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Multi-site genetic modulation of monolignol biosynthesis suggests new routes for formation of syringyl lignin and wall-bound ferulic acid in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

Description: Article on multi-site genetic modulation of monolignol biosynthesis suggests new routes for formation of syringyl lignin and wall-bound ferulic acid in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Chen, Fang; Reddy, M. S. Srinivasa; Temple, Stephen; Jackson, Lisa A.; Shadle, Gail L. & Dixon, R. A.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Identification of Novel Cell Wall Components

Description: Our DOE Biosciences-funded work focused on the fungal cell wall and morphogenesis. We are especially interested in how new cell wall material is targeted to appropriate areas for polar (asymmetric) growth. Polar growth is the only way that filamentous fungi explore the environment to find suitable substrates to degrade. Work funded by this grant has resulted in a total of twenty peer-reviewed publications. In work funded by this grant, we identified nine Aspergillus nidulans temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants that fail to send out a germ tube and show a swollen cell phenotype at restrictive temperature, the swo mutants. In other organisms, a swollen cell phenotype is often associated with misdirected growth or weakened cell walls. Our work shows that several of the A. nidulans swo mutants have defects in the establishment and maintenance of polarity. Cloning of several swo genes by complementation also showed that secondary modification of proteins seems is important in polarity. We also investigated cell wall biosynthesis and branching based on leads in literature from other organisms and found that branching and nuclear division are tied and that the cell wall reorganizes during development. In our most recent work we have focused on gene expression during the shift from isotropic to polar growth. Surprisingly we found that genes previously thought to be involved only in spore formation are important in early vegetative growth as well.
Date: October 26, 2009
Creator: Momany, Michelle
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

METHANE INCORPORATION BY PROCARYOTIC PHOTOSYNTHETICMICROORGANISMS

Description: The procaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms Anacystis nidulans, Nostoc and Rhodospirillum rubrum have cell walls and membranes that are resistant to the solution of methane in their lipid components and intracellular fluids. But Anacystis nidulans, possesses a limited bioxidant system, a portion of which may be extracellularly secreted, which rapidly oxidizes methane to carbon dioxide. Small C{sup 14} activities derived from CH{sub 4} in excess of experimental error are detected in all the major biochemical fractions of Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc. This limited capacity to metabolize methane appears to be a vestigial potentiality that originated over two billion years ago in the early evolution of photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.
Date: August 1, 1970
Creator: Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic changes in transcriptome and cell wall composition underlying brassinosteroid‑mediated lignification of switchgrass suspension cells

Description: This article provides an overview of the dynamic compositional changes during brassinosteroid-induced cell wall remodeling, and identifies candidate genes for future plant genetic engineering to overcome cell wall recalcitrance.
Date: August 8, 2017
Creator: Rao, Xiaolan; Shen, Hui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Gelineo-Albersheim, Ivana; Mohnen, Debra et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Cell Wall Biosynthesis. Final Technical Report

Description: The following aspects of enzymology of cell wall synthesis were pursued under this cited grant: (1) Isolation of plasma membrane-localized glucan synthase II (GS-II) of pea; (2) Cloning of genes for possible plant GS-II components; (3) Golgi glucan synthase-I (GS-I); and (4) Golgi reversibly glycosylated protein 1 (RGP1).
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Ray, Dr. Peter M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-Dimensional, Nondestructive Imaging of Low Density Materials

Description: The goal of this study was to develop a three-dimensional imaging method for studies of deformation in low-density materials during loading, and to implement finite element solutions of the elastic equations based on the images. Specimens of silica-reinforced polysiloxane foam pads, 15 mm in diameter by 1 mm thick, were used for this study. The nominal pore density was 50%, and the pores approximated interconnected spheres. The specimens were imaged with microtomography at {approx}16{micro}m resolution. A rotating stage with micrometer driven compression allowed imaging of the foams during deformation with precise registration of the images. A finite element mesh, generated from the image voxels, was used to calculate the mechanical properties of the structure, and the results were compared with conventional mechanical testing. The foam exhibited significant nonlinear behavior with compressive loading. The finite-element calculations from the images, which were in excellent agreement with experimental data, suggested that nonlinear behavior in the load displacement curves arises from buckling of the cell walls during compression and not from any nonlinear properties of the base elastomer. High-resolution microtomography, coupled with efficient finite-element modeling, shows promise for improving our understanding of the deformation behavior of cellular materials.
Date: October 29, 1999
Creator: Kinney, J. H.; Haupt, D. L. & Lemay, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001

Description: This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis.
Date: October 18, 2001
Creator: Carpita, Nicholas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

Description: The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.
Date: August 25, 1999
Creator: Staehelin, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

Description: It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely ...
Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Vogel, K.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

Description: This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.
Date: September 21, 2004
Creator: Cosgrove, Daniel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular Organization in the Native State of Wood Cell Walls: Studies of Nanoscale Structure and its Development

Description: With respect to cell wall biogenesis we have developed a theory concerning the formation of lignin in which the regulation of structure is attributed to the hemicelluloses; they are viewed as templates for the assembly of lignin. The key supporting evidence is derived from the symmetry of annual rings in trees free of reaction wood. This symmetry is interpreted to point to genetic encoding as the dominant factor in the pattern of interunit linkages in lignin. More recently, we have explored further the implications of annual ring symmetries within the contexts of systems and information theory and theories of organization of hierarchic structures. This has led us to proposed a unifying model for cell wall biogenesis that comprehends cell wall polysaccharides as well as lignin. The model is based on examining the implications of symmetries and of hierarchic relationships between different levels of structure, with respect to synchrony and coordination of the stages of formation of the individual constituents.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Atalla, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and use of a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) transformation pipeline by the BioEnergy Science Center to evaluate plants for reduced cell wall recalcitrance

Description: This article provides information on the organization and outcomes of the BioEnergy Science Center Transformation Pipeline, and supplies useful information when developing coordinated, large-scale, multi-institutional reverse genetic pipelines to improve crop traits.
Date: September 14, 2017
Creator: Nelson, Richard S.; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Gou, Jiqing; Holladay, Susan; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Flanagan, Amy et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Real-Time Imaging of Plant Cell Wall Structure at Nanometer Scale, with Respect to Cellulase Accessibility and Degradation Kinetics (Presentation)

Description: Presentation on real-time imaging of plant cell wall structure at nanometer scale. Objectives are to develop tools to measure biomass at the nanometer scale; elucidate the molecular bases of biomass deconstruction; and identify factors that affect the conversion efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Ding, S. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOBIFIDA FUSCA GENES INVOLVED IN PLANT CELL WALL DEGRADATION.

Description: Micro-array experiments identified a number of Thermobifida fusca genes which were upregulated by growth on cellulose or plant biomass. Five of these genes were cloned, overexpressed in E. coli and the expressed proteins were purified and characterized. These were a xyloglucanase,a 1-3,beta glucanase, a family 18 hydrolase and twocellulose binding proteins that contained no catalytic domains. The catalyic domain of the family 74 endoxyloglucanase with a C-terminal, cellulose binding module was crystalized and its 3-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray crystallography.
Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Wilson, David B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the origin of microcraters on the surface of ion beam bombardedplant cell walls

Description: Ion bombardment of plant and bacterial cellular material has recently been used as a tool for the transfer of exogenous DNA macromolecules into the cell interior region. The precise mechanism that leads to the transfer of macromolecules through the cell envelope is not yet clear, however it has been observed that the ion bombardment is accompanied by the formation of ''microcraters'' on the cell wall, and it is possible that these features provide channels for the macromolecule transfer. Thus the nature and origin of the microcraters is of importance to understanding the DNA transfer phenomenon as well as being of fundamental interest. We report here on some scanning electron microscope observations we have made of onion skin cells that have been subjected to electron beam bombardment of sufficiently high power density to damage the cell wall. The damage seen is much less than and different from the microcraters formed subsequent to ion bombardment. We speculate that the microcraters may originate from the explosive release of gas generated in the biomaterial by ion bombardment.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Salvadori, M.C.; Teixeira, F.S. & Brown, I.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In vitro high-resolution structural dynamics of single germinating bacterial spores

Description: Although significant progress has been achieved in understanding the genetic and biochemical bases of the spore germination process, the structural basis for breaking the dormant spore state remains poorly understood. We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the high-resolution structural dynamics of single Bacillus atrophaeus spores germinating under native conditions. Here we show that AFM can reveal previously unrecognized germination-induced alterations in spore coat architecture and topology as well as the disassembly of outer spore coat rodlet structures. These results and previous studies in other microorganisms suggest that the spore coat rodlets are structurally similar to amyloid fibrils. AFM analysis of the nascent surface of the emerging germ cell revealed a porous network of peptidoglycan fibers. The results are consistent with a honeycomb model structure for synthetic peptidoglycan oligomers determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. AFM is a promising experimental tool for investigating the morphogenesis of spore germination and cell wall peptidoglycan structure.
Date: November 14, 2006
Creator: Plomp, M; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K & Malkin, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of a Xylogalacturonan Xylosyltransferase Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

Description: Xylogalacturonan (XGA) is a class of pectic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. The Arabidopsis thaliana locus At5g33290 encodes a predicted Type II membrane protein, and insertion mutants of the At5g33290 locus had decreased cell wall xylose. Immunological studies, enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides, monosaccharide linkage analysis, and oligosaccharide mass profiling were employed to identify the affected cell wall polymer. Pectic XGA was reduced to much lower levels in mutant than in wild-type leaves, indicating a role of At5g33290 in XGA biosynthesis. The mutated gene was designated xylogalacturonan deficient1 (xgd1). Transformation of the xgd1-1 mutant with the wild-type gene restored XGA to wild-type levels. XGD1 protein heterologously expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana catalyzed the transfer of xylose from UDP-xylose onto oligogalacturonides and endogenous acceptors. The products formed could be hydrolyzed with an XGA-specific hydrolase. These results confirm that the XGD1 protein is a XGA xylosyltransferase. The protein was shown by expression of a fluorescent fusion protein in N. benthamiana to be localized in the Golgi vesicles as expected for a glycosyltransferase involved in pectin biosynthesis.
Date: August 19, 2009
Creator: Pauly, Markus; Sorensen, Susanne Oxenboll; Harholt, Jesper; Geshi, Naomi; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Moller, Isabel et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department