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Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

Description: A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.
Date: September 28, 2012
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D. & Parker, Kyle R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Tetrachloride Extinguisher of Electric Fires

Description: Report discussing "the extent and nature of the hazards to firefighters from gases and smoke resulting from the application of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher to electric arcs, burning insulation or fires such as may occur in electrical apparatus and machinery. The experiments described were made for the purpose of determining the nature of gases and smoke and ascertaining their toxic properties" (p. 1).
Date: July 1923
Creator: Katz, S. H.; Gleim, E. J. & Bloomfield, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Adsorption and Reactions of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on Metal Oxides - Final Report

Description: The purpose of this research was to provide a fundamental understanding of the adsorption and catalytic reactions of CCl{sub 4} on metal oxide surfaces with a view to developing strategies for its remediation. The scientific knowledge generated by this project should enable environmental engineers to evaluate the potential of destructive adsorption of CCl{sub 4} and the catalytic reaction of CCl{sub 4} with H{sub 2}O as an alternative for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride. Emphasis was placed on the alkaline earth metal oxides, i.e., MgO, CaO, SrO and BaO because it had previously been demonstrated that MgO and CaO reacted with CCl{sub 4} to form the corresponding metal chloride and carbon dioxide. This process was named destructive adsorption. It was found that the activity toward CCl{sub 4} parallels the basicity of the alkaline earth metal oxide, i.e., the activity decreased in the order BaO>SrO>CaO>MgO. It was found that MgO is active as a catalyst for the reaction of CCl{sub 4} with H{sub 2}O to form CO{sub 2} and HCl. The HCl could be neutralized in aqueous NaOH, and the resulting dilute salt solution could be easily disposed of. Among the alkaline earth oxides, MgO is the only active catalyst at moderate temperatures. Thus, nearly complete removal of CCl{sub 4} can be achieved over a long period. The favorable catalytic activity of MgO relative to the other alkaline earth oxides is attributed to two factors; first, MgO is not as readily converted to MgCl{sub 2}, and, second, the decomposition temperature of MgCO{sub 3} ({approximately}430 C) is substantially less than that of the other carbonates. As a consequence, chloride and carbonate phases do not substantially inhibit the catalytic activity.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Lunsford, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site

Description: Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.
Date: December 17, 2008
Creator: Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The purpose of the hydraulic particle tracking animation files is to show where carbon tetrachloride that reached groundwater from the known discharge facilities would have been likely to travel fin the groundwater, and from where carbon tetrachloride presently observed in the aquifer likely would have started. These analyses support the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit activity to identify sources of carbon tetrachloride currently observed in groundwater or locations where carbon tetrachloride may have entered the groundwater. The animation files show travel paths (both forward and backward in time) for hypothetical particles of carbon tetrachloride carried in the groundwater. The travel paths represent the movement of the carbon tetrachloride at the average groundwater velocity. The particles only represent an estimation of where the carbon tetrachloride would be expected to be (or have come from) and do not indicate or imply what the concentration in the groundwater would be.
Date: November 2, 2006
Creator: MCMAHON, W.J. & ROHAY, V.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.
Date: November 26, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Temperature and Carbon Tetrachloride on Polymer Based Hydrogen Getters

Description: This report summarizes hydrogen pumping by organic getters in the presence of carbon tetrachloride, and how the reduction of pumping in the presence of this catalyst poison can be minimized through the choice of catalyst. Catalyst A is shown to be preferred in a clean environment, and catalyst B for a poisoned environment. Additional, we examine the effects of temperature on pumping rates, and show that this getter is effective over a large temperature range from -23 to 107 degrees Celsius.
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: Buffleben, George M. & Shepod, Timothy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY2009

Description: This report documents the progress made through FY 2009 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study seeks also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. In previous years the work was funded as two separate projects by various sponsors, all of whom received their funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In FY2009, the projects were combined and funded by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Corporation (CHPRC). Work in FY2009 was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Staff from the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY–Cortland) contributed in previous years.
Date: March 2010
Creator: Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT - Mechanisms of CCl4 Retention and Slow Release in Model Porous Solids and Sediments

Description: A magnetically coupled microbalance system has been used to measure adsorption and desorption isotherms and rates of desorption for carbon tetrachloride on dry prepared porous silica particles with narrow pore size distributions in the mesoporous range. Pore size distributions estimated from the carbon tetrachloride isotherms were found to be in close agreement with those determined using standard low temperature nitrogen adsorption. Three different types of particles were studied, with average pore diameters of 2.7 nm, 4.6 nm, and 5.9 nm. Prior to desorption rate studies, evacuated particulate samples were charged with volatile organic vapor at pressures sufficient to fill all mesopores with condensed fluid. Desorption rates into dry flowing helium were determined at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure, using the microbalance system combined with chromatographic analysis of the exit helium stream. Initial rates were found to decrease significantly, as mass adsorbed decreased. This residual mass was desorbing at such a low rate, that it can be considered a migration resistant fraction of the original mass adsorbed. Attempts to remove this residual mass at higher temperatures were partially successful; however, differences between the microbalance and gas chromatograph responses leave open uncertainty about whether the residual mass was pure carbon tetrachloride. To date, attempts at analysis of the residual mass using solvent extraction have not removed completely this uncertainty. For particles prepared using the same template surfactant, but with different average pore sizes, desorption rates were higher for the larger-pore particles, with correspondingly lower residual mass. Particles prepared with another template surfactant did not follow this pattern, exhibiting intermediate desorption rates and slightly lower residual mass, even though these particles had the smallest pores. These particles exhibited desorption isotherm behavior characteristic of larger pores connected by smaller openings. Except for peculiar behavior in the very early part of desorption experiments for one ...
Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Miller, Dr. Reid C. & Peyton, Dr. Brent M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: City of Rialto, Well No.3 Demonstration System Integration Project, and Baldwin Park Operable Unit, Baldwin Park, California. The groundwater remediation contractors are AMEC Geomatrix and ARA. The sites were visited on July 22, 2008. Fluor Hanford and the U.S. Department of Energy are currently looking at a variety of alternatives to capture carbon tetrachloride, nitrates, and other COCs from 200-ZP-l groundwater. A few of the more important objectives of our visits were to: (1) Evaluate the treatment systems being used by AMEC Geomatrix to address VOCs, perchlorate, NDMA, 1,4,-Dioxane, and 1,2,3 TCP in a drinking water source; (2) Evaluate how effective these treatment methods have been; (3) Determine the types of problems they have encountered with these treatment systems and how they addressed these problems; (4) Determine the types of secondary wastes being generated by the system; (5) Determine how clean of an operation these companies run; and (6) Determine if the site is worth being visited by DOE-RL at a later date.
Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: SA, SIMMONS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Well Installation Report for Monitoring Wells TCM4, TCM5, and TCM8 and Pilot Hole TGSC-2A

Description: The shallow groundwater and sediments beneath the TNX Area are contaminated with both dissolved and residual chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride and perchloroethylene (PCE)..The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is studying a new technology for remediating CVOCs known as GeoSiphon. The GeoSiphon Cell is a large diameter well uses granular cast iron for filter pack material and is operated by inducing a siphon to draw contaminated groundwater through the iron filter pack. As groundwater flows through the granular cast iron CVOCs are reduced to ethane, ethene, methane, and chloride ions. Previous laboratory and field studies (ETI, 1996, and Phifer et. al., 1997) conducted by SRTC have shown that granular cast iron is capable of remediating contaminated at TNX. SRTC will be conducting a Dual Cell test of the GeoSiphon technology in 1999 to study the hydraulic interaction of multiple cells operating simultaneously.T his report documents the installation of 3 monitoring wells and 1 pilot hole that were installed to support the Dual phase test. The three monitoring wells will be used to study the hydraulic interaction between the 2 GeoSiphon cells. Continuous core was collected from the proposed location for the second GeoSiphon Cell TGSC-2. Depth discrete samples collected from the core were analyzed for CVOCs.
Date: October 26, 1998
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iron Nanoparticles in Reactive Environmental Barriers

Description: Zero-valent iron is cheap, environmentally innocuous, and effective at reducing chlorinated organics. It has, as a result, become a popular candidate for remediating aquifers contaminated with trichloroethylene and other halogenated pollutants. In this paper, we discuss one such system, where iron nanoparticles are synthesized and incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol membranes, forming water-permeable barriers to these pollutants. These barriers are tested against a variety of contaminants, including carbon tetrachloride, copper, and chromate.
Date: September 23, 2003
Creator: Nuxoll, Eric E.; Shimotori, Tsutomu; Arnold, William A. & Cussler, Edward L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Report submitted on the PNNL portion of EMSP Project No. 86729

Description: A migration-resistant fraction (MRF) is a portion of a polluted sediment's contaminant inventory that exhibits slow release. Slow release is a key process that controls organic contaminant transport and fate in a plume long after the major portion of the contaminant inventory of a source term has been depleted or removed. Slow release rates are not well understood nor are they commonly accounted for in subsurface numerical transport models. In this project, we propose to study the accumulation and slow-release behavior of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) MRF as a function of time, contaminant concentration and different physicochemical properties of sediments. Both model materials that mimic the physical/chemical properties of sediments and natural sediments will be used in project studies. Experiments will be conducted at macro- and microscopic scales under both unsaturated (Washington State University-WSU) and saturated conditions (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory-PNNL). The results will be used to (1) develop a mechanistic description of slow release of CCl4 in the subsurface environment and (2) lay the groundwork for improving the robustness of numerical models that predict organic contaminant transport and fate under natural conditions. The outcomes of this study are expected to improve the conceptual model of CCl4 subsurface transport and fate at different physical scales and have an impact on remediation and site closure decision-making at Department of Energy (DOE) sites, especially in situations involving the potential application of natural attenuation. This report summarizes work performed on the PNNL component of the project after the first 8 months of a three-year project. Progress on the WSU component of the project is addressed under a separate annual report submission.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Riley, Robert; Amonette, James & Peyton, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A purge-and-trap capillary column gas chromatographic method for the measurement of halocarbons in water and air

Description: This report describes an automated, accurate, precise and sensitive capillary column purge- and -trap method capable of quantifying CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, CH{sub 3}CCL{sub 3}, and CCL{sub 4} during a single chromatographic analysis in either water or gas phase samples.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Happell, J.D.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wills, K.D.; Wilke, R.J. & Neill, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geostatistical Analyses of the Persistence and Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

Description: This report documents two separate geostatistical studies performed by researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the carbon tetrachloride plume in the groundwater on the Hanford Site.
Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

Description: Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.
Date: October 31, 2006
Creator: Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report : results of the 2005 investigation of contaminant sources at Agra, Kansas.

Description: The 2005 investigation of contaminant sources at Agra, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE; Gotto 2004). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The investigation was designed to (1) update the conceptual site model and (2) investigate sources of previously identified carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater. Six technical objectives were proposed in the ''Work Plan'' (Argonne 2005). The ''Work Plan'' was approved by the KDHE on March 28, 2005 (KDHE 2005). The six objectives were as follows: (1) Determine the current configuration of the carbon tetrachloride plume in the investigation area. (2) Delineate contamination detected in 1998-1999 at the former CCC/USDA facility. (3) Investigate the Pro-Ag Co-op property for evidence of releases of carbon tetrachloride. (4) Investigate the area adjacent to the site of the former retail store for evidence of releases of carbon tetrachloride to the subsurface. (5) Collect data to support the analysis of potential remedial alternatives. (6) Update the inventory of private wells to identify potential downgradient receptors. This report details and interprets the data collected during the 2005 investigation at Agra. The investigation met the objectives defined in the ''Work Plan''.
Date: August 24, 2006
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of first-year operations and performance of the Utica Aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands Restoration Project in October 2004-November 2005.

Description: This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the initial period of system operation, from October 29, 2004, until November 31, 2005. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the first year of operation.
Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Sedivy, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical methods for the determination of carbon tetrachloride in soils.

Description: Improved methods for the determination of carbon tetrachloride are described. These methods incorporate purge-and-trap concentration of heated dry samples, an improved methanol extraction procedure, and headspace sampling. The methods minimize sample pretreatment, accomplish solvent substitution, and save time. The methanol extraction and headspace sampling procedures improved the method detection limits and yielded better sensitivity, good recoveries, and good performance. Optimization parameters are shown. Results obtained with these techniques are compared for soil samples from contaminated sites.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Alvarado, J. S.; Spokas, K. & Taylor, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon tetrachloride in vegetation and its application to expedited site characterization.

Description: The use of vegetation analyses to outline areas of near-surface enrichment with metals and organic compounds was pioneered by the mining and petroleum industries. Research and development (R&D) on environmental applications is focusing on the ability of vegetation to remediate soils. Certain contaminants are taken up by plants and either stored in the plant tissue for easy harvesting and removal or changed into products that are not a health concern. In the development of its Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) methodology, our group at Argonne has focused its R&D on the application of vegetation analyses to detect subsurface contamination in vadose zone soils. We have developed the technology to locate past spills or leaks of carbon tetrachloride that penetrated the vadose zone and contaminated underlying drinking water supplies. Vegetation analysis is attractive as a first-step exploratory technique because it is noninvasive, rapid, and inexpensive. The technique requires collection of a uniform, constant sample and an analytical method with a low detection limit and high-quality results.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Burton, J. C.; Nashold, B. W. & Walker, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of CCl4 Retention and Slow Release in Model Porous Solids and Sediments

Description: Provide a better description of the processes by which non-polar compounds are retained by sediments and subsequently released. The objective will be reached through a combination of theory and experimentation with model porous materials and natural sediments. Focus is on the behavior of carbon tetrachloride in aquifer sediments.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Riley, Robert & Amonette, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of CCl4 Retention and Slow Release in Model Porous Solids and Sediments

Description: This work is part of a larger collaborative project of the same title led by Robert Riley at PNNL. Our task goal is to use a state of the art microbalance and well-defined mesoporous silica particles to characterize the effects of pore size distribution on carbon tetrachloride release rate and sequestration.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Peyton, Brent M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department