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Project Drum Inlet: explosive excavation in saturated sand

Description: Seasonal storms during February of 1971 completely closed the Drum Inlet navigation channel through the Outer Banks off the North Carolina coast. This channel is highly useful to commercial and sport fishing industries in the Carteret County vicinity of North Carolina, and is vital to maintenance of the ecological balance in the inland Core Sound waters. To reopen Drum Inlet, an alignment about 2.1 miles south of the original location was selected. A contract dredge excavated a channel from the inland Core Sound waterway to and part way through the Outer Banks. The final 385-ft-long section of sand separating the Core Sound from the Atlantic Ocean was excavated with large explosive charges, This report describes the explosive excavation of that portion of the channel. Twenty-two separate canisters, each containing 1 ton of aluminized ammonium-nitrate slurry blasting agent, were emplaced in two rows. All charges were detonated simultaneously at 1327 hours, 23 Decembcr 1971. The detonation successfully removed the sand barrier, forming a continuous channel over 80 ft in width. This channel subsequently washed out to a width of about 1000 ft and was used:is an access route to the Raleigh Bay fishing grounds. The Drum Inlet project demonstrated the practicality of explosive channel excavation in saturated sand under the special conditions encountered at this site. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1973
Creator: Snell, C.M. & Gillespie, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Conservatism of Resonant Shock Test Fixtures

Description: Portions of a series of end-of-life tests are described for a Sandia National Li~boratories- designed space-based sensor that utilizes a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal plane array. Variations in background intensity are consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal variations in solar position cause changes in the pattern of shadows falling across the compartment containing the optical elements, filter-band components, and focal plane array. When the sensor compartment is most fully illuminated by the sun, background intensities are large and their standard deviations tend to be large. During the winter season, when the compartment is most fully shadowed by surrounding structure, backgrounci intensities are small and standard deviations tend to be small. Details in the surrounding structure are speculated to produce transient shadows that complicate background intensifies as a function of time or of sensor position in orbit. KEYwoRDs Noise measurements, background intensity, focal plane array, mercury-cadmium-telluride.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Cap, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

Description: The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Bonner, Jessie L.; Stump, Brian; Leidig, Mark; Hooper, Heather; Yang, Xiaoning (David); Zhou, Rongmao et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

60 kilograms high explosive containment with multi-diagnostic capability

Description: In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60 kilogram (kg) firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high explosives, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste.
Date: September 17, 1998
Creator: Simmons, L. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive firing zone

Description: The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure & Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. These requirements and provisions for blast-resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete snucture measuring (on the inside) 55 x 5 1 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60-Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35-K:: charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls? floor, and ceiling, depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. The detailed calculations and specifications to achieve the design criteria were performed by Parsons and are included in Reference 1. Reference 2, Structures to Resist the E@xts of Accidental L%plosions (TMS- 1300>, is the primary design manual for structures of this type. It includes an analysis technique for the calculation of blast loadings within a cubicle or containment-type structure. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various fling chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods ...
Date: October 20, 1998
Creator: Lyle, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

Description: From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D. & Zcikanovsky, V.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamics of anisotropic fluids using isotropic potentials

Description: We study the effectiveness and limitations of the median potential recipe for mixtures such as N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}, that are important in detonation applications. Conversely, we treat effective spherical potentials extracted from Hugoniot experiments (e.g., N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) as median potentials and invert them to extract atom-atom potentials. The resulting non-spherical potentials compare remarkably well with the atom - atom potentials used in studies of solid state properties. Finally, we propose a method to improve the median potential for stronger anisotropic fluids such as CO{sub 2} and its mixtures.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Bastea, S & Ree, F H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on 8-inch isostatic press explosion at Site 300

Description: On 3 March 1960 at 11:30 a.m. a detonation occurred in the 8-inch isostatic press. The press and building were completely destroyed. Operating personnel were protected and no injuries resulted. Adjacent facilities were not affected. The press was housed in a temporary facility located in the southwest portion of Section 26, Site 300. The facility was situated approximately 1000 feet west of the main site road, and 1400 feet north of the county road. The press building was of frangible wood construction and was surrounded by an earth barricade. A remote control building, provided with overhead protection, a mechanical equipment room, and a transportainer magazine were located outside the barricaded press building.
Date: April 6, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction of preshocked explosives

Description: In experiments in which an explosive is subjected to two successive shocks ({approximately}2.5 and {approximately}6.0 GPa), detonation of the explosive is delayed. High compaction resulting from shock compression of an explosive probably results in the removal of voids from the material. To the extent that these voids comprise the hotspots in the material, the shock-compressed explosive might be expected to behave as a homogeneous material, and initiate more like a liquid explosive than like a normal solid PBX. While some evidence is available from the data record to support this idea that detonation develops in a homogeneous manner, predominant aspects of the data indicate heterogeneous development of detonation in the preshocked material.
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Mulford, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

Description: This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Sweeney, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detonation and combustion of explosives: A selected bibliography

Description: This bibliography consists of citations pertinent to the subjects of combustion and detonation of energetic materials, especially, but not exclusively, of secondary solid high explosives. These references were selected from abstracting sources, conference proceedings, reviews, and also individual works. The entries are arranged alphabetically by first author and numbered sequentially. A keyword index is appended.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Dobratz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indexes of the Proceedings for the Ten International Symposia on Detonation 1951-93

Description: The Proceedings of the ten Detonation Symposia have become the major archival source of information of international research in explosive phenomenology, theory, experimental techniques, numerical modeling, and high-rate reaction chemistry. In many cases, they contain the original reference or the only reference to major progress in the field. For some papers, the information is more complete than the complementary article appearing in a formal journal; yet for others, authors elected to publish only an abstract in the Proceedings. For the large majority of papers, the Symposia Proceedings provide the only published reference to a body of work. This report indexes the ten existing Proceedings of the Detonation Symposia by paper titles, topic phrases, authors, and first appearance of acronyms and code names.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Deal, William E.; Ramsay, John B.; Roach, Alita M. & Takala, Bruce E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Analysis of Saudi National Seismic Network Recording of the November 1999 Dead Sea Explosions

Description: Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea on November 10 and 11, 1999 for the purposes of calibrating seismic travel times to improve regional network location. These explosions were large enough to be observed with good signal-to-noise ratios by seismic stations in northwestern Saudi Arabia (distances c 500 km). In this report, we present a preliminary analysis of the recordings from these shots.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Rodgers, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast rise-time, fiber optic pin

Description: A reliable, simple fast-rise-time diagnostic has been developed for measuring the breakout time of the detonation wave in a detonating high explosive. The intrinsic rise time of the signals generated is less than one nanosecond. The technique, called FAT (<i>F</i>iber <i>A</i>rrival <i>T</i>ime), consists of an optical fiber with one end coated with ~1500 Å Aluminum. The coated end is placed in intimate contact with the surface of the explosive. The detonation wave interacting with the Al surface causes a prompt flash of light which is recorded at the output end of the fiber. The active area of the FAT probe end is 100 µm in diameter and centered to within ±10 µm also giving excellent spatial precision. When used in this mode, FAT overcomes difficulties of electronic and past fiber optic pins. When looking at a flyer plate arrival the time response appears to be a function of the metal plate velocity.
Date: May 12, 1998
Creator: Roeske, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

Description: This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).
Date: August 7, 1997
Creator: Gerton, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

Description: This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.
Date: November 25, 1997
Creator: Austin, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the emergency response to the event on May 14, 1997, at the plutonuim reclamation facility, Hanford Site, Richland,Washington

Description: On the evening of May 14,1997, a chemical explosion Occurred at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) in the 200 West Area(200-W) of the Hanford Site. The event warranted the declaration of an Alert emergency, activation of the Hanford Emergency Response Organization (BRO), and notification of offsite agencies. As a result of the emergency declaration, a subsequent evaluation was conducted to assess: 9 the performance of the emergency response organization o the occupational health response related to emergency activities o event notifications to offsite and environmental agencies. Additionally, the evaluation was designed to: 9 document the chronology of emergency and occupational health responses and environmental notifications connected with the explosion at the facility 0 assess the adequacy of the Hanford Site emergency preparedness activities; response readiness; and emergency management actions, occupational health, and environmental actions 0 provide an analysis of the causes of the deficiencies and weaknesses in the preparedness and response system that have been identified in the evaluation of the response a assign organizational responsibility to correct deficiencies and weaknesses a improve future performance 0 adjust elements of emergency implementing procedures and emergency preparedness activities.
Date: August 20, 1997
Creator: Shoop, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Trinidad: explosive excavation of railroad cuts 2 and 3 by mounding and directed blasting. Final technical report

Description: The objectives, design, and results of two explosive excavation experiments performed as the final phase of Project Trinidad, a comprehensive series of tests to determine the cratering properties of interbedded sandstones and shales, are summarized. The experiments were performed in September 1971 by the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Explosive Excavation Research Laboratory. These final experiments were designed to excavate through- cuts for relocation of the Colorado and Wyoming Railroad at the Trinidad Dam and Lake Project. The first of the two experiments tested a charge array designed to break up material within a 19,000-yd/sup 3/ cut to facilitate later removal of the material by mechanical means. The concept tested was mounding, a blasting technique in which charges are positioned with respect to the horizontal ground surface rather than a vertical bench face. The results from this experiment confirmed the applicability of empirical scaling methods to the design of an array of deeply buried charges. The second experiment was a directed blasting detonation that was designed to produce a 30.000-yd/sup 3/ throughcut by cratering. This experiment tested a charge array design that had been developed by a combination of empirical scaling and kinematical methods. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Lattery, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department