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THE SETTLERS PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1894 - 1945 & THE DUPONT PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1943 - 1945 BRINGING HISTORY TO LIFE IN SOUTH CENTRAL WASHINGTON

Description: Washington is called the 'Evergreen State' and it evokes images like this of lush forests, lakes and mountains. However, such images apply primarily to the half of the state west of the Cascade Mountains, where we are today. Eastern Washington state is quite a different matter and I want to draw your attention to a portion of Eastern Washington that is the focus ofmy presentation to you this morning. This image was taken on a part of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, a 586-square mile government reservation, the second largest DOE facility in the nation . Here you can see where I am talking about, roughly 220 miles southeast of Seattle and about the same distance northeast of Portland.
Date: July 13, 2009
Creator: PH.D., SHULTZ CR (KIT)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standardizing instream flow requirements at hydropower projects in the Cascade Mountains, Washington

Description: Instream flow requirements are common mitigation measures instituted in the bypassed reaches of hydroelectric diversion projects. Currently, there are two extremes among the ways to determine instream flow requirements: generic standard-setting methods and detailed, habitat-based, impact assessment methods such as the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Data from streams in Washington state show a consistent pattern in the instream flow requirements resulting from the IFIM. This pattern can be used to refine the simpler standard-setting approaches and thereby provide better estimates of flow needs during early stages of project design.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Smith, I. M. & Sale, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of Residual Gravity Maps for the Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington Using Fourier Analysis

Description: This report represents a continuation of gravity work in the Cascade Mountains of Washington supported by the Division of Geology and Earth Resources since 1974. The purpose of this research has been collection of baseline gravity data for use in geothermal resource evaluation. Results of the Division's gravity studies to date are given in Danes and Phillips (1983a, 1983b). One of the problems encountered when analyzing gravity data is distinguishing between those parts of the data that represent geologic structures of interest, and those that do not. In many cases, the features of interest are relatively small, near-surface features, such as those sought in mineral, petroleum, or geothermal exploration. Gravity anomalies caused by such structures may be distorted or masked by anomalies caused by larger, deeper geologic structures. Gravity anomalies caused by relatively shallow, small geologic structures are termed residual anomalies. Those due to broad, deep-seated features can be described as regional anomalies. The purpose of this report is to describe a Fourier analysis method for separating residual and regional gravity anomalies from a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly field. The technique has been applied to gravity data from the Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington. Residual gravity anomaly maps at a scale of 1:250,000 are presented for various regional wavelength filters, and a power spectrum of the frequency components in the South Cascade gravity data is displayed. No attempt is made to interpret the results of this study in terms of geologic structures.
Date: April 1983
Creator: Dishberger, Debra McLean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aeromagnetic measurements in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau of northern California. Report on work done from December 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

Description: Spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data collected over north-central California during the summer of 1980 aided in determining magnetic-source bottom depths beneath the survey area. Five regions of shallow magnetic source bottom depths were detected: (1) Secret Spring Mountain and National Lava Beds Monument area; (2) the Mount Shasta area; (3) the Eddys Mountain area; (4) the Big Valley Mountains area; and (5) an area northeast of Lassen Peak. Except for the Eddys Mountain area, all regions exhibiting shallow depths are suggested to be due to elevated Curie-point isotherms. Deeper magnetic source bottom depths were mapped throughout the remainder of the study area, with depths greater than 9 km BSL indicated beneath Lassen Peak and greater than 11 km BSL indicated beneath the Western Cascades, Eastern Klamath Mountains, and Great Valley.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Couch, R. & Gemperle, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

Description: A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Priest, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field geology of the northwest quarter of the Broken Top 15' quadrangle, Deschutes County, Oregon

Description: The report is a compilation of geologic field observations and supporting laboratory data obtained during a study of the eastern slope of the High Cascade Range of Oregon, north of Broken Top volcano. General geologic relationships are summarized, then followed by lithologic descriptions, petrographic characteristics, and stratigraphic information, cross-indexed to tables of chemical analyses of pertinent rock units. The 7.5-minute N.W. Broken Top quadrange is bounded by 44/sup 0/07'30'' and 44/sup 0/15'00'' north latitude and by 121/sup 0/37'30'' and 121/sup 0/45'00'' west longitude, 6 km east of North and Middle Sister volcanoes and 35 km northwest of Bend. The quadrangle is covered by glacial till and calc-alkaline lavas, most of which originated on the adjacent slopes of the High Cascades. Basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and rhyodacite are represented in a variety of forms including lava flows, volcanic domes, cinder cones, and a welded ash-flow tuff.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Taylor, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aeromagnetic measurements in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau of northern California. Report on work done from June 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

Description: Aeromagnetic measurements made along flightlines oriented east-west and spaced at 1.6-km intervals and along lines oriented north-south and spaced at 8-km intervals, over approximately 30,000 square km of northern California, exhibit crossing errors of less than 5 nanoTeslas. The measurements show short-wavelength magnetic anomalies associated with near-surface volcanics over and east of Lassen Peak and over and north of Mt. Shasta and the Medicine Lake Highlands, longer wavelength anomalies over the Modoc Plateau, and very long wavelength anomalies over the northernmost part of the Great Valley and the easternmost metamorphic rocks of the Klamath Mountains. Anomaly patterns exhibit northwest-southeast trends over the Modoc Plateau and a marked change in character at the juncture of the plateau and the Klamath Mountain and Great Valley complexes.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Couch, R. & Gemperle, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal gradient drilling, north-central Cascades of Oregon, 1979

Description: A geothermal gradient drilling program was conducted on the western flank of the north-central Cascade Mountains in Oregon. Six wells were drilled during this program, although in effect seven were drilled, as two wells were drilled at site 3, the second well, however, actually going to a lesser depth than the first. Three of the wells (3, 4, and 5) were drilled in areas which topographically are subject to strong throughflows of ground water. None of these wells reached the regional water table, and all showed essentially isothermal geothermal gradients. The single well which was started essentially at the water table (well 6) shows a linear temperature rise with depth essentially from the top of the well bore. Well No. 2 shows an isothermal gradient down to the level of the regional water table and then shows a linear gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km from the regional water table to total depth.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Youngquist, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

Description: Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.
Date: October 27, 1988
Creator: Priest, G.R. & Black, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the conductivity distribution in the vicinity of a cascade volcano

Description: Magnetotelluric and telluric data were acquired in the vicinity of Mount Hood Oregon as part of a multidisciplinary exploration program to evaluate the geothermal potential of this stratocone volcano. Eleven field components were acquired simultaneously over the frequency band of 50. to .001 hertz. These data consisted of one five component magnetotelluric base site, two sets of two component remote electric field measurements and one set of remote horizontal magnetic field measurements. The data were recorded digitally in the field and processed later using the remote electric and magnetic signals to obtain unbiased tensor impedance and geomagnetic transfer function (tipper) estimates.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Mozley, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

Description: The detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley is presented with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource. The lower Wind River drainage consists primarily of the Ohanapecosh Formation, an Oligocene unit that is recognized across the entire southern Washington Cascade Range. The formation is at least 300 m thick in the Wind River valley area. It consists largely of volcaniclastic sediments, with minor massive pyroclastic flows, volcanic breccias and lava flows. Low grade zeolite facies metamorphism during the Miocene led to formation of hydrothermal minerals in Ohanapecosh strata. Metamorphism probably occurred at less than 180{sup 0}C.
Date: 1983
Creator: Berri, D. A. & Korosec, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 1985 Geothermal Gradient Drilling Project for the State of Washington

Description: This report describes seven geothermal gradient test holes in the southern Washington Cascade Mountains. The objectives of the drilling program were to: (1) more accurately define the general extent of potential geothermal resources in the southern Washington Cascades, and (2) evaluate specific targets that are geologically and structurally favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources. (ACR)
Date: February 1986
Creator: Barnett, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of Residual Gravity Maps for the Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington Using Fourier Analysis

Description: A continuation of gravity work in the Cascade Mountains of Washington is presented. Baseline gravity data were collected for use in geothermal resource evaluation. The purpose of this report is to describe a Fourier analysis method for separating residual and regional gravity anomalies from a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly field. The technique has been applied to gravity data from the Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington. Residual gravity anomaly maps at a scale of 1:250,000 are presented for various regional wavelength filters, and a power spectrum of the frequency components in the South Cascade gravity data is displayed. No attempt is made to interpret the results of this study in terms of geologic structures.
Date: April 1983
Creator: Dishberger, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington

Description: Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington (Danes and Phillips, 1983). This report provides supplementary data and documentation for the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map. Presented are principal gravity facts, simple Bouguer and Free-air gravity anomalies, computational methods, error analysis and a discussion of terrain corrections.
Date: February 1983
Creator: Danes, Z. F. & Phillips, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon

Description: Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Gannett, M.W. & Bargar, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CSDP: The seismology of continental thermal regimes: Final report for period April 1, 1986-April 1, 1987

Description: This report describes progress in the study of both wave propagation in complex structures and source mechanism of geothermal seismic events. The following work was accomplished in the past one-year period: (1) interpretation of long-period events observed at Mt. St. Helens and at the Fenton Hill hot-dry-rock experimental site in terms of seismic radiation from a fluid-filled crack; (2) interpretation of teleseismic data collected in and near the Valles caldera in terms of a model with irregular topography, caldera fill, and magma chamber; (3) interpretation of VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) data from the Oroville fault zone by ray tracing and polarization calculation for P, SV, and SH waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media containing aligned fluid-filled and/or dry cracks; and (4) development of a new powerful method for calculating seismic motions in media with irregular topography and interfaces by the superposition of Gaussian Beams.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Aki, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lassen geothermal system

Description: The Lassen geothermal system consists of a central vapor-dominated reservoir underlain by hot water that discharges peripherally at lower elevations. The major thermal upflow at Bumpass Hell (elevation 2500 m) displays numerour superheated fumaroles, one of which in 1976 was 159/sup 0/C. Gas geothermometers from the fumarole areas and water geothermometers from boiling Cl-bearing waters at Morgan Hot Springs (elevation 1530 m; 8 km south of Bumpass Hell) and from 176/sup 0/C waters in a well 12 km southeast of Bumpass Hell both indicate 230 to 240/sup 0/C for the deep thermal water. With increasing distance from Bumpass Hell, gases are progressively depleted in H/sub 2/S relative to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/, owing to oxidation of H/sub 2/S to pyrite, sulfur, and sulfates and to dilution with atmospheric N/sub 2/. H/sub 2/O/gas ratios and degree of superheat of fumaroles can be explained by mixing of steam of maximum enthalpy (2804 J g/sup -1/) with near-surface water and with the condensate layer overlying the vapor-dominated reservoir.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Muffler, L.J.P.; Nehring, N.L.; Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.; Clynne, M.A. & Thompson, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clackamas 4800-foot thermal gradient hole: Cascade geothermal drilling: Final technical report

Description: Thermal Power Company (Thermal) completed a thermal gradient hole to about 5000 feet (1524 m) total depth in Section 28, Township 8 South, Range 8 East, Willamette Meridian, Marion County, Oregon. The objective was to obtain data for the characterization of the deep hydrothermal regime in the Cascades volcanic region in order to better define its geothermal resource potential. The depth and location of the thermal gradient hole were designed by Thermal to test the basis of the Clackamas geothermal system exploration model developed by Chevron Resources Company.
Date: September 30, 1987
Creator: Iovenitti, J.L. & D'Olier, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effect on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington: Final Report 2002-2003.

Description: A study of mine-waste contamination effects on Methow River habitat on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Washington state, U.S.A., revealed impacts at ecosystem, community, population, individual, tissue, and cellular levels. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's, but the mines are now inactive. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to compare potentially impacted to control sites. The concentrations of eleven trace elements (i.e., Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Methow River sediments downstream from the abandoned mine sites were higher than background levels. Exposed trout and caddisfly larvae in the Methow River showed reduced growth compared to controls. Samples of liver from juvenile trout and small intestine from exposed caddisfly larvae were examined for evidence of metal accumulation, cytopathological change, and chemical toxicity. Morphological changes that are characteristic of nuclear apoptosis were observed in caddisfly small intestine columnar epithelial and trout liver nuclei where extensive chromatin condensation and margination was observed. Histopathological studies revealed glycogen bodies were present in the cytosol and nuclei, which are indicators of Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD IV). This suggests food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body resulting in poor growth. Examination of trout hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of electron dense granules in the mitochondrial matrix. Matrix granules contain mixtures of Cd, Cu, Au, Pb, Ni, and Ti. Contaminated sediments caused adverse biological effects at different levels of biological organization, from the cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where dissolved metal concentrations in the corresponding surface water met water-quality criteria.
Date: May 15, 2003
Creator: Peplow, Dan & Edmonds, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal potential of the Cascade Mountain Range: exploration and development. Special report No. 10

Description: Eighteen papers are included, one of which was previously abstracted for EDB. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the remaining seventeen papers for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); ten of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EPA).
Date: May 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department