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Moldable Transient Suppression Polymer Composite

Description: The objective of the CRADA was to cooperate in the development of a moldable transient suppression polymer composite that can be used to protect electrical equipment and electronics from damage caused by electrical disturbances and faults. The composite was to provide a solid- state means of fault current limitation, particularly for high-current applications. The composite was envisioned to have the following properties: (1) be moldable and therefore suited to the automated manufacture at a low cost; (2) operate with greater speed and reliability than electromechanical devices; and (3) operate in conjunction with appropriately designated mechanical breakers to limit the current and energy under short-circuit fault conditions, thereby providing improved protection to equipment connected to the circuit. The technical work of the project was in part shared between Lockheed Martin and the General Electric Company and in part divided between the participants according to their capabilities. Work was performed in the Oak Ridge K-25, Y-12, and X-10 facilities of Lockheed Martin and at the General Electric Company Corporate Research and Development (GE-CR&D) and Electrical Distribution and Control (GE-ED&C) facilities. Materials were fabricated in facilities of the Y-12 Development. Department, where polymers were filled with varying amounts of conductive materials. However, as the effort was reduced because of curtailed DOE funding, GE took over fabrication of filled epoxies and then assumed responsibility for all materials fabrication. Electrical testing and theoretical modeling by Lockheed-Martin were performed at X-10, excepting that some pulse testing of materials and the development of specialized pulse test apparatus was done at the K-25 site. GE shared in low-power electrical testing at CR&D and pefiormed high-power electrical testing using specialized facilities at the ED&C. GE took responsibility for setting the performance requirements of the materials for their product applications. Other phases of the project such as product integration, breaker ...
Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Campbell, v.b. & modine, f.a.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power Quality Evaluation of 480-V, 2-MVA UPS Systems

Description: A mobile 480-V, 2-MVA UPS System utilizing battery energy storage was installed at S and C Electric Company's Polymer Products Fabrication Building in Chicago, Illinois in May 1999 to provide uninterrupted power to the building for up to 15 seconds in the event of a voltage sag or momentary interruption in the local utility supply. Similar units can be applied at medium voltage through the application of a step-up transformer to provide momentary power disturbance ride through of up to 30 seconds for loads up to 15 MVA at system voltages ranging from 4.16 kV to 34.5 kV. A power quality evaluation of the installation was performed over a six-month period from July 1999 to early January 2000. This paper describes the details and results of this power quality evaluation, which involved two phases. Phase I involved the collection and review of power disturbance data and the effects on process equipment, while Phase II involved power quality monitoring of utility source and building load voltages and currents over a period of six months. Review of power disturbance data and equipment power-disturbance ride-through characteristics during Phase I of the project indicated that the polymer fabrication process in the building is affected by the tripping of motors driving hydraulic pumps for the thermal set molding machines. The tripping of these motors may have resulted in direct production losses in 1998 of approximately $468,000. The monitoring conducted during Phase II of the project showed that the PureWave UPS operated as intended during 12 utility voltage sag events to protect the building's load against momentary power disturbances. In addition, the unit operated successfully during many staged interruptions involving opening of a source-side circuit breaker.
Date: June 21, 2000
Creator: Camm, E. H.; Corey, Garth P. & Roberts, S. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

Description: A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E. & Jha, K.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lookout device for high voltage circuit breaker

Description: An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Kozlowski, L.J. & Shirey, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Circuit breaker lockout device

Description: An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin is installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Kozlowski, L. J. & Shirey, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Moisture Sensor for Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)-filled Circuit Breakers

Description: Measurements at ORNL were made on the Kahn moisture sensor which Doble Engineering wants to evaluate for use in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers. Test conducted at ORNL indicate that vacuum conditions, as might be found in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers prior to filling with SF{sub 6}, could lead to significant changes in calibration, resulting in erroneous readings of moisture content. Similar effects might also be observed in cases where SF{sub 6} byproducts are present, due the reactivity of some of these byproducts with water.
Date: April 27, 2001
Creator: Sauers, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Market Information Technology in the Post Flash Crash Era: Roles for Supercomputing

Description: This paper describes collaborative work between active traders, regulators, economists, and supercomputing researchers to replicate and extend investigations of the Flash Crash and other market anomalies in a National Laboratory HPC environment. Our work suggests that supercomputing tools and methods will be valuable to market regulators in achieving the goal of market safety, stability, and security. Research results using high frequency data and analytics are described, and directions for future development are discussed. Currently the key mechanism for preventing catastrophic market action are “circuit breakers.” We believe a more graduated approach, similar to the “yellow light” approach in motorsports to slow down traffic, might be a better way to achieve the same goal. To enable this objective, we study a number of indicators that could foresee hazards in market conditions and explore options to confirm such predictions. Our tests confirm that Volume Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN) and a version of volume Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) for measuring market fragmentation can indeed give strong signals ahead of the Flash Crash event on May 6 2010. This is a preliminary step toward a full-fledged early-warning system for unusual market conditions.
Date: September 16, 2011
Creator: Bethel, E. Wes; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver & Wu, Kesheng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid state circuit breaker. Technological spinoff report

Description: A solid state circuit breaker was designed using the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program. The experimental circuit assembled worked satlsfactorily for overloads up to 200 percent. This device would be useful in some special applications where fast operation in the microsecond range would be an advantage. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1974
Creator: Elmer, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pump system characterization and reliability enhancement

Description: Pump characterization studies were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review and analyze six years (1990 to 1995) of data from pump systems at domestic nuclear plants. The studies considered not only pumps and pump motors but also pump related circuit breakers and turbine drives (i.e., the pump system). One significant finding was that the number of significant failures of the pump circuit breaker exceeds the number of significant failures of the pump itself. The study also shows how regulatory code testing was designed for the pump only and therefore did not lead to the discovery of other significant pump system failures. Potential diagnostic technologies both experimental and mature, suitable for on-line and off-line pump testing were identified. The study does not select or recommend technologies but proposes diagnostic technologies and monitoring techniques that should be further evaluated/developed for making meaningful and critically needed improvements in the reliability of the pump system.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Staunton, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low Insertion HVDC Circuit Breaker

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Green Electricity Network Integration (GENI) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses the development of a direct current circuit breaker as part of the "Magnetically Pulsed Hybrid Breaker for HVDC Power Distribution Protection" project.
Date: June 4, 2012
Creator: General Atomics
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CENRTC Project {number_sign}2F3EOA, OCB A-386, acceptance test procedure

Description: This test procedure provides the steps necessary to verify correct functional operation of controls, annunciators, alarms, protective relays and related systems impacted by CENRTC {number_sign}2F3EOA, Microwave Transfer Trip Project, modification work performed under work package 6B-93-00043/M (CENRTC 2F3EOA MWTT OCB A-386 PACKAGE). This procedure separates four tests into separate sections: Energization of A-386 Duplex Panel and Circuits; Local RFL 6750 function tests and start-up; SCADA tests; and A-386 local trip tests.
Date: March 6, 1995
Creator: Akerson, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CENRTC Project {number_sign}2F3EOA, OCB A-376, acceptance test procedure

Description: This test procedure provides the steps necessary to verify correct functional operation of controls, annunciators, alarms, protective relays and related systems impacted by CENRTC {number_sign}2F3E0A, Microwave Transfer Trip Project, modification work performed under work package 6B-93-00041/M. This procedure separates three tests into separate sections: energization of A-376 duplex panel and circuits; SCADA tests; and A-376 local trip tests.
Date: January 25, 1995
Creator: Akerson, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and operating experience of a 40 MW, highly-stabilized power supply

Description: Four 10 MW, highly-stabilized power supply modules have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, to energize water-cooled, resistive, high-field research magnets. The power supply modules achieve a long term current stability if 10 ppM over a 12 h period with a short term ripple and noise variation of <10 ppM over a time period of one cycle. The power supply modules can operate independently, feeding four separate magnets, or two, three or four modules can operate in parallel. Each power supply module consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow rated dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply module is 17 kA and each supply module has a one-hour overload capability of 20 kA. The isolated output terminals of each power supply module are connected to a reversing switch. An extensive high-current bus system allows the modules to be connected to 16 magnet cells. This paper presents the detailed design of the power supply components. Various test results taken during the commissioning phase with a 10 MW resistive load and results taken with the research magnets are shown. The effects of the modules on the electrical supply system and the operational behavior of the power factor correction/harmonic filters are described. Included also are results of a power supply module feeding a superconducting magnet during quench propagation tests. Problems with the power supply design and solutions are presented. Some suggestions on how to improve the performance of these supplies are outlined.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Boenig, H.J.; Ferner, J.A.; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C. & Rumrill, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design criteria for OSW alternate power

Description: The purpose of this project is threefold. First to provide a reliable and more continuous source of electrical power to the Operational Support Building-West (OSW) in order to better serve Mound financial and CAD computer facilities. This increased reliability shall be accomplished by the installation of a tie breaker that will connect the 480 volt secondary of the OSW substation with the 480 volt secondary of B substation, within 200 feet of the building. The OSW substation is in the penthouse of the four (4) story OSW building. The B substation is outside along the plant roadway. Installation of the tie breaker will also permit work to be done on the primary (12,470 volt) side of the transformer without a shutdown of the building. Secondly, the replacement of the OSW substation PCB transformer shall be done in order to eliminate the risk of a fire spreading PCB vapors to the building ventilation system. Thirdly, the replacement of the switchboard on the 480 volt secondary of the OSW substation with more reliable breakers. Also, the existing switches do not allow expansion of the 480 volt supply to building equipment. One of the new breakers shall supply power to a new power panel, thus providing breaker space for installation of new equipment.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Saul, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Fault Currents of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

Description: This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a wind power plant for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. The size of wind power plants (WPPs) keeps getting bigger and bigger. The number of wind plants in the U.S. has increased very rapidly in the past 10 years. It is projected that in the U.S., the total wind power generation will reach 330 GW by 2030. As the importance of WPPs increases, planning engi-neers must perform impact studies used to evaluate short-circuit current (SCC) contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This information is needed to size the circuit breakers, to establish the proper sys-tem protection, and to choose the transient suppressor in the circuits within the WPP. This task can be challenging to protec-tion engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. Both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are investigated. Three different soft-ware packages are utilized to develop this paper. Time domain simulations and steady-state calculations are used to perform the analysis.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M. & Muljadi, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

Description: This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T. & Janes, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

Description: These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

Description: This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.
Date: February 1994
Creator: Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R. & O`Hearn, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution System of the Future

Description: The distribution system of the future is going to be as much of a revolution to the electric energy industry as the wireless telephone has been to consumer communications. An electricity market transformation must occur before the changes can take place, but this evolution is already starting to occur in many parts of the country. In this paper, we discuss a vision for a future distribution system, areas that will be key for technology development, and the advantages of the new electricity market. Present day distribution systems are in a sense, unintelligent. Distribution systems respond to faults, or short circuits, by sensing the very high fault current and then opening circuit breakers to isolate the fault. Some newer automated systems determine fault location and then close other circuit breakers to provide an alternate path for power after the fault so that the number of customers left without power is minimized, but the extent of the reconfiguration is limited. Distribution systems also have some methods to regulate voltage, but there is little real time local response to contingencies such as loss of a transmission line or a generator. In present day distribution systems, there is very little control of load, or demand response, and Distributed Energy Resources (DER, distributed generation, storage, and responsive load) located in the distribution system are prohibited from even regulating voltage. In fact, industry standards and utility interconnection agreements typically require that when a contingency occurs on a distribution or transmission system that results in a voltage or frequency excursion, the DER is to disconnect rather than help. There is a pressing need to evolve the distribution system model to one that can respond to contingencies sensed locally, and has the local intelligence and autonomy to deal with contingencies such as unusual loading, transmission congestion, and line ...
Date: April 23, 2003
Creator: Kueck, JD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a HVDC prototype breaker. Final report

Description: The significant design features of a high-voltage dc (HVDC) circuit breaker based on the commutation concept were developed. Tests of components indicate the breaker is capable of interrupting a fault current of 10 kA on a 400 kV system and absorbing up to 10 MJ of system energy without generating more than 1.6 per unit (P.U.) voltage of the system. Interactions of the breaker with a three-terminal network were studied, using a system simulator. An ultrafast hydraulic actuator system was developed for this program which enables the breaker to initiate the current limiting process within 5 ms after receipt of a trip signal. A new hydraulic valve, operated by a repulsion coil, minimizes the delay before motion begins. Interruption will occur in series-connected vacuum interrupters. A 400 kV circuit breaker is estimated to require eight breaks in series. Only a single break was tested as part of this program because of the scale and cost required for multibreak tests. System energy will be absorbed by zinc-oxide-based surge suppressors included as an integral part of the breaker. The overall design is envisioned as a dead tank type using pressurized SF/sub 6/ gas as a dielectric medium. The actuator and all control functions are located at ground potential, with easy access for inspection or adjustment. Operational specifications have been carried over from NEMA standards for ac power circuit breakers where applicable. The cost of one pole of this circuit breaker, when in regular production, has been estimated as two times the cost of a three-phase 500 kV ac circuit breaker.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Damsky, B L; Barkan, P; Imam, I; Permerlani, W; Anderson, J M; Carroll, J J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual 30 kA, HVDC interrupter test facility

Description: A facility to test the capability of switches to interrupt or break dc currents has been operational at LASL for several years. The original facility was upgraded to achieve interruption currents up to 30 kA. A nearly duplicate facility has now been installed. The dual test facility allows independent or parallel operation with a combined capability of 60 kA. The construction, operation, and performance of the facilities are described.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Honig, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department