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Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

Description: Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Traub, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

Description: To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.
Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

Description: Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Weller, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Virtual Human Project

Description: This paper describes the development of a comprehensive human modeling environment, the Virtual Human, which will be used initially to model the human respiratory system for purposes of predicting pulmonary disease or injury using lung sounds. The details of the computational environment, including the development of a Virtual Human Thorax, a database for storing models, model parameters, and experimental data, and a Virtual Human web interface are outlined. Preliminary progress in developing this environment will be presented. A separate paper at the conference describes the modeling of sound generation using computational fluid dynamics and the modeling of sound propagation in the human respiratory system.
Date: June 12, 2001
Creator: Ward, RD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: News briefs (treasure chest)]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about stripper Evelyn West preparing a non-stripping variety review at Will Rogers Memorial Auditorium.
Date: November 22, 1953
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic nuclide lung counting facilities

Description: A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic nuclides in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Date: October 26, 1983
Creator: Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W. & Alderson, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of computer processing of chest radiographs

Description: This paper reviews the work of several investigators who have concerned themselves with various aspects of computer measurement and diagnosis of anatomy present in chest radiography. It is hoped that, at the very least, it will provide a reasonably complete annotated bibliography of this body of research.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Kruger, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Caruth]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, relating a news story.
Date: December 30, 1969, 6:00 p.m.
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Script: Chest Awards]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the Fort Worth Community Chest holding it's 22nd annual meeting and dinner at the Hotel Texas.
Date: February 22, 1951
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

Description: Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.
Date: May 8, 1995
Creator: Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: St. Paul machine]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the new hyperbaric oxygen chamber at Saint Paul Hospital in Dallas, gift of the W.W. Caruth Junior Fund of the Dallas Community Chest; an aid to radiation treatments, the chamber may be able to improve treatments in other areas as well.
Date: October 15, 1964
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Script: Mrs. Marshall]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about Catherine Marshall, widow of the late Dr. Peter Marshall, coming to Dallas to speak before a joint meeting of the Dallas County Community Chest and the Dallas Pastors Association.
Date: May 6, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Dallas Community Chest Trust Funds, Inc.]

Description: A collective document published by The Foundation Center, giving descriptions of foundations that provide grants for numerous organizations and programs of particular interests. This page focuses on the The Feldman Foundation. The Feldman Foundation states that their purpose is offering grant support to organizations in Texas and New York, with emphasis on Jewish welfare, some support to higher education, medical research, hospitals and social agencies. Included in the document is a breakdown of the total number of grants the Feldman Foundation had granted in a singular year. These pages belonged to the desk of Jack Davis, William McCarter, as they researched foundations and charities to support their education reform program.
Date: [1981..]
Creator: The Foundation Center
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

Description: In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Kiraly, R.J. & Nose, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tissue-equivalent torso phantom for calibration of transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

Description: Several tissue-equivalent human-torso phantoms have been constructed for the calibration of counting systems used for in-vivo measurement of transuranic radionuclides. The phantoms contain a simulated human rib cage (in some cases, real bone) and removable model organs, and they include tissue-equivalent chest plates that can be placed over the torso to simulate people with a wide range of statures. The organs included are the lungs, liver, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Polyurethane with varying concentrations of added calcium was used to simulate the linear photon-attenuation properties of various human tissues, including lean muscle, adipose-muscle mixtures, cartilage, and bone. Foamed polyurethane was used to simulate lung tissue. Organs have been loaded with highly pure /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and other radionuclides of interest. The validity of the phantom as a calibration standard has been checked in separate intercomparison studies using human subjects whose lungs contained a plutonium simulant. The resulting phantom calibration factors generally compared to within +-20% of the average calibration factors obtained for the human subjects.
Date: January 16, 1986
Creator: Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Dean, P.N.; Fisher, J.C. & Sundbeck, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Available space for a totally implantable cardiac prosthesis. Progress report, April 1, 1973--July 31, 1973

Description: The goal of the present program is to define the spatial constraints of the body for a totally implantable radioisotope-powered cardiac prosthesis. The design is such that the prosthesis is compatib1e with both the human and the experimental animal, the calf. Most recent efforts were directed to the definition of the size and shape of the human thorax for implanting the blood pump. This was done by formulating a mathematical shape model from dimensions obtained from plastic molds made in the chest cavity of human cadavers. The shape model was used in conjunction with dimensions obtained from 100 chest radiographs of living humans to arrive at a statistical distribution of chest dimensions. The results are presented as scale drawings of the walls of the thorax as a iunction of the percent of the population having sizes smaller than the given curves. An effort is underway to define the natural heart boundaries in the chest to define soft tissue and vascular connections in the thorax. A parallel effort was to determine the anatomical and physiological tolerance of calves to implanted models of the thermal conventer. Five calves were implanted with models, four have been sacrificed at 8 to 12 months after implantation, and one remains under observation. All calves were in good physical condition with the retroperitoneal infrarenal space appearing to be most feasible for implantation. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Nose, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Chest gift from negro]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about a property gift given to the Dallas county community chest trust fund by Mrs. Pearl C. Anderson
Date: May 15, 1955
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Available space for a totally implantable cardiac prosthesis. Annual progress report, April 1, 1973--March 31, 1974

Description: Methods were developed for generating an integrated, statistical model of the anatomical structures within the human thorax relevant to radioisotope powered artificial heart implantation. These methods involve measurement and analysis of anatomy in four areas: chest wall, pericardium, vascular connections, and great vessels. A model for the prediction of thorax outline from radiograms was finalized. These models were combined with 100 radiograms to arrive at a size distribution representing the adult male and female populations. (CH)
Date: April 1, 1974
Creator: Nose, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department