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Use of a 2-inch, dual screen well to conduct aquifer tests in the upper and lower Lost lake aquifer zones: Western sector, A/M area, SRS

Description: The Western Sector, A/M Area is located just west of the M-Area Settling Basin on an upland area. The area is adjacent to the gently inclined area where the upland drops off to the Savannah River floodplain. Water in the parts of the uppermost aquifers contains dissolved contaminants which originated at the land surface and have leached downward into the groundwater. Subsurface contamination originated in the locality of the M-Area Settling Basin and Lost Lake, which is a Carolina Bay. These locations functioned as disposal sites for industrial solvents during the early years of operation of the Savannah River Site. The primary groundwater contaminants are trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and groundwater concentrations of TCE are significantly greater than the PCE.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Hiergesell, R.A. & Novick, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996]

Description: The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.
Date: May 31, 1996
Creator: Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T. & Lloyd, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of anaerobic chloroethene-dehalogenating activity in several subsurface sediments

Description: Anaerobic microcosms of subsurface soils from four locations were used to investigate the separate effects of several electron donors on tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination activity. The substrates tested were methanol, formate, lactate, acetate, and sucrose. Various levels of sulfate-reducing, acetogenic, fermentative, and methanogenic activity were observed in all sediments. PCE dechlorination was detected in all microcosms, but the amount of dehalogenation varied by several orders of magnitude. Trichloroethylene was the primary dehalogenation product; however, small amounts of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride were also detected in several microcosms. Lactate-amended microcosms showed large amounts of dehalogenation. in three of the four sediments. One of the two sediments which showed positive activity with lactate also had large amounts of delialogenation with methanol. Sucrose, formate, and acetate also stimulated large amounts of delialogenation in one sediment that showed activity with lactate. These results suggest that lactate may be an appropriate substrate for screening sediments for PCE or TCE delialogenation activity, but that the microbial response is not sufficient for complete in situ bioremediation. A detailed study of the Victoria activity revealed that delialogenation rates were more similar to the Cornell culture than to rates measured for methanogens, or a methanol-enriched sediment culture. This may suggest that these sediments contain a highly efficient delialogenation activity similar to the Cornell culture. This assertion is supported further by the fact that an average of 3% of added reducing equivalents could be diverted to dehalogenation in tests which were conducted using PCE-saturated hexadecane as a constant source of PCE during incubation. Further evidence is needed to confirm this premise. The application of these results to in situ bioremediation of highly contaminated areas are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Skeen, R.S.; Gao, J.; Hooker, B.S. & Quesenberry, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

Description: The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A. & Anderson, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRU drum corrosion task team report

Description: During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A. & Zeek, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

Description: The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.
Date: February 29, 1996
Creator: Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T. & Lloyd, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling results, DNAPL monitoring well GW-790, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, first-third quarter, FY 1995

Description: In January 1990, dense, non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) were discovered at a depth of approximately 274 ft. below ground surface along the southern border of the Y-12 Plant Burial Grounds. Immediately after the discovery, an investigation was conducted to assess the occurrence of DNAPL at the site and to make recommendations for further action. To date, free-phase DNAPL contamination has been encountered in GW-625 (the discovery well), and is suspected to occur in GW-628 and GW-629. In addition, groundwater from GW-117 shows levels of volatile organic compounds suggestive of a dissolved contaminant plume. Results of the preliminary DNAPL investigation are presented in detail, and a work plan for assessment and characterization of the DNAPL is presented. A major task in the work plan calls for the construction and installation of five multipart wells. These wells (GW-726, GW-727, GW-729, GW-730, GW-730 and GW- 790) were constructed and instrumented with multipart components from August, 1991 to April, 1993. Subsequently, purging and sampling activities were started in each well. This report summarizes purging and sampling activities for GW-790 and presents analytical results for GW-790.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research in chemical kinetics. Progress report, August 1, 1987--July 20, 1988

Description: This paper describes chemical kinetics research in the following areas: reactions of thermalized tritium atoms with organo-tin compounds; studies on the hydrolysis of OCS and CS{sub 2}; thermal chlorine 38 reactions with 2,3-dichloro-hexafluoro-2-butene; and thermal T reactions with fluoroethylenes.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Rowland, F.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immobilization of degradative bacteria in polyurethane-based foams: embedding efficiency and effect on bacterial activity

Description: The immobilization of TCE-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia was evaluated using hydrophilic polyurethane foam. The influence of several foam formulation parameters upon cell retention was examined. Surfactant type was a major determinant of retention, with a lecithin- based compound retaining more cells than pluronic or silicone based surfactants. Excessive amounts of surfactant led to increased washout of bacteria. Increasing the biomass concentration from 4.8% to 10.5% caused fewer cells to be washed out. Embedding at reduced temperature did not significantly affect retention, while the use of a silane binding agent gave inconsistent results. The optimal formulation retained all but 0.2% of total embedded cells during passage of 2 liters of water through columns containing 2 g of foam. All foam formulations tested reduced the culturability of embedded cells by several orders of magnitude. However, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} evolution rates of embedded cells were never less than 50% of unembedded cells. Nutrient amendments stimulated an increase in cell volume and ribosomal activity as indicated by hybridization studies using fluorescently labeled ribosomal probes. these results indicated that, although immobilized cells were nonculturable, they were metabolically active and thus could be used for biodegradation of toxic compounds.
Date: September 3, 1996
Creator: Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.; Hazen, T.C. & Hermann, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells

Description: Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling ...
Date: February 29, 1996
Creator: Jackson, D.G.; Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G. & Beavers, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, {ampersand} 231-2F) Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study

Description: The purpose of this report is to evaluate various technologies that can be used to remediate the soil contamination attributed to the FBRP source unit.Section 1 of this report gives the background of this facility. Section 2 discusses the remedial action objectives and the general response actions for each medium of interest. The technology types and process options are identified and evaluated for each medium of interest. A selection and evaluation of representative technologies is included. Section 3 describes the rationale for combining technologies into alternatives. Section 4 gives a detailed analysis of each alternative as well as a comparative analysis of these alternatives.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Palmer, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire hazards analysis of central waste complex

Description: This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operational the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.
Date: May 30, 1996
Creator: Irwin, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench scale silver recovery unit for the MEO system

Description: Mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) is a process for treating low-level radioactive, organic, mixed wastes. When treating chlorinated organic compounds, MEO generates AgCl which needs to be recovered, converted into AgNO{sub 3}, and sent back to MEO for reuse. A silver recovery process developed in the lab-scale unit has been scaled up to bench scale 30 times bigger; conversion efficiencies are 98% for both. This paper reports the operational experience of the bench scale unit.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Hsu, P.C.; Chiba, Z.; Schumacher, B.J.; Murguia, L.C. & Adamson, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Packed-bed reactor/silent-discharge plasma design data report

Description: In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) currently does not have adequate systems to treat the mixed wastes generated and stored at the nine DOE-AL sites. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, DOE-AL organized a Treatment Selection Team under the Mixed-Waste Treatment Program (MWTP) to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed waste. The strategy developed by the Treatment Selection Team, as described in the AL Mixed-Waste Treatment Plan (DOE 1994), is to use available off-site commercial treatment facilities for all wastes that can be successfully and cost-effectively treated by such facilities. Where no appropriate commercial treatment facilities exist, mobile treatment units (MTUs) would be developed to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste must not only address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. The packed-bed reactor/silent discharge plasma was chosen as a potential candidate for the treatment of the mixed wastes. The process is described.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100-FR-3 groundwater/soil gas supplemental limited field investigation report

Description: In 1993, a Limited Field Investigation (LFI) was conducted for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit which identified trichloroethylene (TCE) as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) (DOE-RL 1994). In groundwater samples collected for the LFI, TCE was detected in well 199-177-1 at a concentration exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (5 {mu}g/L) and Washington State groundwater criteria (3 {mu}g/L). With the concurrence of the EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), a supplemental LFI was conducted to determine the extent and potential source of TCE groundwater contamination associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. This report summarizes the activities and results of the groundwater/soil gas supplemental LFI for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the lateral distribution of TCE in shallow (3 to 5 ft below the water table) groundwater associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The second objective was to assess soil gas (3 to 5 concentrations in the study area in an attempt to identify potential sources of TCE and develop a correlation between soil gas and groundwater concentrations). Finally, the third objective of the investigation was to refine the site conceptual model.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department