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Project Drum Inlet: explosive excavation in saturated sand

Description: Seasonal storms during February of 1971 completely closed the Drum Inlet navigation channel through the Outer Banks off the North Carolina coast. This channel is highly useful to commercial and sport fishing industries in the Carteret County vicinity of North Carolina, and is vital to maintenance of the ecological balance in the inland Core Sound waters. To reopen Drum Inlet, an alignment about 2.1 miles south of the original location was selected. A contract dredge excavated a channel from the inland Core Sound waterway to and part way through the Outer Banks. The final 385-ft-long section of sand separating the Core Sound from the Atlantic Ocean was excavated with large explosive charges, This report describes the explosive excavation of that portion of the channel. Twenty-two separate canisters, each containing 1 ton of aluminized ammonium-nitrate slurry blasting agent, were emplaced in two rows. All charges were detonated simultaneously at 1327 hours, 23 Decembcr 1971. The detonation successfully removed the sand barrier, forming a continuous channel over 80 ft in width. This channel subsequently washed out to a width of about 1000 ft and was used:is an access route to the Raleigh Bay fishing grounds. The Drum Inlet project demonstrated the practicality of explosive channel excavation in saturated sand under the special conditions encountered at this site. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1973
Creator: Snell, C. M. & Gillespie, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Conservatism of Resonant Shock Test Fixtures

Description: Portions of a series of end-of-life tests are described for a Sandia National Li~boratories- designed space-based sensor that utilizes a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal plane array. Variations in background intensity are consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal variations in solar position cause changes in the pattern of shadows falling across the compartment containing the optical elements, filter-band components, and focal plane array. When the sensor compartment is most fully illuminated by the sun, background intensities are large and their standard deviations tend to be large. During the winter season, when the compartment is most fully shadowed by surrounding structure, backgrounci intensities are small and standard deviations tend to be small. Details in the surrounding structure are speculated to produce transient shadows that complicate background intensifies as a function of time or of sensor position in orbit. KEYwoRDs Noise measurements, background intensity, focal plane array, mercury-cadmium-telluride.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Cap, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Bonner, Jessie L.; Stump, Brian; Leidig, Mark; Hooper, Heather; Yang, Xiaoning (David); Zhou, Rongmao et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock initiation study of PBX-9404

Description: Pressure-field histories during the sustained and short-duration shock initiation of PBX-9404 explosive (plastic-bonded HMX) have been determined with embedded Manganin gauges. Numerical integration of the conservation relations and an assumed equation of state are used to obtain the decomposition histories during the initiation process. In both cases, this process is effected by reaction originating near the impact face producing pressure pulses that overtake the shock front and enhance its strength, leading to an abrupt transition to detonation. Correlation of reaction rates to state variables suggest an Arrhenius rate form, modified to include a dependence on shock strength and an induction time. This rate is used in computer simulations of several other initiation experiments on PBX-9404.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Wackerle, J.; Rabie, R.L.; Ginsberg, M.J. & Anderson, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unsteady detonations driven by first-order phase transformations

Description: Reactive waves supported by the energy released during a phase transformation are examined as elementary detonations. It is found that a class of eigenvalue detonations exist containing the well known Chapman-Jouguet solution as a particular case. In general the set of eigenvalue detonations are unsteady in any single inertial reference frame.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Rabie, R.L. & Fickett, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixing in explosions

Description: Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Kuhl, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of non-hazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT)

Description: A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures can also be obtained through the appropriate choice of substrate. Sensitivity tests on the materials made to date show that they are non-hazardous. One such material is now in use for canine training at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Moody, G. L.; Pruneda, C. O.; Simpson, R. L.; Kury, J. W. & Dumais, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical simulations of the gas explosive simulation technique (GEST) experiments

Description: To calibrate the ability to predict the dynamic behavior of nuclear fireballs the balloon detonations conducted under DNA sponsorship in November of 1973 have been simulated. These well-instrumented shots provide excellent data to test the reliability of hydrodynamic models for the rise and expansion of very low yield explosions. The results of calculations and conclusions drawn concerning the applicability of such techniques to nuclear fireball simulations are presented. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Ruppel, H.M. & Norton, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detonation and combustion of explosives: A selected bibliography

Description: This bibliography consists of citations pertinent to the subjects of combustion and detonation of energetic materials, especially, but not exclusively, of secondary solid high explosives. These references were selected from abstracting sources, conference proceedings, reviews, and also individual works. The entries are arranged alphabetically by first author and numbered sequentially. A keyword index is appended.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Dobratz, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on 8-inch isostatic press explosion at Site 300

Description: On 3 March 1960 at 11:30 a.m. a detonation occurred in the 8-inch isostatic press. The press and building were completely destroyed. Operating personnel were protected and no injuries resulted. Adjacent facilities were not affected. The press was housed in a temporary facility located in the southwest portion of Section 26, Site 300. The facility was situated approximately 1000 feet west of the main site road, and 1400 feet north of the county road. The press building was of frangible wood construction and was surrounded by an earth barricade. A remote control building, provided with overhead protection, a mechanical equipment room, and a transportainer magazine were located outside the barricaded press building.
Date: April 6, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction of preshocked explosives

Description: In experiments in which an explosive is subjected to two successive shocks ({approximately}2.5 and {approximately}6.0 GPa), detonation of the explosive is delayed. High compaction resulting from shock compression of an explosive probably results in the removal of voids from the material. To the extent that these voids comprise the hotspots in the material, the shock-compressed explosive might be expected to behave as a homogeneous material, and initiate more like a liquid explosive than like a normal solid PBX. While some evidence is available from the data record to support this idea that detonation develops in a homogeneous manner, predominant aspects of the data indicate heterogeneous development of detonation in the preshocked material.
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Mulford, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the emergency response to the event on May 14, 1997, at the plutonuim reclamation facility, Hanford Site, Richland,Washington

Description: On the evening of May 14,1997, a chemical explosion Occurred at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) in the 200 West Area(200-W) of the Hanford Site. The event warranted the declaration of an Alert emergency, activation of the Hanford Emergency Response Organization (BRO), and notification of offsite agencies. As a result of the emergency declaration, a subsequent evaluation was conducted to assess: 9 the performance of the emergency response organization o the occupational health response related to emergency activities o event notifications to offsite and environmental agencies. Additionally, the evaluation was designed to: 9 document the chronology of emergency and occupational health responses and environmental notifications connected with the explosion at the facility 0 assess the adequacy of the Hanford Site emergency preparedness activities; response readiness; and emergency management actions, occupational health, and environmental actions 0 provide an analysis of the causes of the deficiencies and weaknesses in the preparedness and response system that have been identified in the evaluation of the response a assign organizational responsibility to correct deficiencies and weaknesses a improve future performance 0 adjust elements of emergency implementing procedures and emergency preparedness activities.
Date: August 20, 1997
Creator: Shoop, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

Description: This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).
Date: August 7, 1997
Creator: Gerton, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

Description: This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Sweeney, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

Description: This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.
Date: November 25, 1997
Creator: Austin, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indexes of the Proceedings for the Ten International Symposia on Detonation 1951-93

Description: The Proceedings of the ten Detonation Symposia have become the major archival source of information of international research in explosive phenomenology, theory, experimental techniques, numerical modeling, and high-rate reaction chemistry. In many cases, they contain the original reference or the only reference to major progress in the field. For some papers, the information is more complete than the complementary article appearing in a formal journal; yet for others, authors elected to publish only an abstract in the Proceedings. For the large majority of papers, the Symposia Proceedings provide the only published reference to a body of work. This report indexes the ten existing Proceedings of the Detonation Symposia by paper titles, topic phrases, authors, and first appearance of acronyms and code names.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Deal, William E.; Ramsay, John B.; Roach, Alita M. & Takala, Bruce E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department