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Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

Description: This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the ...
Date: February 18, 2002
Creator: Hardin, Richard A.; Beckermann, Christoph & Hays, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends in Iron Casting Compositions as Related to Ferrous Scrap Quality and Other Variables: 1981-86

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin describes the research and presents analytical results and evaluations over 5-3/4-year period from January 1981 to September 1986. Results show that iron casting compositions are charging with respect to a few tramp elements such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, tin, zinc over the period. The data presented in this bulletin provide a means to ascertain whether the quality ferrous scrap is affecting casting quality."
Date: unknown
Creator: Nafziger, R. H.; Hartman, A. D. & Farrell, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Production of Ceramic Ware by Slip-Casting

Description: This report discusses the production of ceramic ware through the process of slip-casting. The report separately describes the processes of creating zirconia ware, beryllia ware, alundum ware, thoria ware, and specially shaped ceramic ware.
Date: October 20, 1945
Creator: Calderwood, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bismuth Casting and Canning : (Information Report)

Description: Introduction: The experimental work at Mound Laboratory on bismuth casting and the sealing of aluminum irradiation containers is an outgrowth of the bismuth recovery project. Since the recovered bismuth contains residual activity it is necessary that the bismuth be processed to the point that no contamination will result from shipment or any subsequent operations required to prepare the bismuth for irradiation. In order to satisfy these requirements the work here has consisted of investigating methods of preparing the bismuth slugs in the shapes required and of mechanically sealing the aluminum container.
Date: June 16, 1952
Creator: Engle, Paul.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-piece, composite crucible with integral withdrawal/discharge section

Description: A one-piece, composite open-bottom casting mold with integral withdrawal section is fabricated by thermal spraying of materials compatible with and used for the continuous casting of shaped products of reactive metals and alloys such as, for example, titanium and its alloys or for the gas atomization thereof.
Date: July 30, 2002
Creator: Besser, Matthew (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA); Sordelet, Daniel J. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA); Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Castability Assessment and Data Integration

Description: The report is divided into two sections. The first section deals with Equilibrium Analysis and Fill Pattern Reasoning for Die Casting Process. The second section covers Graphical User Interface for Cooling Line Functions and Surface Rendering.
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Miller, R. Allen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Heat Transfer at the Mold-Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys'' Final Project Report

Description: This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting has been conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigation of squeeze casting at CMI-Tech Center (Now Hayes-Lemmerz Technical Center) and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive.
Date: December 14, 2001
Creator: Professor R. D. Pehlke, Principal Investigator, Dr. John M. Cookson, Dr. Shouwei Hao, Dr. Prasad Krishna, Kevin T. Bilkey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Centrifugal casting of plate-type fuel elements

Description: From introduction: "Centrifugal casting appeared to be the only method by which the intricate shape could be produced in a cold mold. With this in mind, a program was initiated for the purpose of determining the feasibility of centrifugally casting plates of uranium-5 w.o chromium and uranium-2 w/o zirconium."
Date: November 10, 1955
Creator: Saller, Henry A.; Dickerson, Ronald F. & Murr, William E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

Description: A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted for 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.
Date: October 31, 2013
Creator: Goodwin, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

Description: Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly used for hypo-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 356, ...
Date: August 15, 2012
Creator: Apelian, Diran
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Energy Efficiency Instrumentation

Description: As with any manufacturing operation, the metalcasting processes have several sources of variation. Additionally, the metalcasting industry routinely produces a wide variety of complex shaped components, which often exacerbates the problem of determining the source of variation. The goals of this project were to develop better tools and strategies to collect and manage process and product information. Based on industry feedback, five areas were selected based on the amount of variation caused by this source or the potential for improvement in terms of energy, emissions and competitiveness. These five areas were: 1. Heat Treatment Control Strategies 2. Semi-Automated Grinding 3. Surface Mapping Software 4. Study of Impact of Repairs via Weld Gouges 5. Rapid Pattern Making Machine This project collectively looked at areas of the steel casting production process which could help reduce the rework, scrap and energy consumption required. Through these efforts, casting producers are better equipped to control their processes and specify processes that better meet their customers’ needs.
Date: December 31, 2013
Creator: Peters, Frank & Frank, Matthew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

Description: Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.
Date: February 8, 2006
Creator: Chaudhry, F. Douglas Neece Neil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

Description: This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.
Date: December 15, 2012
Creator: Schwam, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

Description: This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.
Date: March 30, 2004
Creator: Schwam, David; Wallace, John F.; Engle, Tom & Chang, Qingming
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial Widths of Conjugated Polymer Bilayers

Description: The interfaces of conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) bilayers cast from differential solvents are shown by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSoXR) to be very smooth and sharp. The chemical interdiffusion due to casting is limited to less than 0.6 nm, and the interface created is thus nearly 'molecularly' sharp. These results demonstrate for the first time and with high precision that the nonpolar MEH-PPV layer is not much disturbed by casting the CPE layer from a polar solvent. A baseline is established for understanding the role of interfacial structure in determining the performance of CPE-based polymer light-emitting diodes. More broadly, we anticipate further applications of RSoXR as an important tool in achieving a deeper understanding of other multilayer organic optoelectronic devices, including multilayer photovoltaic devices.
Date: August 13, 2009
Creator: NCSU; Berkeley, UC; UCSB; Source, Advanced Light; Garcia, Andres; Yan, Hongping et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineral processing techniques for recycling investment casting shell

Description: The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy used materials characterization and minerals beneficiation methods to separate and beneficially modify spent investment-mold components to identify recycling opportunities and minimize environmentally sensitive wastes. The physical and chemical characteristics of the shell materials were determined and used to guide bench-scale research to separate reusable components by mineral-beneficiation techniques. Successfully concentrated shell materials were evaluated for possible use in new markets.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Nilsen, David N.; Dahlin, David C.; Hunt, Alton H. & Collins, W. Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPURITIES IN RECLAIMED LEAD CASTINGS

Description: The nature of impurities found in reclaimed Pb and the effects of their inclusion in castings were investigated. It was concluded that impurities are difficult to remove and may result in unwanted casting characteristics. Recommendations for Pb reclamation are listed. (J.R.D.)
Date: August 1, 1958
Creator: Shepherd, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department