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Natural and Artificial Brooding of Chickens

Description: "Brooding with hens is the simplest and easiest way to raise a few chickens and is the method which issued almost exclusively on the average farm. Artificial brooders are necessary where winter or very early chickens are raised, where only Leghorns or other nonsetting breeds of poultry are kept, or where large numbers of chickens are raised commercially. Successful natural rearing of chickens requires convenient facilities, regular attention, and often tries one's patience, while artificial methods require a larger investment, close attention, and more care, but are more commonly used where large numbers of chickens are raised." -- title page
Date: 1914
Creator: Lamon, Harry M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feeding chickens.

Description: A guide to feeding chickens for the production of quality meat and eggs.
Date: October 1927
Creator: Jull, Morley A. (Morley Allan), 1885-1959. & Lee, Alfred R., b. 1887.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hematocrit, hematocrit Regulation and its effect on oxygen consumption in the late stage chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus).

Description: Hematocrit and hematocrit regulation have the potential to affect developing embryos. To examine the ability of chicken embryos at day 15 to regulate hematocrit, they were subjected to either repeated saline injections (5% of total blood volume) or repeated blood removal (5% of total blood volume). Embryos showed an ability to maintain hematocrit (~20%) despite blood volume increases up to 115% of initial blood volume. Embryos were not able to maintain hematocrit in the face of dramatic blood volume loss. Oxygen consumption of embryos could be affected by their level of hematocrit. To examine this, chicken embryos at day 15, 16, and 17 of incubation were given a high hematocrit (~50-60%) sample of blood (400 μl) to artificially increase the hematocrit of the embryos (~10-12%). Despite the increase in oxygen availability, when monitored over a period of six hours, embryos showed no difference (0.36 ± 0.01 (ml O2 - min-1- egg-1) in metabolism from baseline measurements at day 15, 16 and 17.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Khorrami, Sheva
Partner: UNT Libraries

Illustrated Poultry Primer

Description: "The object of this bulletin is to give, by means of photographs and brief statements, the fundamentals underlying the production of poultry. An effort has been made to illustrate the various phases of poultry production in such a way as to impress upon the reader's mind the principles of poultry keeping. Under 'Selecting the Breed,' for example, photographs are shown of the more popular breeds of each of the three main classes of poultry, giving the reader an immediate and complete idea of the appearance of these fowls, the classes to which they belong, and their economical usefulness. In like manner other essential phases of poultry keeping are illustrated and discussed. Throughout the bulletin references are given to to other publications issued by the department which give more detailed information on each of the subjects discussed and which may be obtained on request." -- p. 2
Date: 1919
Creator: Lamon, Harry M. & Kinghorne, J. W. (Joseph William)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selection and Care of Poultry Breeding Stock

Description: Report written for Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs that instructs members how to select birds for breeding a flock that is uniform in appearance and egg production. Uniformly bred flocks produce eggs which bring higher profits. Members are instructed to evaluate birds' ages, health, and appearances; consider objectives for the flock; and breeding and fertility practices.
Date: 1920
Creator: Slocum, Rob R. (Rob Roy), 1883-1944
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developmental Patterns of Metabolism and Hematology in the Late Stage Chicken Embryo (Gallus Domesticus) at Two Incubation Temperatures.

Description: How temperature affects physiological development in the chicken embryo is unknown. Embryos incubated at 38°C or 35°C showed no difference in growth or survival. The time to hatching was longer in 35°C than 38°C embryos (23.7 vs. 20.6 days), but unaffected was the relative timing of appearance of developmental landmarks (internal, external pipping). At stage 43-44, 38°C embryos maintained oxygen consumption around 1 mL/g/h despite acute temperature reduction (suggesting thermoregulatory maturation), unlike 35°C embryos. In 35°C embryos the lower oxygen-carrying capacity and temperature insensitive blood O2 affinity (P50 about 30 mmHg) may restrict O2 delivery to tissues, limiting metabolism during decreased ambient temperature. Reduced incubation temperature retards normal hematological and thermoregulatory development.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Black, Juli
Partner: UNT Libraries

[Feeding chickens]

Description: Photograph of a young girl feeding chickens. In the image, the unidentified girl is holding a can filled with bird feed and throwing it towards a group of chickens in front of a wooden shed.
Date: unknown
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Diseases of upland game birds.

Description: Describes the characteristics of various diseases that affect game birds such as quails and prairie chickens.
Date: August 1937
Creator: Shillinger, Jacob Edward, 1890- & Morley, L. C. (Leland Curtis), 1908-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capons and Caponizing

Description: Report discussing capons, which are castrated male chickens, and the castration process known as "caponizing." Topics discussed include breed selection, instruments and equipment, the castration operation, post-operative care, and kiling and preparing the capons for market.
Date: 1911
Creator: Slocum, Rob R. (Rob Roy), 1883-1944
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

Description: The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms

Description: We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.
Date: February 20, 2005
Creator: Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

adendum for )6 report

Description: Prior to using human nasopharyngeal samples, we will use prepared mixtures of viruses with bacteria and eukaryotic cells in our research on microfluidic separation techniques. Some examples of these mixtures are the bacteriophage MS2 with its host bacteria, E. coli, and BSL-1, Risk-Group-1 virus such as fowlpox virus vaccine with its host cell, DF-1, derived from chickens.
Date: February 2, 2007
Creator: Mariella, R; Borucki, M; Miles, R; Claugue, D; Dougherty, G & Fisher, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

Description: Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.
Date: March 30, 2003
Creator: Pennacchio, Len A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incubation humidity as an environmental stressor on the osmoregulatory developmental program of the chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus.

Description: Fetal programming results from stressors during fetal development and may influence the occurrence of disease later in life. Maternal nutritional status and/or environment can affect renal development by inducing limited nephron endowment at birth, which results in diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease in mammals. Birds are likely to be effective models for this process because, like mammals, they have high pressure cardiovascular systems, mammalian-type nephrons and are homeothermic. This project uses the chicken embryo to explore physiological responses of disrupted hydration state thereby providing insights into renal fetal programming. Under normal conditions the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and developing avian kidney work in unison to ensure a proper balance of ions and water within the egg. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at 37.5oC±0.5oC and either <35%, 55-60% (normal) or >85% relative humidity. Amniotic fluid serves as the drinking source for the embryo late in development; its composition is important to salt and water homeostasis. High amniotic fluid osmolality increased the blood osmolality for embryos exposed to low humidity incubation thereby indirectly influencing the renal developmental program of the embryos from this group. Indeed estimated filtering capacity was doubled in the low humidity group (6.77 ± 0.43 mm3) compared to normal (4.80 ± 0.33 mm3) and high (3.97 ± 0.30 mm3) humidity groups. The increased filtering capacity seen for those embryos from low humidity may indicate the ability for more efficient recovery of water if similarly stressed as an adult bird. All embryo populations maintained similar oxygen consumption (0.075 ml/min - 0.37 ml/min), hematocrit (15 % - 32 %) and hemoglobin values (4 g/dl - 9 g/dl), thus displaying control over these aspects of the internal environment despite the obvious environmental insult of extreme incubation humidity. These results signify the embryo's immature kidney, along with lower gastrointestinal tract, ...
Date: August 2009
Creator: Bolin, Greta M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Preliminary Report on the Effect of Roentgen Rays on the Formed Elements of Avian Blood

Description: This problem consists primarily in determining the numerical value of the leukocytes after different amounts of roentgen rays had been applied to the subjects. The Atomic Energy Commission set up a problem concerning the effects of roentgen rays on the fertility in chickens, and grants were given to two institutions to study this. The blood work in this paper was an off-shoot from one of these five fertility grants.
Date: August 1954
Creator: Berger, Gillett
Partner: UNT Libraries

Man Walking Horse

Description: Photograph of a man wearing a suit, leading a horse between two buildings, from the back of a house. A chicken is standing outside the house, on the right side of the image.
Date: unknown
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Uncle Billy Minton feeding chickens]

Description: Photograph of Uncle Billy Minton standing in an open doorway after feeding chickens. In the image, Minton is staring at the camera under a sign with his name on it, another sign next to him reads "CADLE MEETING CUMBERLAND GAP" with a hand illustration pointing the direction. A large group of chickens are eating the feeding along the ground.
Date: unknown
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections


Description: Photograph of a hen. In the image, the hen is bending over multiple chicks in a grassy lawn. A fence post can be seen to the right of the frame and large trees can be seen in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections