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Future market for ceramics in vehicle engines and their impacts

Description: Ceramic engine components have potential to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some recent tests have also shown their environmental benefits, particularly in reducing particulate emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The authors used the data from a survey of the US vehicle engine and component manufacturers relating to ceramic engine components to develop a set of market penetration models. The survey identified promising ceramic components and provided data on the timing of achieving introductory shares in light and heavy-duty markets. Some ceramic components will penetrate the market when the pilot-scale costs are reduced to one-fifth of their current values, and many more will enter the market when the costs are reduced to one-tenth of the current values. An ongoing ceramics research program sponsored by the US Department of Energy has the goal of achieving such price reductions. The size and value of the future ceramic components market and the impacts of this market in terms of fuel savings, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and potential reduction in other criteria pollutants are presented. The future ceramic components market will be 9 million components worth $29 million within 5 years of introduction and will expand to 692 million components worth $3,484 million within 20 years. The projected annual energy savings are 3.8 trillion Btu by 5 years, increasing to 526 trillion Btu during the twentieth year. These energy savings will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 41 million tons during the twentieth year. Ceramic components will help reduce particulate emissions by 100 million tons in 2030 and save the nation`s urban areas $152 million. The paper presents the analytical approach and discusses other economic impacts.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Vyas, A.; Hanson, D. & Stodolsky, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Machining and inspection of structural ceramic components. CRADA final report for CRADA number Y-1292-0078

Description: This document is the final report of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) and the Coors Ceramics Company (Coors). The purpose of this CRADA was to develop advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting ceramic components. Specific CRADA objectives were accomplished through the completion of six projects at four separate Coors facilities. The projects included the development of an analytical model to simulate the mechanics of a powder rolling process, development and testing of a microwave-based system for measuring the density of conveyed ceramic material, and the development and testing of four machine vision inspection systems. This CRADA benefited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities associated with advanced heat engines, enhanced critical manufacturing skills within the DOE complex for fabricating precision, high quality workpieces from difficult-to-machine materials, and enabled U.S. industry to maintain a position of leadership in the structural ceramics field.
Date: September 30, 1996
Creator: Counts, R.W.; Albright, S. & Ritland, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrated approach to product development and manufacturing

Description: A new approach to product development is described that integrates various unit operations into a unified ``knowledge-base``. This knowledge-base is easily accessible to all members of the design team due to the advent of high performance and networking capabilities of today`s desktop computers. This permits rapid optimization of the product`s material, shape, and manufacturing processes that satisfy the customer`s performance requirements while maximizing economic return for the manufacturer.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Readey, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research options for the development of sensors to measure the thermal state of solid steel bodies.

Description: The purpose of the study reported here is to assist Battelle's Pcacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in planning a research and development program to develop temperature sensors for metal and ceramic industries. This study focuses on sensors to measure internal temperatures within bodies of hot steel. A series of literature surveys, interviews, field visits, and meetings with steel-industry organizations was conducted in seeking answers to questions posed by PNL. These questions, with responses, are summarized.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Gaspar, T.A. & Lownie, H.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Case studies of the potential effects of carbon taxation on the stone, clay, and glass industry

Description: This case study focuses on the potential for a carbon tax ($25 and $100 per metric ton of carbon) to reduce energy use and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in three subsectors of the stone, clay, and glass industry: hydraulic cement, glass and glass products, and other products. A conservation supply curve analysis found that (1) opportunities for reducing fossil fuel use in the subsectors are limited (15% reduction under $100 tax) and (2) the relationship between the tax and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions is nonlinear and diminishing. Because cement manufacturing produces a significant amount of CO{sub 2}, this subsector was analyzed. A plant-level analysis found more opportunities to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions; under a $100 tax, fossil fuel use would decrease 52%. (A conservative estimate lies between 15% and 52%). It also confirmed the nonlinear relationship, suggesting significant benefits could result from small taxes (32% reduction under $25 tax). A fuel share analysis found the cement industry could reduce carbon loading 11% under a $100 tax if gas were substituted for coal. Under a $100 tax, cement demand would decrease 17% and its price would increase 32%, a substantial increase for a material commodity. Overall, CO{sub 2} emissions from cement manufacturing would decrease 24--33% under a $100 tax and 10--18% under a $25 tax. Much of the decrease would result from the reduced demand for cement.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Bock, M. J.; Boyd, G. A.; Rosenbaum, D. I. & Ross, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Case studies of the potential effects of carbon taxation on the stone, clay, and glass industry

Description: This case study focuses on the potential for a carbon tax ($25 and $100 per metric ton of carbon) to reduce energy use and associated carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions in three subsectors of the stone, clay, and glass industry: hydraulic cement, glass and glass products, and other products. A conservation supply curve analysis found that (1) opportunities for reducing fossil fuel use in the subsectors are limited (15% reduction under $100 tax) and (2) the relationship between the tax and reduced CO[sub 2] emissions is nonlinear and diminishing. Because cement manufacturing produces a significant amount of CO[sub 2], this subsector was analyzed. A plant-level analysis found more opportunities to mitigate CO[sub 2] emissions; under a $100 tax, fossil fuel use would decrease 52%. (A conservative estimate lies between 15% and 52%). It also confirmed the nonlinear relationship, suggesting significant benefits could result from small taxes (32% reduction under $25 tax). A fuel share analysis found the cement industry could reduce carbon loading 11% under a $100 tax if gas were substituted for coal. Under a $100 tax, cement demand would decrease 17% and its price would increase 32%, a substantial increase for a material commodity. Overall, CO[sub 2] emissions from cement manufacturing would decrease 24--33% under a $100 tax and 10--18% under a $25 tax. Much of the decrease would result from the reduced demand for cement.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Bock, M.J.; Boyd, G.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Rosenbaum, D.I. (Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Economics) & Ross, M.H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Programmatic environmental assessment of the DOE Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program

Description: The program's potential environmental impacts are evaluated to ensure that environmental issues are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process. The existing environment is studied for the following: grain drying; crop drying; livestock shelter heating; food processing; textile products; lumber and wood products; paper products; chemicals; petroleum refining; stone, clay, and glass products; and primary metals industries. Environmental impacts of the proposed action on the following are studied: air quality, water quality, ecosystems, health and safety, land use, esthetics, and social and institutional impacts. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department