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FY 2005 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

Description: Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical and chromatic aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional bistatic LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J. & Sliger, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single Dirac Cone Topological Surface State and Unusual Thermoelectric Property of Compounds from a New Topological Insulator Family

Description: Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study on TlBiTe2 and TlBiSe2 from a Thallium-based III-V-VI2 ternary chalcogenides family revealed a single surface Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone for both compounds. For TlBiSe{sub 2}, the large bulk gap ({approx} 200meV) makes it a topological insulator with better mechanical properties than the previous binary 3D topological insualtor family. For TlBiTe{sub 2}, the observed negative bulk gap indicates it as a semi-metal, rather than a narrow gap semi-conductor as conventionally believed; this semi-metality naturally explains its mysteriously small thermoelectric figure of merit comparing to other compounds in the family. Finally, the unique band structures of TlBiTe{sub 2} also suggests it as a candidate for topological superconductors.
Date: August 18, 2011
Creator: Chen, Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Chalcogenide Glass Processing: Wet-Etching and Photolithography

Description: This report describes a study designed to explore the different properties of two different chalcogenide materials, As2S3 and As24S38Se38, when subjected to photolithographic wet-etching techniques. Chalcogenide glasses are made by combining chalcogen elements S, Se, and Te with Group IV and/or V elements. The etchant was selected from the literature and was composed of sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, and deionized water and the types of chalcogenide glass for study were As2S3 and As24S38Se38. The main goals here were to obtain a single variable etch rate curve of etch depth per time versus NaOH overall solution concentration in M and to see the difference in etch rate between a given etchant when used on the different chalcogenide stoichiometries. Upon completion of these two goals, future studies will begin to explore creating complex, integrated photonic devices via these methods.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Bradley R. & Saraf, Laxmikant V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of Two-Magnon Raman Scattering in Iron Pnictides and Chalcogenides

Description: Although the parent iron-based pnictides and chalcogenides are itinerant antiferromagnets, the use of local moment picture to understand their magnetic properties is still widespread. We study magnetic Raman scattering from a local moment perspective for various quantum spin models proposed for this new class of superconductors. These models vary greatly in the level of magnetic frustration and show a vastly different two-magnon Raman response. Light scattering by two-magnon excitations thus provides a robust and independent measure of the underlying spin interactions. In accord with other recent experiments, our results indicate that the amount of magnetic frustration in these systems may be small.
Date: August 15, 2011
Creator: Chen, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Origin of the pseudogap in high temperature superconductors

Description: Underdoped high temperature superconductors (HTS) exhibit a normal state for energies E > E{sub g} and/or temperatures T > T{sub 0}, and a pseudogap in their electronic spectrum for E < E{sub g} and/or T{sub 0} > T > {Tc}. Strikingly similar behavior occurs in the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) 2H-MX{sub 2}, where M = Ta, Nb, and X = S, Se, both in the normal (T > T{sub 0}) and in the incommensurate charge-density wave (T{sub ICDW} > T > T{sub c}) states. Such strikingly similar behavior has also been seen in the organic layered superconductors (OLS) {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}X, where ET is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, and X = Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, and Cu(SCN){sub 2}, both in the normal region T > T{sub SDW} > {Tc} and in the spin-density wave region T{sub SDW} > T > T{sub c}. In all three materials classes, the anomalous transport and thermodynamic properties associated with the pseudogap or density-wave regime are completely independent of the applied magnetic field strength, whereas the same properties below {Tc} are all strongly field-dependent. Hence, the authors propose that the pseudogap in the HTS arises from charge- and/or spin-density waves, and not from either superconducting fluctuations or preformed charged quasiparticle pairs.
Date: February 8, 2000
Creator: Klemm, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

Description: We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.
Date: March 11, 2004
Creator: Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A. & Alivisatos, A. Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Project Report for ER15351 “A Study of New Actinide Zintl Ion Materials”

Description: The structural chemistry of actinide main-group metal materials provides the fundamental basis for the understanding of structural coordination chemistry and the formation of materials with desired or predicted structural features. The main-group metal building blocks, comprising sulfur-group, phosphorous-group, or silicon-group elements, have shown versatility in oxidation state, coordination, and bonding preferences. These building blocks have allowed us to elucidate a series of structures that are unique to the actinide elements, although we can find structural relationships to transition metal and 4f-element materials. In the past year, we investigated controlled metathesis and self-propagating reactions between actinide metal halides and alkali metal salts of main-group metal chalcogenides such as K-P-S salts. Ternary plutonium thiophosphates have resulted from these reactions at low temperature in sealed ampules. we have also focused efforts to examine reactions of Th, U, and Pu halide salts with other alkali metal salts such as Na-Ge-S and Na-Si-Se and copper chloride to identify if self-propagating reactions may be used as a viable reaction to prepare new actinide materials and we prepared a series of U and Th copper chalcogenide materials. Magnetic measurements continued to be a focus of actinide materials prepared in our laboratory. We also contributed to the XANES work at Los Alamos by preparing materials for study and for comparison with environmental samples.
Date: November 12, 2007
Creator: Dorhout, Peter K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 2007 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

Description: Miniature spherical retroreflectors, less than 8 millimeters in diameter, are currently being developed to enhance remote optical detection of nuclear proliferation activities. These retroreflecting spheres resemble small, sand-colored marbles that have the unique optical property of providing a strong reflection directly back to the source (i.e., retroreflecting) when illuminated with a laser. The addition of specific coatings, sensitive to specific chemicals or radioactive decay in the environment, can be applied to the surface of these retroreflectors to provide remote detection of nuclear proliferation activities. The presence of radioactive decay (e.g., alpha, gamma, neutron) or specific chemicals in the environment (e.g., TBP, acids) will change the optical properties of the spheres in a predictable fashion, thus indicating the presence or absence of the target materials. One possible scenario might employ an airborne infrared laser system (e.g., quantum-cascade lasers) to illuminate a section of ground littered with these retroreflective spheres. Depending on the coating and the presence of a specific chemical or radioisotope in the environment, the return signal would be modified in some predictable fashion because of fluorescence, frequency shifting, intensity attenuation/enhancement, or change in polarization. Research conducted in FY 2007 focused on developing novel optical fabrication processes and exploiting the unique material properties of chalcogenide infrared-transparent glass (germanium-arsenic-sulfur-tellurium compounds) to produce highly efficient retroreflectors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s approach provides comparable performance to the ideal graded index sphere concept, developed by R. K. Luneburg in 1944 (Luneburg 1944), while greatly reducing the complexity in fabrication by utilizing chalcogenide glass materials and compression-molding processes.
Date: February 20, 2008
Creator: Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E. & Krishnaswami, Kannan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

Description: Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

Description: Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.
Date: December 28, 2006
Creator: Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E. & Krishnaswami, Kannan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

Description: The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.
Date: November 22, 2010
Creator: Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure, ionic Conductivity and mobile Carrier Density in Fast Ionic Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses

Description: This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2} was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na{sub 2}S + ...
Date: December 12, 2006
Creator: Yao, Wenlong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Driving Oxygen Coordinated Ligand Exchange at Nanocrystal Surfaces using Trialkylsilylated Chalcogenides

Description: A general, efficient method is demonstrated for exchanging native oxyanionic ligands on inorganic nanocrystals with functional trimethylsilylated (TMS) chalcogenido ligands. In addition, newly synthesized TMS mixed chalcogenides leverage preferential reactivity of TMS-S bonds over TMS-O bonds, enabling efficient transfer of luminescent nanocrystals into aqueous media with retention of their optical properties.
Date: November 11, 2010
Creator: Caldwell, Marissa A.; Albers, Aaron E.; Levy, Seth C.; Pick, Teresa E.; Cohen, Bruce E.; Helms, Brett A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alumina lapping abrasive study

Description: To achieve greater quality control over lapped finishes, the 3- and 0.3-..mu..m alumina abrasives used in rough and finish lapping were studied. The 3-..mu..m abrasive was found to actually average 5 to 10 ..mu..m. The particle size distribution of the 0.3-..mu..m abrasive could not be determined with sufficient accuracy. Recommendations for procurement, storage, dispensing, and mixing were made to provide increased abrasive uniformity and freedom from contamination.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Wagner, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture analysis of optical fibers

Description: The fracture markings on glass optical fiber surfaces are quantitatively related to the strength and time under load. Knowledge of the fracture-initiating defects and the surrounding topography pinpoints the source of failure, aids in troubleshooting, and improves production procedures. It is shown that the techniques of fracture surface analysis help analyze in-service failures as well as improve fiber optic production control.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Mecholsky, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis, characterization, and structure of reduced tungsten chalcogenide cluster complexes

Description: Over the previous twenty years, ternary molybdenum chalcogenides of the general formula M{sub x}Mo{sub 6}Y{sub 8} (M = ternary metal cation; Y = chalcogenide), known as Chevrel phases, have been extensively studied. Many of these compounds have been found to have superconductivity, catalytic activity and ionic conductivity. The rich chemistry of the Chevrel phases raises considerable interest in finding the tungsten analogues of these phases. However, no such analogue has ever been synthesized, although the Chevrel phases are usually prepared directly from elements at high temperatures above 1000{degrees}C. The absence of the tungsten analogues may be caused by their thermodynamic instability at such high temperatures. Thus it might be necessary to avoid high-temperature synthetic procedures in order to establish the ternary and binary tungsten chalcogenides. A major focus of the McCarley research group has been on the preparation of M{sub 6}Y{sub 8}L{sub 6} (M = Mo, W; Y = S, Se, Te) cluster complexes as low temperature pathways to the Chevrel phases.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Xiaobing, Xie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New class of diode-pumped, mid-IR, broadly-tunable lasers based on TM{sup 2+} lons in T{sub d} coordination: Cr{sup 2+}:ZnX (X=S,Se)

Description: A new class of room-temperature, diode-pumped solid state lasers, that are broadly tunable in the mid-infrared spectral region, has been conceptualized and demonstrated. These lasers are based on intra-ion transitions of divalent transition metals placed in substitutional cation sites of tetrahedral symmetry in large bandgap chalcogenide semiconductor crystals. These combinations of laser-ions and host crystals are seen to provide favorable radiative and non-radiative transition processes for the realization of the desired laser performance characteristics. Spectroscopic data for candidate schemes are reviewed and divalent chromium doped zinc chalcogenides are identified as potentially superior laser candidates. Preparation of laser quality Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals is described and experimental results to date for a diode-pumped laser are given. Remaining laser development issues are discussed briefly.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Krupke, W.F.; Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Beach, R.J.; Skidmore, J.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth of thin film for waveguide laser: Development of chromium doped Zn chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers

Description: The incorporation of chromium in wide bandgap semiconductors is becoming a topic of interest in the development of efficient and compact tunable (range of 2--3 {micro}m) solid state mid-infrared lasers operating at room temperature. IN the search for optimized procedures of doping that will raise the chromium concentration to a level of 10{sup 20} ions/cm{sup 3}, the authors have developed a diffusion process in the temperature range of 750--950 C. However, optimization needs to be made during this process to preserve the optical transparency of the doped samples. The experimental data will be discussed in terms of dopant diffusivity, distribution of defects and crystal homogeneity.
Date: September 2, 1998
Creator: Burger, A. & Payne, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sintering of polycrystalline ionic conductors:. beta. ''-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NASICON

Description: The densification kinetics for both ..beta..''-alumina and NASICON are dramatically different. ..beta..''-Alumina sinters by a reactive liquid process whereas NASICON densifies by a solid state method. More importantly, a qualitative examination of particle and agglomerate distributions, phase composition, linear shrinkage analysis, and heating rate effects can result in a concise determination of sintering processes without recourse to more quantitative techniques. Such a simple procedural method should be a basis for any beginning investigative study into the densification mechanism of new multicomponent ceramic materials.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: McEntire, B J; Miller, G R & Gordon, R S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the art: alumina ceramics for energy applications

Description: Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Hauth, W.E. & Stoddard, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of controlled interfacial pore structures to kinetic studies in alumina

Description: The application of controlled-geometry interfacial pore structures to fundamental kinetic studies in alumina is described. Results from studies of the morphological stability of high aspect ratio pore channels, crack healing, pore coarsening and pore elimination in sapphire are presented.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Roedel, J. & Glaeser, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department