwest : Occurrence, Possible Methods of Preparation, and Testing of Ochers, Siennas, and Colored Clays

Description: From Introduction: "A review is given of the nomenclature, sources, imports, statistics, common methods of preparation, and testing of mineral pigments. A description of the Deer Park-Spokane colored-clay district and the laboratory methods of preparation of these colored clays, ochers, and siennas follows. The following report is merely preliminary in nature, only three months during the summer of 1927 being devoted to the laboratory investigation."
Date: 1929
Creator: Wilson, Hewitt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Differential Thermal Analysis: Its Application to Clays and Other Aluminous Minerals

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing thermal analysis of clays and aluminous minerals. As stated in the introduction, "the applications and limitations of this method to the study of various clays, bauxites, and aluminous minerals will be discussed in this paper" (p. 1). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1945
Creator: Speil, Sidney; Berkelhamer, Louis H.; Pask, Joseph A. & Davies, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

Description: In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.
Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Zhang, Aihua; Ma, Qisheng & Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The suitability of five Denton County clays for use in high school ceramics classes

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of five clays from the vicinity of Denton, Texas for use in high-school ceramics classes. The abundance of natural clays in Denton County and throughout the state of Texas, the ease with which clays may be obtained, and the ease with which they may be refined for use provide almost unlimited teaching possibilities in high-school art classes.
Date: August 1949
Creator: Tooley, Martin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

Description: The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W. & Fischer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of structural clay tile infilled frames

Description: Steel frames infilled with structural clay tile have been used in commercial and industrial buildings for most of this century. Often these buildings are located in moderate to high seismic zones and are likely to experience earthquake forces. Little prior research has been conducted to investigate the behavior of clay tile infills under lateral loading. Twenty-one large-scale clay tile infilled frames were tested to determine their behavior and correlate the results with other available experimental data. The infills greatly increased the in-plane stiffness and strength of the otherwise flexible framing. Two in-plane failure mechanisms were observed, diagonal cracking and comer crushing. Under uniform out-of-plane load, the infills cracked along the mortar joints and developed membrane forces. Tremendous out-of-plane capacity was observed as the panels arched vertically and then horizontally, remaining stable after ultimate capacity was reached. Under sequential and combined bidirectional loadings, the panels remained stable with little interaction of the in-plane and out-of-plane behavior, particularly in the frame member forces. Analytical comparisons of measured versus predicted stiffness, ultimate capacity, and frame member forces were performed. A numerical model based on a piecewise linear equivalent strut was developed. Recommendations for evaluation of clay tile infills subjected to seismic loads were proposed.
Date: December 18, 1994
Creator: Flanagan, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

Description: This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for ...
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Campbell, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bleed water testing program for controlled low strength material

Description: Bleed water measurements for two Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mixes were conducted to provide engineering data for the Tank 20F closure activities. CLSM Mix 1 contained 150 pounds of cement per cubic yard whereas CLSM Mix 2 contained 50 pounds per cub yard. SRS currently used CLSM Mix 2 for various applications. Bleed water percentages and generation rates were measured along with flow and compressive strength. This information will be used to select a mix design for the Tank 20F closure activities and to establish the engineering requirements, such as, lift height, time required between lifts and quantity of bleed water to be removed from the tank during the placement activities. Mix 1 is recommended for placement within Tank 20F because it has better flow characteristics, less segregation, lower percentage of bleed water and slightly higher strength. Optimization of Mix 1 was beyond the scope of this study. However, further testing of thickening additives, such as clays (bentonite), sodium silicate or fine silicas maybe useful for decreasing or eliminating bleed water.
Date: November 12, 1996
Creator: Langton, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

Description: Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.
Date: October 9, 2003
Creator: Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G. & Harris, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of central Spain

Description: The bioavailability and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment are controlled by chemical sorption. To assess competitive sorption of Pb and Cd, batch equilibrium experiments (generating sorption isotherms) and kinetics sorption studies were performed using single and binary metal solutions in surface samples of four soils from central Spain. For comparisons between soils, as well as, single and binary metal solutions, soil chemical processes were characterized using the Langmuir equation, ionic strength, and an empirical power function for kinetic sorption. In addition, soil pH and clay mineralogy were used to explain observed sorption processes. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation and the sorption kinetics were well described by an empirical power function within the reaction times in this study. Soils with higher pH and clay content (characterized by having smectite) had the greatest sorption capacity as estimated by the maximum sorption parameter (Q) of the Langmuir equation. All soils exhibited greater sorption capacity for Pb than Cd and the presence of both metals reduced the tendency for either to be sorbed although Cd sorption was affected to a greater extent than that of Pb. The Langmuir binding strength parameter (k) was always greater for Pb than for Cd. However, these k values tended to increase as a result of the simultaneous presence of both metals, that may indicate competition for sorption sites promoting the retention of both metals on more specific sorption sites. The kinetic experiments showed that Pb sorption is initially faster than Cd sorption from both single and binary solutions although the simultaneous presence of both metals affected the sorption of Cd at short times while only a minor effect was observed on Pb. The estimated exponents of the kinetic function were in all cases smaller for Pb than for Cd, likely due ...
Date: January 30, 2004
Creator: Serrano, S.; Garrido, F.; Campbell, C.G. & Garcia-Gonzolez, Maria Teresa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Influence of Calcium Carbonate Grain Coatings on Contaminant Reactivity in Vadose Zone Sediments

Description: Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely distributed through the Hanford vadose zone as a minor phase. As a result of current and past geochemical processes, CaCO3 exists as grain coatings, intergrain fill, and distinct caliche layers in select locations. Calcium carbonate may also precipitate when high-level wastes react with naturally Ca- and Mg-saturated Hanford sediments. Calcium carbonate is a very reactive mineral phase. Sorption reactions on its surface may slow the migration of certain contaminants (Co, Sr), but its surface coatings on other mineral phases may diminish contaminant retardation (for example, Cr) by blocking surface reaction sites of the substrate. This project explores the behavior of calcium carbonate grain coatings, including how they form and dissolve, their reactivity toward key Hanford contaminants, their impact (as surface coatings) on the reactivity of other mineral substrates, and on their in-ground composition and minor element enrichment. The importance of CaCO3 as a contaminant sorbent will be defined in all of its different manifestations in Hanford sediments: dispersed minor lithic fragments, pedogenic carbonate coatings on gravel and stringers in silt, and nodules in clay and paleosols. Mass action models will be developed that allow understanding and prediction of the geochemical effects of CaCO3 on contaminant retardation in Hanford sediments.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Zachara, John M.; Chambers, Scott; Brown Jr., Gordon E. & Eggleston, Carrick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

Description: This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Wickline, Alfred N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Application of a Paleomagnetic/Geochemical Method for Constraining the Timing of Burial Diagenetic and Fluid

Description: Studies of diagenesis caused by fluid migration or other events are commonly hindered by a lack of temporal control. Our results to date demonstrate that a paleomagnetic/geochemical approach can be used to date fluid migration as well as burial diagenetic events. Our principal working hypothesis is that burial diagenetic processes (e.g., maturation of organic-rich sediments and clay diagenesis) and the migration of fluids can trigger the authigenesis of magnetic mineral phases. The ages of these events can be constrained by comparing chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) to independently established Apparent Polar Wander Paths. While geochemical (e.g. stable isotope and organic analyses) and petrographic studies provide important clues for establishing these relationships, the ultimate test of this hypothesis requires the application of independent dating methods to verify the paleomagnetic ages. Towards this end, we have used K-Ar dating of illitization as an alternative method for constraining the ages of magnetic mineral phases in our field areas.
Date: March 10, 2005
Creator: Elmore, Richard D. & Engel, Michael H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

Description: One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A. & Jones, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department