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Simulation of Electric Field in Semi Insulating Au/CdTe/Au Detector under Flux

Description: We report our simulations on the profile of the electric field in semi insulating CdTe and CdZnTe with Au contacts under radiation flux. The type of the space charge and electric field distribution in the Au/CdTe/Au structure is at high fluxes result of a combined influence of charge formed due to band bending at the electrodes and from photo generated carriers, which are trapped at deep levels. Simultaneous solution of drift-diffusion and Poisson equations is used for the calculation. We show, that the space charge originating from trapped photo-carriers starts to dominate at fluxes 10{sup 15}-10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, when the influence of contacts starts to be negligible.
Date: August 2, 2009
Creator: Franc, J.; James, R.; Grill, R.; Kubat, J.; Belas, E.; Hoschl, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response of Cds/CdTe Devices to Te Exposure of Back Contact: Preprint

Description: Theoretical predictions of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices have suggested performance may be improved by reducing recombination due to Te-vacancy (VTe) or Te-interstitial (Tei) defects. Although formation of these intrinsic defects is likely influenced by CdTe deposition parameters, it also may be coupled to formation of beneficial cadmium vacancy (VCd) defects. If this is true, reducing potential effects of VTe or Tei may be difficult without also reducing the density of VCd. In contrast, post-deposition processes can sometimes afford a greater degree of defect control. Here we explore a post-deposition process that appears to influence the Te-related defects in polycrystalline CdTe. Specifically, we have exposed the CdTe surface to Te prior to ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact-interface formation with the goal of reducing VTe but without significantly reducing VCd. Initial results show that when this modified contact is used on a CdCl2-treated CdS/CdTe device, significantly poorer device performance results. This suggests two things: First, the amount of free-Te available during contact formation (either from chemical etching or CuTe or ZnTe deposition) may be a more important parameter to device performance than previously appreciated. Second, if processes have been used to reduce the effect of VTe (e.g., oxygen and chlorine additions to the CdTe), adding even a small amount of Te may produce detrimental defects.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Gessert, T. A.; Burst, J. M.; Ma, J.; Wei, S. H.; Kuciauskas, D.; Barnes, T. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

Description: The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, <5 mm, the electric field-lines tend to bend away from the side surfaces (i.e., a focusing effect). In thick detectors, >1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field.
Date: October 19, 2009
Creator: Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

Description: For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M. & Eggert, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Thermal Annealing of HWCVD a-Si:H Films: The Effect of the Film Hydrogen Content on the Crystallization Kinetics, Surface Morphology, and Grain Growth

Description: We report the effect of the hydrogen (H) content (CH) on the crystallization kinetics, surface morphology and grain growth for Hot Wire CVD a-Si:H films containing 12.5 and 2.7 at.% H which are crystallized by rapid thermal anneal (RTA). For the high CH film we observe explosive H evolution, with a resultant destruction of the film for RTA temperatures >750 deg C. At RTA temperatures ~600 deg C, both films remain intact with similar morphologies. At this same lower RTA, the incubation and crystallization times decrease, and the grain size as measured by X-Ray Diffraction increases with decreasing film CH. SIMS measurements indicate that a similar film CH (<0.5 at.%) exists in both films when crystallization commences. The benefits of a two-step annealing process for the high CH film are documented.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Mahan, A. H.; Reedy, R. C. Jr.; Ginley, D. S.; Roy, B. & Readey, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PERFORMANCE-LIMITING DEFECTS IN CDZNTE DETECTORS.

Description: We studied the effects of small, &lt;20 {micro}m, Te inclusions on the energy resolution of CdZnTe gamma-ray detectors using a highly collimated X-ray beam and gamma-rays, and modeled them via a simplified geometrical approach. Previous reports demonstrated that Te inclusions of about a few microns in diameter degraded the charge-transport properties and uniformity of CdZnTe detectors. The goal of this work was to understand the extent to which randomly distributed Te-rich inclusions affect the energy resolution of CZT detectors, and to define new steps to overcome their deleterious effects. We used a phenomenological model, which depends on several adjustable parameters, to reproduce the experimentally measured effects of inclusions on energy resolution. We also were able to hound the materials-related problem and predict the enhancement in performance expected by reducing the size and number of Te inclusions within the crystals.
Date: October 29, 2006
Creator: BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; CUI, Y.; KOHMAN, K.T.; LI, L.; SALOMON, M.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

Description: Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, &lt;1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.
Date: October 29, 2006
Creator: CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

Description: The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, &lt;5 mm, the electric field-lines tend to bend away from the side surfaces (i.e., a focusing effect). In thick detectors, 21 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmentally responsible recycling of thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules. Final technical report

Description: Continuing from the third quarter, all technical objectives of this Phase II SBIR work were previously and successfully completed. This report is therefore brief and contains two elements (1) a comparison of technical objective accomplishments to the stated goals in the original grant proposal (2) a summary of the third key element of this work; a market analysis for the developed recycling technology systems.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Bohland, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

Description: A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.
Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A. & GROSHOLZ,J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Containing Directly Deposited CdSxTe1-x Alloy Layers: Preprint

Description: A CdSxTe1-x layer forms by interdiffusion of CdS and CdTe during the fabrication of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. The CdSxTe1-x layer is thought to be important because it relieves strain at the CdS/CdTe interface that would otherwise exist due to the 10% lattice mismatch between these two materials. Our previous work [1] has indicated that the electrical junction is located in this interdiffused CdSxTe1-x region. Further understanding, however, is essential to predict the role of this CdSxTe1-x layer in the operation of CdS/CdTe devices. In this study, CdSxTe1-x alloy films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and co-evaporation from CdTe and CdS sources. Both RF-magnetron-sputtered and co-evaporated CdSxTe1-x films of lower S content (x<0.3) have a cubic zincblende (ZB) structure akin to CdTe, whereas those of higher S content have a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure like that of CdS. Films become less preferentially oriented as a result of a CdCl2 heat treatment (HT) at ~400 degrees C for 5 min. Films sputtered in a 1% O2/Ar ambient are amorphous as deposited, but show CdTe ZB, CdS WZ, and CdTe oxide phases after a CdCl2 HT. Films sputtered in O2 partial pressure have a much wider bandgap than expected. This may be explained by nanocrystalline size effects seen previously [2] for sputtered oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) films. Initial PV device results show that the introduction of a directly-deposited CdSxTe1-x alloy layer into the device structure produces devices of comparable performance to those without the alloy layer when a CdCl2 HT is performed. Further investigation is required to determine whether the CdCl2 heat treatment step can be altered or eliminated through direct deposition of the alloy layer.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; To, B.; Pankow, J. W.; Kuciauskas, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recrystallization of PVD CdTe Thin Films Induced by CdCl2 Treatment -- A Comparison Between Vapor and Solution Processes: Preprint

Description: This paper describes the large concentration of 60..deg.. <111> twin boundaries that was observed in every CdTe film analyzed in this work, even after recrystallization and grain growth, confirming the low energy of these interfaces.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Mountinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Romero, M. J.; Jiang, C. S.; To, B. & Al-Jassim, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

Description: The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H. & Bansal, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Substrate Structure CdTe Photovoltaic Devices with Performance Exceeding 10%: Preprint

Description: Most work on CdTe-based solar cells has focused on devices with a superstrate structure. This focus is due to the early success of the superstrate structure in producing high-efficiency cells, problems of suitable ohmic contacts for lightly doped CdTe, and the simplicity of the structure for manufacturing. The development of the CdCl2 heat treatment boosted CdTe technology and perpetuated the use of the superstrate structure. However, despite the beneficial attributes of the superstrate structure, devices with a substrate structure are attractive both commercially and scientifically. The substrate structure eliminates the need for transparent superstrates and thus allows the use of flexible metal and possibly plastic substrates. From a scientific perspective, it allows better control in forming the junction and direct access to the junction for detailed analysis. Research on such devices has been limited. The efficiency of these devices has been limited to around 8% due to low open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor. In this paper, we present our recent device development efforts at NREL on substrate-structure CdTe devices. We have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. We have worked on a variety of contact materials including Cu-doped ZnTe and CuxTe. We will present a comparative analysis of the performance of these contacts. In addition, we have studied the influence of fabrication parameters on junction properties. We will present an overview of our development work, which has led to CdTe devices with Voc values of more than 860 mV and NREL-confirmed efficiencies approaching 11%.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; DeHart, C. M.; Li, J. V.; Kuciauskas, D. & Gessert, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures

Description: Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.
Date: July 27, 2005
Creator: Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao & Alivisatos, A. Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overcoming Degradation Mechanisms in CdTe Solar Cells; Second Annual Report, August 1999-August 2000

Description: The scientific literature concerning degradation and atomic diffusion in CdTe/CdS cells has been reviewed. This led to the conclusion that there appear to be unexplained differences between module and cell stability, possibly due to the difference between encapsulated and air-exposed systems. A comprehensive model for Cu-assisted cell degradation is suggested, which should now be tested experimentally by the appropriate R and D teams. Both LBIC and EBIC have been used to distinguish between stressed and unstressed cells. From these we conclude that decrease in charge separation efficiency is correlated with increase in electrical heterogeneity of the cell. Cells without back contacts were treated with a series of simple organic compounds, where the dipole is varied systematically. We find, grosso modo, such systematics in the electronic behavior and electrical characteristics of these cells, suggesting significant porosity of the CdTe film. NiTe2 was found to be the product of electroles s Ni:P back contact deposition from baths of low reductant concentrations. Such back contacts were further optimized and characterized, with special attention being given to cell stability considerations.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Cahen, D.; Hodes, G. & Gartsman, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECRYSTALLIZATION OF CERAMIC MATERIAL FABRICATED FROM Cd1-xZnxTe.

Description: Binary and ternary A(illegible)B(illegible) compounds are conventionally grown from melt. This technique is very complicated and requires complex equipment to provide high pressures and high temperatures to grow stoichiometric compositions. New opportunities for designing materials used in the infrared technique and ionizing radiation detectors are opened by advantages in nanotechnology. In particular difficulties in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te with various Zn content are traditionally used in infrared optics and as a material for ionizing radiation detectors. Zn concentration in the nanopowders produced by the new vapor deposition technique varies from x=0.02 to x=0.1, including the composition Cd{sub illegible}Zn{sub illegible}Te, which is the most promising as a material for ionizing radiation detectors working at room temperature without cooling.
Date: August 29, 2007
Creator: KOLESNIKOV,N.N.; BORISENKO, E.B.; BORISENKO, D.N.; KVEDER, V.V. & JAMES, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZATION OF VIRTUAL FRISCH-GRID CdZnTe DETECTOR DESIGNS FOR IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA RAYS.

Description: In the past, various virtual Frisch-grid designs have been proposed for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and other compound semiconductor detectors. These include three-terminal, semi-spherical, CAPture, Frisch-ring, capacitive Frisch-grid and pixel devices (along with their modifications). Among them, the Frisch-grid design employing a non-contacting ring extended over the entire side surfaces of parallelepiped-shaped CZT crystals is the most promising. The defect-free parallelepiped-shaped crystals with typical dimensions of 5x5{approx}12 mm3 are easy to produce and can be arranged into large arrays used for imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. In this paper, we report on further advances of the virtual Frisch-grid detector design for the parallelepiped-shaped CZT crystals. Both the experimental testing and modeling results are described.
Date: August 21, 2007
Creator: BOLOTNIKOV,A.E.; ABDUL-JABBAR, N.M.; BABALOLA, S.; CAMARDA, G.S.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

Description: NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Barnes, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department