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Inert Gas Generation Utilizing Diesel Exhaust

Description: The generation of inert gas from 60 KW diesel engine exhaust by catalytic reduction of O{sub 2} and NO{sub x} has been demonstrated. Measured O{sub 2} levels were < 10 V{sub ppm} and NO{sub x} levels were {approx} 0.1 V{sub ppm} over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Durability of the catalytic converter was demonstrated up to 200 hours operating time at two diesel engine load conditions. Effective catalyst operating range was stoichiometric to rich fuel/air ratios. Optimum operation is at stoichiometric fuel/air ratios to minimize CO emissions. Alternative converter designs are proposed to allow operation over the full diesel engine load range with essentially zero emissions of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Osgerby, I. T. & Durilla, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Temperature Cyanide Leaching of Platinum-Group Metals from Automobile Catalysts--Pilot Plant Study

Description: From abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center investigated, developed, and patented a high temperature cyanide leaching process for recovering platinum-group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. A batch pilot plant was constructed at the center and operated to demonstrate this technology to industry.
Date: 1995
Creator: Kuczynski, R. J.; Atkinson, G. B. & Dolinar, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-stage selection catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in lean burn engine exhaust

Description: Recent studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. These studies have prompted the development of schemes that use an oxidation catalyst to convert NO to NO{sub 2}, followed by a reduction catalyst to convert NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}. Multi-stage SCR offers high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from catalysts that, separately, are not very active for reduction of NO, and alleviates the problem of selectivity between NO reduction and hydrocarbon oxidation. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-bum engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.
Date: January 26, 1998
Creator: Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.O.; Merritt, B.T. & Vogling, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CeO{sub 2} Washcoats for three-way automotive emission catalysts

Description: Pt-Rh based three-way catalysts are the primary catalytic system for control of hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} automotive emissions. Mixed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CeO{sub 2} oxides are often dispersed on a cordierite honeycomb monolith as a washcoat and act as a high-surface-area carrier for the heavy metal catalyst clusters. Conversion efficiency and lifetime of a converter is determined by the microstructure of the washcoat/monolith and its evolution during high-temperature exposure to the exhaust gas. SEM, electron microprobe analysis, and analytical electron microscopy were used to study these catalysts before and after engine dynamometer tests, with max monolith temperatures of 1000 and 1150 C.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W. & Beckmeyer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

Description: A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.
Date: February 20, 1997
Creator: Glass, R.S. & Pham, A.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic studies of competitive adsorption processes related to automobile catalytic converters

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to study the microscopic details for the adsorption of CO, NO, and O{sub 2} on transition metal surfaces under conditions resembling those present in automobile catalytic converters. Initial sticking coefficients were measured as a function of temperature on transition metal single crystals by using a method originally developed by King and Wells. These measurements were performed under conditions emulating those typical of competitive adsorption, namely, where the substrate is exposed to a mixture of two or more gases simultaneously, or where one molecule is adsorbed on the surface prior to exposure to the second gas. The experimental results were then analyzed by using Monte Carlo computer simulation algorithm in an attempt to better understand the relevant aspects of the adsorption process.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Zaera, F. & Paffett, M.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mid- and Far-Infrared Reflection/Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) Studies of NO on Rh Single Crystal Surfaces

Description: The NO/CO reaction over Rh metal in automobile catalytic converters is critical to the control of emissions of these pollutant molecules. As part of a program to determine the elementary mechanism(s) of this reaction, we have been performing mid- and far-infrared reflection/absorption spectroscopic (IRAS) measurements of the adsorption and co-adsorption and co-adsorption of NO and CO on Rh single crystal surfaces. Of particular interest is the low-frequency range of the IRAS spectra where we hoped to observe features due to metal-N stretching and/or bending vibrational motions. In particular, we hoped to obtain information regarding the site-requirements for the dissociation of the NO molecule on various Rh single crystal surfaces. An important result from our earlier work is that the selectivity of the reaction for the two nitrogen-containing products, N2 and N2O, is a strong function of the Rh surface structure. On the basis of ancillary data, we suggested that the location of adsorbed NO and N-atoms (formed from dissociation of adsorbed NO) on various Rh surfaces could, perhaps account for the selectivity differences.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Peden, Charles HF; He, Ting; Pilling, M.; Hirschmugl, Carol J. & Gardner, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of nanostructured zirconia prepared by hydrolysis and reverse micelle synthesis by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

Description: Low temperature techniques such as hydrolysis and reverse micelle syntheses provide the opportunity to determine the relationship between the structural properties and preparation conditions of zirconia powders as well as to tailor their physicochemical properties. The authors have performed small-angle neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) experiments to study the nucleation and organization of zirconia nanoparticles via different preparation routes. First, the formation of reverse micelles in individual and mixed solutions of (ZrOCl{sub 2}+D{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}OH+H{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3} systems at water/AOT molar ratio of 20 was characterized. Second, the aggregation of zirconia gels obtained from the reaction of the reverse micelle solutions after heat treatments was studied. Third, the nanostructure of zirconia powders prepared by the reverse micelle method is compared with the corresponding powders prepared by hydrolysis after different heat treatments.
Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Thiyagarajan, P.; Li, X.; Littrell, K.; Seifert, S.; Csencsits, R. & Loong, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

Description: Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is ...
Date: August 20, 2000
Creator: Thomas, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher ...
Date: December 31, 2003
Creator: Chin, Paul; Roberts, George W. & Spivey, James J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adsorbate structures and catalytic reactions studied in the torrpressure range by scanning tunneling microscopy

Description: High-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (HPHTSTM) was used to study adsorbate structures and reactions on single crystal model catalytic systems. Studies of the automobile catalytic converter reaction [CO + NO {yields} 1/2 N{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}] on Rh(111) and ethylene hydrogenation [C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 6}] on Rh(111) and Pt(111) elucidated information on adsorbate structures in equilibrium with high-pressure gas and the relationship of atomic and molecular mobility to chemistry. STM studies of NO on Rh(111) showed that adsorbed NO forms two high-pressure structures, with the phase transformation from the (2 x 2) structure to the (3 x 3) structure occurring at 0.03 Torr. The (3 x 3) structure only exists when the surface is in equilibrium with the gas phase. The heat of adsorption of this new structure was determined by measuring the pressures and temperatures at which both (2 x 2) and (3 x 3) structures coexisted. The energy barrier between the two structures was calculated by observing the time necessary for the phase transformation to take place. High-pressure STM studies of the coadsorption of CO and NO on Rh(111) showed that CO and NO form a mixed (2 x 2) structure at low NO partial pressures. By comparing surface and gas compositions, the adsorption energy difference between topsite CO and NO was calculated. Occasionally there is exchange between top-site CO and NO, for which we have described a mechanism for. At high NO partial pressures, NO segregates into islands, where the phase transformation to the (3 x 3) structure occurs. The reaction of CO and NO on Rh(111) was monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) and HPHTSTM. From MS studies the apparent activation energy of the catalytic converter reaction was calculated and compared to theory. STM showed that under high-temperature reaction conditions, ...
Date: May 23, 2003
Creator: Hwang, Kevin Shao-Lin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Metal Substrate for Denox Catalysts and Particulate Trap

Description: The objective of this project was to develop advanced metallic catalyst substrate materials and designs for use in off-highway applications. The new materials and designs will be used as catalyst substrates and diesel particulate traps. They will increase durability, reduce flow resistance, decrease time to light-off, and reduce cost relative to cordierite substrates. Metallic catalyst substrates are used extensively for diesel oxidation catalysts and have the potential to be used in other catalytic systems for diesel engines. Metallic substrates have many advantages over ceramic materials including improved durability and resistance to thermal shock and vibration. However, the cost is generally higher than cordierite. The most common foil material used for metallic substrates is FeCr Alloy, which is expensive and has temperature capabilities beyond what is necessary for diesel applications. The first task in the project was Identification and Testing of New Materials. In this task, several materials were analyzed to determine if a low cost substitute for FeCr Alloy was available or could be developed. Two materials were identified as having lower cost while showing no decrease in mechanical properties or oxidation resistance at the application temperatures. Also, the ability to fabricate these materials into a finished substrate was not compromised, and the ability to washcoat these materials was satisfactory. Therefore, both candidate materials were recommended for cost savings depending on which would be less expensive in production quantities. The second task dealt with the use of novel flow designs to improve the converter efficiency while possibly decreasing the size of the converter to reduce cost even more. A non-linear flow path was simulated to determine if there would be an increase in efficiency. From there, small samples were produced for bench testing. Bench tests showed that the use of non-linear channels significantly reduced the light-off temperature for diesel oxidation ...
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Pollard, Michael; Habeger, Craig; Frary, Megan; Haines, Scott; Fluharty, Amy; Dakhoul, Youssef et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Laboratory Catalysis Research Symposium - Abstracts

Description: The conference consisted of two sessions with the following subtopics: (1) Heterogeneous Session: Novel Catalytic Materials; Photocatalysis; Novel Processing Conditions; Metals and Sulfides; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; Metal Oxides and Partial Oxidation; Electrocatalysis; and Automotive Catalysis. (2) Homogeneous Catalysis: H-Transfer and Alkane Functionalization; Biocatalysis; Oxidation and Photocatalysis; and Novel Medical, Methods, and Catalyzed Reactions.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Dunham, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

Description: This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Whitney, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exhaust aftertreatment using plasma-assisted catalysis

Description: In the field of catalysis, one application that has been classified as a breakthrough technology is the catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in oxygen-rich environments using hydrocarbons. This breakthrough will require dramatic improvements in both catalyst and engine technology, but the benefits will be substantial for energy efficiency and a cleaner environment. Engine and automobile companies are placing greater emphasis on the diesel engine because of its potential for saving fuel resources and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The modern direct-injection diesel engine offers demonstrated fuel economy advantages unmatched by any other commercially-viable engine. The main drawback of diesel engines is exhaust emissions. A modification of existing oxidation catalyst/engine technology is being used to address the CO, hydrocarbon and particulates. However, no satisfactory solution currently exists for NO{sub x}. Diesel engines operate under net oxidizing conditions, thus rendering conventional three-way catalytic converters ineffective for the controlling the NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, using ammonia as a reductant, do exist for oxygen-rich exhausts; however, for transportation applications, the use of on-board hydrocarbon fuels is a more feasible, cost-effective, and environmentally-sound approach. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbons is one of the leading catalytic aftertreatment technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-burn engine exhaust (often referred to as lean-NO{sub x}). The objective is to chemically reduce the pollutant molecules of NO{sub x} to benign molecules such as N{sub 2}. Aftertreatment schemes have focused a great deal on the reduction of NO because the NO{sub x} in engine exhaust is composed primarily of NO. Recent studies, however, have shown that the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} serves an important role in enhancing the efficiency for reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. It has become apparent that preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} could improve both the efficiency and durability ...
Date: January 20, 2000
Creator: Penetrante, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of zeolite dealumination in steam

Description: Zeolite dealumination is a well known phenomenon that contributes to the deactivation or activation of catalysts in several different applications. The most obvious effect is in acid catalysis where dealumination under reaction conditions removes the Broensted sites, thus deactivating the catalyst. The authors are interested in the use of cation exchanged zeolites as selective reduction catalysts for removal of NO{sub x} from exhaust streams, particularly from automotive exhaust. In this case, copper exchanged ZSM-5 has been shown to be an effective catalyst for the generic reaction of NO{sub x} with hydrocarbons. However, high temperature and steam in combustion exhaust causes dealumination and consequent migration of copper out of the zeolite structure resulting in rapid deactivation of the catalyst. Dealumination of zeolites has been reported by many authors in uncountable papers and cannot be reviewed here. However, to the authors` knowledge there are no reports on the kinetics of dealumination under varying conditions of temperature and steam. By measuring the kinetics of dealumination with different zeolites and exchange cations they expect to develop working models of the dealumination process that will allow control of zeolite deactivation. This manuscript is a description of the basic techniques used and a progress report on the very beginning of this study.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Hughes, C.D.; Labouriau, A.; Crawford, S.N.; Romero, R.; Quirin, J. & Earl, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

Description: Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Clark, Nigel; Gautam, Mridul; Lyons, Donald; Atkinson, Chris; Xie, Wenwei; Norton, Paul et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions

Description: Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.; Baudino, J.H. & Colucci, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of improving catalytic activity and catalytics produced thereby

Description: A process for dissociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material is disclosed in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 manometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1--100 nm range. This invention may have application to vehicle emissions control (three-way catalysts).
Date: September 23, 1993
Creator: Beck, D.D. & Siegel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

Description: Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Norton, Paul; Vertin, Keith; Clark, Nigel N.; Lyons, Donald W.; Gautam, Mridul; Goguen, Stephen et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of infra-red thermography for automotive climate control analysis

Description: In this paper, several automotive climate control applications for IR thermography are described. Some of these applications can be performed using conventional IR techniques. Others, such as visualizing the air temperature distribution within the cabin, at duct exits, and at heater and evaporator faces, require new experimental methods. In order to capture the temperature distribution within an airstream, a 0.25-mm-thick (0.01 inch) fiberglass screen is used. This screen can be positioned perpendicular or parallel to the flow to obtain three-dimensional spatial measurements. In many cases, the air flow pattern can be inferred from the resulting temperature distribution, allowing improved air distribution designs. In all cases, significant improvement in the speed, ease, and quantity of temperature distribution information can be realized with thermography as compared to conventional thermocouple array techniques. Comparisons are presented between IR thermography images and both thermocouple measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Burch, S. D.; Hassani, V. & Penney, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY11 annual Report: PHEV Engine Control and Energy Management Strategy

Description: Objectives are to: (1) Investigate novel engine control strategies targeted at rapid engine/catalyst warming for the purpose of mitigating tailpipe emissions from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) exposed to multiple engine cold start events; and (2) Validate and optimize hybrid supervisory control techniques developed during previous and on-going research projects by integrating them into the vehicle level control system and complementing them with the modified engine control strategies in order to further reduce emissions during both cold start and engine re-starts. Approach used are: (1) Perform a literature search of engine control strategies used in conventional powertrains to reduce cold start emissions; (2) Develop an open source engine controller providing full access to engine control strategies in order to implement new engine/catalyst warm-up behaviors; (3) Modify engine cold start control algorithms and characterize impact on cold start behavior; and (4) Develop an experimental Engine-In-the-Loop test stand in order to validate control methodologies and verify transient thermal behavior and emissions of the real engine when combined with a virtual hybrid powertrain. Some major accomplishments are: (1) Commissioned a prototype engine controller on a GM Ecotec 2.4l direct injected gasoline engine on an engine test cell at the University of Tennessee. (2) Obtained from Bosch (with GM's approval) an open calibration engine controller for a GM Ecotec LNF 2.0l Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection engine. Bosch will support the bypass of cold start strategies if calibration access proves insufficient. The LNF engine and its open controller were commissioned on an engine test cell at ORNL. (3) Completed a literature search to identify key engine cold start control parameters and characterized their impact on the real engine using the Bosch engine controller to calibrate them. (4) Ported virtual hybrid vehicle model from offline simulation environment to real-time Hardware-In-the-Loop platform.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Chambon, Paul H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O<sub>2</sub> and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation

Description: It is well known that the activity, selectivity, and deactivation behavior of heterogeneous catalysts are strongly affected by a wide variety of parameters, including but not limited to nanoparticle size, shape, composition, support, pretreatment conditions, oxidation state, and electronic state. Enormous effort has been expended in an attempt to understand the role of these factors on catalytic behavior, but much still remains to be discovered. In this work, we have focused on deepening the present understanding of the role of nanoparticle shape, nanoparticle composition, and hot electrons on heterogeneous catalysis in the oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide. These reactions were chosen because they are important for environmental applications, such as in the catalytic converter, and because there is a wide range of experimental and theoretical insight from previous single crystal work as well as experimental data on nanoparticles obtained using new state-of-the-art techniques that aid greatly in the interpretation of results on complex nanoparticle systems. In particular, the studies presented in this work involve three types of samples: ~ 6.5 nm Rh nanoparticles of different shapes, ~ 15 nm Rh<sub>1-x</sub>Pd<sub>x</sub> core-shell bimetallic polyhedra nanoparticles, and Rh ultra-thin film (~ 5 nm) catalytic nanodiodes. The colloidal nanoparticle samples were synthesized using a co-reduction of metal salts in alcohol and supported on silicon wafers using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. This synthetic strategy enables tremendous control of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. Nanoparticle shape was controlled through the use of different organic polymer capping layers. Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by careful choice of metal salt precursors. Rh/TiO<sub>x</sub> and Rh/GaN catalytic nanodiodes were fabricated using a variety of thin film device fabrication techniques, including reactive DC magnetron sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and rapid thermal annealing. The combination of these techniques enabled control of catalytic nanodiode morphology, geometry, and electrical ...
Date: March 8, 2010
Creator: Renzas, James R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retrofit catalytic converter for wood-burning stoves

Description: The major purpose of this project was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate a retrofit catalytic converter for woodburning stoves. In the interim between our date of application March 5, 1981 and the beginning of the grant period December 1, 1981, several such devices became commercially available. Therefore, we decided to modify the purpose and direction of our project. In summary, we designed and constructed a calorimeter room in a building located on the campus of Northern Kentucky University. We equipped this room with a woodburning stove and a metal chimney extending through the roof. We designed and constructed the appropriate instrumentation for monitoring the heat output of the stove. We observed and recorded the operating characteristics of this stove over a period of several days. We then equipped the stove with a barometric damper and repeated the experiment. We are now in the process of equipping the stove with a catalytic converter. Thus the major emphasis of the project currently is to test and evaluate several commercial retrofit devices which are purported to reduce creosote and/or increase the efficiency of a woodburning stove.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department