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The Metabolism of Chyle Cholesterol in the Rat

Description: Abstract: "Observations on the metabolism of chyle cholesterol in the rat show that exogenous cholesterol entering the systemic circulation in chyle exists in lipoproteins of low density (including chylomicrons) migrating with a high Sf rate (i.e.>400) in the ultracentrifuge. Following entry into the systemic circulation these molecules are rapidly removed from the plasma. This "clearing" of serum chyle cholesterol is a tissue phenomenon, the liver being the predominant site. Within the liver the chyle cholesterol esters are at least partially hydrolyzed; hydrolysis apparently does not occur in the plasma to any appreciable extent. After its entry into the liver exogenous cholesterol, if normally metabolized, presumably mixes with and becomes indistinguishable from cholesterol produced by endogenous synthesis."
Date: May 12, 1954
Creator: Biggs, Max William & Nichols, Alexander V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase by Enzyme-Lipid Interactions

Description: The temperature-dependent catalytic activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3 -methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) displays the nonlinear Arrhenius behavior characteristic of many membrane-bound enzymes. A two-conformer equilibrium model has been developed to characterize this behavior. In the model, HMG-CoA reductase undergoes a conformational change from a low specific activity to a high specific activity form. This conformation change is apparently driven by a temperature-dependent phase transition of the membrane lipids. It has been found that this model accurately describes the data from diets including rat chow, low-fat, high-carbohydrate, and diets supplemented with fat, cholesterol or cholestyramine. The effects characterized by the model are consistent with the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase by enzyme-lipid interactions.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Smith, Vana L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies on Hog Plasma Lecithin:cholesterol Acyltransferase: Isolation and Characterization of the Enzyme

Description: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was isolated from hog plasma and basic physicochemical properties and functionally important regions were investigated. Approximately one milligram of the enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity with approximately a 20,000-fold increase in specific activity. In the plasma, hog LCAT was found to associate with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) probably through hydrophobic interactions with apolipoprotein A-I. HDL was the preferred lipoprotein substrate of the enzyme as its macromolecular substrate. The enzyme was found to contain 4 free sulfhydryl groups; at least one of these appeared to be essential for catalytic activity. The enzyme had a tendency to aggregate at high concentrations. More than half of the tryptophan and none of the tyrosine residues of the enzyme were shown to be exposed to the aqueous environment based on fluorescence and absorbance studies, respectively.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Park, Yong Bok
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation, Physical and Chemical Characterization of Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase from Human Plasma

Description: The physiological role of LCAT has been the subject of a number of recent articles (Glomset, 1979; Nilsson-Ehle et al., 1980). According to most current theories, the enzyme functions in combination with high-density lipoproteins in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway which presumably returns peripheral cholesterol to the liver where cholesterol catabolism takes place. Despite the exciting potential for studies on the catalytic function and the nature of the enzyme-substrate complex, the mechanism of action of LCAT remains largely unexplored. The relatively slow progress in the elucidation of the LCAT reaction mechanism is likely to be due to the difficulties in the isolation of the enzyme in sufficient quantities. Consequently, considerably less is known about the physical and chemical properties of the enzyme. Therefore, the first objective of this investigation was to isolate and purify sufficient amount of enzyme for subsequent characterization studies. The second objective of this investigation was to characterize the physical properties of the enzyme by techniques including analytical ultracentrifugation, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The third objective of this investigation was to characterize the chemical properties of the enzyme which deals with the amino acid and carbohydrate composition and with some basic structural features that are related to the chemical composition of LCAT.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Chong, Kui Song
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies on Lipoprotein Specificity of Human Plasma Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase

Description: Huian plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were isolated by a procedure employing polyanion precipitation and column chromatography. Lipid and protein composition of the HDL isolated by this method was found to be similar to another HDL preparation isolated by ultracentrifugation. However, minor differences were noted, including a higher phospholipid and apoproteinE content and lower triglyceride content of the HDL isolated by column chromatography. Four subfraction of HDL were obtained following chromatography on an anion exchange column. The subfraction four had the highest esterified to free cholesterol ratio, the second highest phospholipid to unesterified cholesterol, and the lowest molecular weight. In addition it was consistently coincided with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and found to be the best substrate for the enzyme.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Jahani, Mehrnoosh
Partner: UNT Libraries