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Borehole Data-Collection Methods Applicable for the Regional Observation and Monitor Well Program, Southwest Florida Water Management District

Description: From introduction: This report presents some borehole data-collection methods that can be used during the drilling of ROMP or other wells where data collection is a prime objective. Hydraulic, water-quality, and geophysical data-collection methods applicable to the hydrogeology of west-central Florida are emphasized.
Date: September 1981
Creator: Hickey, John J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

Description: The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.
Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Wood, James R. & Harrison, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

Description: A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1997-1998.
Date: June 22, 1999
Creator: Robinson, William C.; Trentham, Robert C.; Widner, Kevin & Wienbrandt, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mesoscale Characterization of Coupled Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fractured Porous Slope in Response to Free Water-Surface Movement

Description: To better understand the role of groundwater-level changes on rock-slope deformation and damage, a carbonate rock slope (30 m x 30 m x 15 m) was extensively instrumented for mesoscale hydraulic and mechanical measurements during water-level changes. The slope is naturally drained by a spring that can be artificially closed or opened by a water gate. In this study, a 2-hour slope-dewatering experiment was analyzed. Changes in fluid pressure and deformation were simultaneously monitored, both at discontinuities and in the intact rock, using short-base extensometers and pressure gauges as well as tiltmeters fixed at the slope surface. Field data were analyzed with different coupled hydromechanical (HM) codes (ROCMAS, FLAC{sup 3D}, and UDEC). Field data indicate that in the faults, a 40 kPa pressure fall occurs in 2 minutes and induces a 0.5 to 31 x 10{sup -6} m normal closure. Pressure fall is slower in the bedding-planes, lasting 120 minutes with no normal deformation. No pressure change or deformation is observed in the intact rock. The slope surface displays a complex tilt towards the interior of the slope, with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 15 x 10{sup -6} rad. Close agreement with model for both slope surface and internal measurements is obtained when a high variability in slope-element properties is introduced into the models, with normal stiffnesses of k{sub n{_}faults} = 10{sup -3} x k{sub n{_}bedding-planes} and permeabilities of k{sub h{_}faults} = 10{sup 3} x k{sub h{_}bedding-planes}. A nonlinear correlation between hydraulic and mechanical discontinuity properties is proposed and related to discontinuity damage. A parametric study shows that 90% of slope deformation depends on HM effects in a few highly permeable and highly deformable discontinuities located in the basal, saturated part of the slope while the remaining 10% are related to elasto-plastic deformations in the low-permeability discontinuities induced by complex ...
Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: Rutqvist, Jonny; Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F. & Thoraval, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf San Andres Reservoir

Description: The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: 1.Advanced petrophysics 2.Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic 3.Cross-well bore tomography 4.Advanced reservoir simulation 5.Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments 6.Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring 7.Mobility control agents
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Taylor, Archie R.; Justice, James J. & Hickman, T. Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

Description: The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.
Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Wood, J.R. & Harrison, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

Description: The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.
Date: August 7, 2001
Creator: Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J. & Egg, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved recovery demonstration for Williston basin carbonates. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in certain shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional and multi-component seismic area is being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil-in-place will result in additional oil production by primary and enhanced recovery processes.
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process in a light oil shallow carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that exists throughout the Permian Basin. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin`s daily production. There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO{sub 2} projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO{sub 2} H-n-P process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO{sub 2} projects when coupled together.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Prieditis, J. & Wehner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion

Description: The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing, waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.
Date: August 9, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO{sub 2} Hugg-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, 2nd quarter 1996

Description: The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.
Date: July 25, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report - Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth for Underground Test Area (UGTA) Wells

Description: Hydraulic conductivity with depth has been calculated for Underground Test Area (UGTA) wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock. The following wells in volcanic tuff are evaluated: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-2a, ER-EC-4, ER-EC-5, ER-5-4#2, ER-EC-6, ER-EC-7, and ER-EC-8. The following wells in carbonate rock are evaluated: ER-7-1, ER-6-1, ER-6-1#2, and ER-12-3. There are a sufficient number of wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock to associate the conductivity values with the specific hydrogeologic characteristics such as the stratigraphic unit, hydrostratigraphic unit, hydrogeologic unit, lithologic modifier, and alteration modifier used to describe the hydrogeologic setting. Associating hydraulic conductivity with hydrogeologic characteristics allows an evaluation of the data range and the statistical distribution of values. These results are relevant to how these units are considered in conceptual models and represented in groundwater models. The wells in volcanic tuff illustrate a wide range of data values and data distributions when associated with specific hydrogeologic characteristics. Hydraulic conductivity data within a hydrogeologic characteristic can display normal distributions, lognormal distributions, semi-uniform distribution, or no identifiable distribution. There can be multiple types of distributions within a hydrogeologic characteristic such as a single stratigraphic unit. This finding has implications for assigning summary hydrogeologic characteristics to hydrostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. The results presented herein are specific to the hydrogeologic characteristic and to the wells used to describe hydraulic conductivity. The wells in carbonate rock are associated with a fewer number of hydrogeologic characteristics. That is, UGTA wells constructed in carbonate rock have tended to be in similar hydrogeologic materials, and show a wide range in hydraulic conductivity values and data distributions. Associations of hydraulic conductivity and hydrogeologic characteristics are graphically presented even when there are only a few data. This approach benchmarks what is currently known about the association of depth-specific hydraulic conductivity and hydrogeologic characteristics.
Date: October 31, 2007
Creator: Oberlander, P.; McGraw, D. & Russell, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeology, Estimated Impact, and Regional Well Monitoring of Effects of Subsurface Wastewater Injection, Tampa Bay Area, Florida

Description: This report proposes three locations in two Florida counties "for regional monitoring of the effects of subsurface injection" on freshwater resources: Pinellas County and Hillsborough County. It contains a table, maps, and graphs.
Date: February 1981
Creator: Hickey, John J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

Description: A preliminary reservoir model was constructed for the Lower Clear Fork of the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir. The model was constructed by calibrating high-frequency cycles observed in cores to the porosity log. The rock fabrics mostly fall in petrophysical class 1, and cross plots of porosity and water saturation could not be used to identify rock fabrics. Data from two limestone fields and one dolostone field were presented to support the contention that grain-dominated fabrics have higher porosity than mud-dominated fabrics do and that this difference is retained when the limestone is dolomitized.
Date: May 8, 2001
Creator: Lucia, F. Jerry & Jennings, Jr., James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

Description: The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.
Date: February 21, 2002
Creator: Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P. & Moshell, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multidisciplinary Imaging of Rock Properties in Carbonate Reservoirs for Flow-Unit Targeting

Description: During the period major accomplishments were in (1) characterization of facies and cyclicity in subsurface cores and in outcrop, (2) construction of a preliminary stratigraphic framework, (3) definition of rock fabrics, and (4) correlation of 3-D seismic data.
Date: October 8, 2002
Creator: Ruppel, Stephen C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

Description: Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.
Date: December 12, 1995
Creator: Hamilton-Smith, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional hydrology of the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada: preliminary interpretations of chemical and isotopic data

Description: Chemical and isotopic analyses of Dixie Valley regional waters indicate several distinct groups ranging in recharge age from Pleistocene (<20 ka) to recent (<50a). Valley groundwater is older than water from perennial springs and artesian wells in adjacent ranges, with Clan Alpine range (east) much younger (most <50a) than Stillwater range (west; most >1000a). Geothermal field fluids ({approximately}12-14 ka) appear derived from water similar in composition to non-thermal groundwater observed today in valley artesian wells (also -14 ka). Geothermal fluid interaction with mafic rocks (Humboldt Lopolith) appears to be common, and significant reaction with granodiorite may also occur. Despite widespread occurrence of carbonate rocks, large scale chemical interaction appears minor. Age asymmetry of the ranges, more extensive interaction with deep-seated waters in the west, and distribution of springs and artesian wells suggest the existence of a regional upward hydrologic gradient with an axis in proximity to the Stillwater range.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Counce, D; Dunlap, C; Goff, F; Huebner, M; Janik, C; Johnson, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department