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Chemical Regulation in the European Union: Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals

Description: This report discusses the EU's new law governing chemicals in EU commerce, Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). It is intended to protect human health and the environment from hazardous chemicals while at the same time protecting the competitiveness of European industry.
Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure effects on bubble-column flow characteristics

Description: Bubble-column reactors are used in the chemical processing industry for two-phase and three-phase chemical reactions. Hydrodynamic effects must be considered when attempting to scale these reactors to sizes of industrial interest, and diagnostics are needed to acquire data for the validation of multiphase scaling predictions. This paper discusses the use of differential pressure (DP) and gamma- densitometry tomography (GDT) measurements to ascertain the gas distribution in a two-phase bubble column reactor. Tests were performed on an industrial scale reactor (3-m tall, 0.48-m inside diameter) using a 5-Curie cesium-137 source with a sodium-iodide scintillation detector. GDT results provide information on the time- averaged cross-sectional distribution of gas in the liquid, and DP measurements provide information on the time and volume averaged axial distribution of gas. Close agreement was observed between the two methods of measuring the gas distribution in the bubble column. The results clearly show that, for a fixed volumetric flowrate through the reactor, increasing the system pressure leads to an increase in the gas volume fraction or ``gas holdup`` in the liquid. It is also shown from this work that GDT can provide useful diagnostic information on industrial scale bubble-column reactors.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Adkins, D.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J. & Torczynski, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean fractionation of biomass

Description: The US DOE Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R&D) that uses green feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. A consortium of five DOE national laboratories has been formed with the objectives of providing industry with a broad range of expertise and helping to lower the risk of new process development through federal cost sharing. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process, designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. The focus of the clean fractionation research is to demonstrate to industry that one technology can successfully separate all types of feedstocks into predictable types of chemical intermediates.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineral Materials for Chemical Manufacturing: A Survey of Supply and demand by the Chemical Industry in the Ohio River Basin of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing mineral materials of the Ohio River Basin. As stated in the abstract, "this study is a survey of supply and demand for minerals, metals, alloys, and compounds used by the chemical industries in the Ohio River Basin area of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia during 1967" (p. 1). This report includes maps, tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1970
Creator: Irani, Meherwan C. & Hartwell, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions of Carbohydrates: a Nonoxidative Approach to Oxygenated Organics

Description: There is a critical need for new environmentally friendly processes in the United States chemical industry as legislative and economic pressures push the industry to zero-waste and cradle-to-grave responsibility for the products they produce. Carbohydrates represent a plentiful, renewable resource, which for some processes might economically replace fossil feedstocks. While the conversion of biomass to fuels, is still not generally economical, the selective synthesis of a commodity or fine chemical, however, could compete effectively if appropriate catalytic conversion systems can be found. Oxygenated organics, found in a variety of products such as nylon and polyester, are particularly attractive targets. We believe that with concerted research efforts, homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions could play a significant role in bringing about this future green chemistry technology.
Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Andrews, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical fluids: Reactions, materials and applications

Description: A number of important processes utilizing supercritical fluids have been either implemented or are emerging for extractions, separations and a wide range of cleaning applications. Supercritical fluids can be reasonable solvents yet share many of the advantages of gases including miscibility with other gases (i.e. hydrogen and oxygen), low viscosities and high diffusivities. Carbon dioxide has the further advantages of being nontoxic, nonflammable, inexpensive and currently unregulated. The use of compressed gases, either as liquids or supercritical fluids, as reaction media offers the opportunity to replace conventional hazardous solvents and also to optimize and potentially control the effect of solvent on chemical and material processing. The last several years has seen a significant growth in advances in chemical synthesis, catalytic transformations and materials synthesis and processing. The authors report on results from an exploratory program at Los Alamos National Laboratory aimed at investigating the use of dense phase fluids, particularly carbon dioxide, as reaction media for homogeneous, heterogeneous and phase-separable catalytic reactions in an effort to develop new, environmentally-friendly methods for chemical synthesis and processing. This approach offers the possibility of opening up substantially different chemical pathways, increasing selectivity at higher reaction rates, facilitating downstream separations and mitigating the need for hazardous solvents. Developing and understanding chemical and catalytic transformations in carbon dioxide could lead to greener chemistry at three levels: (1) Solvent replacement; (2) Better chemistry (e.g. higher reactivity, selectivity, less energy consumption); and (3) New chemistry (e.g. novel separations, use of COP{sub 2} as a C-1 source).
Date: April 9, 1999
Creator: Tumas, W.; Jacobson, G.B.; Josephsohn, N.S. & Brown, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement techniques for local and global fluid dynamic quantities in two and three phase systems

Description: Available measurement techniques for evaluation of global and local phase holdups, instantaneous and average phase velocities and for the determination of bubble sizes in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying methods that can be employed on large scale, thick wall, high pressure and high temperature reactors used in the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas and its derivatives.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Kumar, S.; Dudukovic, M.P. & Toseland, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

Description: The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Panchal, C.B. & Watkinson, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent advances in computational thermochemistry and challenges for the future.

Description: Knowledge of the thermochemistry of molecules is of major importance in the chemical sciences and is essential to many technologies. Thermochemical data provide information on stabilities and reactivities of molecules that are used, for example, in modeling reactions occurring in combustion, the atmosphere, and chemical vapor deposition. Thermochemical data is a key factor in the safe and successful scale-up of chemical processes in the chemical industry. Despite compilations of experimental thermochemical data of many molecules, there are numerous species for which there is no data. In addition, the data in the compilations is sometimes incorrect. Experimental measurements of thermochemical data are often expensive and difficult, so it is highly desirable to have computational methods that can make reliable predictions. Since the early 1970's when ab initio molecular orbital calculations became routine, one of the major goals of modern quantum chemistry has been the calculation of molecular thermochemical data to chemical accuracy ({+-} 1 kcal/mol). After several decades of work, considerable progress has been made in attaining this goal through advances in theoretical methodology, development of computer algorithms, and increases in computer power. It is now possible to calculate reliable thermochemical properties for a fairly wide variety of molecules.
Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Curtiss, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The greening of PCB analytical methods

Description: Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S. & Aldstadt, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Research Brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of pharmaceuticals

Description: The Waste Minimization Assessment Center at Colorado State Univ. performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures intermediates for pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. Waste streams generated in the greatest quantities are waste solvents that are reused onsite, incinerated as fuel in an onsite boiler, or shipped offsite for disposal. The greatest cost savings could be achieved by reusing additional amounts of methylene chloride in the plant. This research brief discusses the process, existing waste management practices, pollution prevention opportunities, and gives additional recommendations. Tables summarize current waste generation and recommended waste minimization opportunities.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F. & Looby, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

Description: Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Tschirner, Ulrike W. & Smith, Timothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal dusting research at Argonne National Laboratory.

Description: The deposition of carbon from carbonaceous gaseous environments is prevalent in many chemical and petrochemical processes such as reforming systems, syngas production systems, and iron reduction plants. One of the major consequences of carbon deposition is the degradation of structural materials by a phenomenon known as ''metal dusting.'' There are two major issues of importance in metal dusting. First is formation of carbon and subsequent deposition of carbon on metallic materials. Second is the initiation of metal dusting degradation of the alloy. Details are presented on a research program that is underway at Argonne National Laboratory to study the metal dusting phenomenon from a fundamental scientific base involving laboratory research in simulated process conditions and field testing of materials in actual process environments. The project has participation from the U.S. chemical industry, alloy manufacturers, and the Materials Technology Institute, which serves the chemical process industry.
Date: September 16, 2002
Creator: Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Maroni, V. A.; Soppet, W. K. & Rink, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of TVA`s model site and individual technology pollution prevention demonstration programs and their impact on the agrichemical industry

Description: The high volume of fertilizer and pesticides funneled through a relatively small number of distribution outlets has made these agribusiness sites potential sources of surface/groundwater contamination in watersheds surrounding the agrichemical facilities. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. Since inception, the pollution prevention program and the technologies advanced by it have made a very positive impact on the US agrichemical industry, as well as on other TVA programs. This paper is an attempt to document these impacts, with primary focus being placed on the program`s impact on the agribusiness dealer who implements the pollution prevention technologies/practices recommended by TVA.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Simpson, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value-added products - polyols production

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R&D) that uses {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Elliott, D. & Kulesa, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1996 Central New Mexico Section [American Chemical Society] annual report

Description: The main goal of the Central New Mexico Section this year was to increase attendance at the local meetings. Throughout the course of the year attendance at the meeting more than doubled. This was brought on by several factors: having the meeting spread throughout the section (Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, Socorro, Los Alamos); supplementing the ACS National Tour speakers with interesting local sections speakers; and making full use of the newly formed Public Relations Committee. Activities during 1996 are summarized.
Date: February 7, 1997
Creator: Cournoyer, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemicals--Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

Description: This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Chemicals. Information on what works for the Chemicals industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included.
Date: February 9, 2001
Creator: DOE Office of Industrial Technologies
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incorporating climate change into corporate business strategies. Conference proceedings

Description: This document contains the papers presented at the International Climate Change Conference and Technologies Exhibition June 12-13, 1997. Topics include energy supply and electricity generation; forestry and agriculture; and the chemical, energy, and manufacturing industries.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemometric Analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data

Description: Chemometric analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has increased dramatically in recent years. A variety of different chemometric techniques have been applied to a wide range of problems in food, agricultural, medical, process and industrial systems. This article gives a brief review of chemometric analysis of NMR spectral data, including a summary of the types of mixtures and experiments analyzed with chemometric techniques. Common experimental problems encountered during the chemometric analysis of NMR data are also discussed.
Date: July 20, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incorporation of pollution prevention principles in environmental methods

Description: The principles of pollution prevention (P2) have not been sufficiently incorporated into analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the needs for and the benefits of incorporating the principles of P2 into environmental analytical methods.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P. & Silzer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department