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Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

Description: A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.
Date: September 28, 2012
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D. & Parker, Kyle R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectrophotometric Evidence for the Existence of UCl₅ as the Double Compound UCl₆ and UCl₄

Description: Abstract: "Spectrophotometric evidence for the existence of UCl₅ as a double compound UCl₆ and UCl₄ has been obtained by studying the absorption spectra of these chlorides in CCl₄ and SOCl2 solutions in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum."
Date: December 9, 1946
Creator: Sterett, C. C. & Calkins, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Tetrachloride Extinguisher of Electric Fires

Description: Report discussing "the extent and nature of the hazards to firefighters from gases and smoke resulting from the application of carbon tetrachloride extinguisher to electric arcs, burning insulation or fires such as may occur in electrical apparatus and machinery. The experiments described were made for the purpose of determining the nature of gases and smoke and ascertaining their toxic properties" (p. 1).
Date: July 1923
Creator: Katz, S. H.; Gleim, E. J. & Bloomfield, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Densities of Tributyl Phosphate - Carbon Tetrachloride Solutions Containing Uranium and Nitric Acid

Description: The following report provides the analysis of a large number of unreported data--taken during a study described in report HW-15230--containing density values obtained for solutions of uranium and nitric acid in tributyl phosphate-carbon tetrachloride solutions.
Date: December 20, 1949
Creator: Moore, Robert Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site

Description: Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.
Date: December 17, 2008
Creator: Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Adsorption and Reactions of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on Metal Oxides - Final Report

Description: The purpose of this research was to provide a fundamental understanding of the adsorption and catalytic reactions of CCl{sub 4} on metal oxide surfaces with a view to developing strategies for its remediation. The scientific knowledge generated by this project should enable environmental engineers to evaluate the potential of destructive adsorption of CCl{sub 4} and the catalytic reaction of CCl{sub 4} with H{sub 2}O as an alternative for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride. Emphasis was placed on the alkaline earth metal oxides, i.e., MgO, CaO, SrO and BaO because it had previously been demonstrated that MgO and CaO reacted with CCl{sub 4} to form the corresponding metal chloride and carbon dioxide. This process was named destructive adsorption. It was found that the activity toward CCl{sub 4} parallels the basicity of the alkaline earth metal oxide, i.e., the activity decreased in the order BaO>SrO>CaO>MgO. It was found that MgO is active as a catalyst for the reaction of CCl{sub 4} with H{sub 2}O to form CO{sub 2} and HCl. The HCl could be neutralized in aqueous NaOH, and the resulting dilute salt solution could be easily disposed of. Among the alkaline earth oxides, MgO is the only active catalyst at moderate temperatures. Thus, nearly complete removal of CCl{sub 4} can be achieved over a long period. The favorable catalytic activity of MgO relative to the other alkaline earth oxides is attributed to two factors; first, MgO is not as readily converted to MgCl{sub 2}, and, second, the decomposition temperature of MgCO{sub 3} ({approximately}430 C) is substantially less than that of the other carbonates. As a consequence, chloride and carbonate phases do not substantially inhibit the catalytic activity.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Lunsford, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The purpose of the hydraulic particle tracking animation files is to show where carbon tetrachloride that reached groundwater from the known discharge facilities would have been likely to travel fin the groundwater, and from where carbon tetrachloride presently observed in the aquifer likely would have started. These analyses support the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit activity to identify sources of carbon tetrachloride currently observed in groundwater or locations where carbon tetrachloride may have entered the groundwater. The animation files show travel paths (both forward and backward in time) for hypothetical particles of carbon tetrachloride carried in the groundwater. The travel paths represent the movement of the carbon tetrachloride at the average groundwater velocity. The particles only represent an estimation of where the carbon tetrachloride would be expected to be (or have come from) and do not indicate or imply what the concentration in the groundwater would be.
Date: November 2, 2006
Creator: MCMAHON, W.J. & ROHAY, V.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.
Date: November 26, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Temperature and Carbon Tetrachloride on Polymer Based Hydrogen Getters

Description: This report summarizes hydrogen pumping by organic getters in the presence of carbon tetrachloride, and how the reduction of pumping in the presence of this catalyst poison can be minimized through the choice of catalyst. Catalyst A is shown to be preferred in a clean environment, and catalyst B for a poisoned environment. Additional, we examine the effects of temperature on pumping rates, and show that this getter is effective over a large temperature range from -23 to 107 degrees Celsius.
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: Buffleben, George M. & Shepod, Timothy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Partition Coefficients Derived from Aqueous Desorption of Contaminated Hanford Sediments

Description: Researchers at PNNL determined CCl4 and CHCl3 groundwater/sediment partition coefficients (Kd values) for contaminated aquifer sediments collected from borehole C3246 (299-W15-46) located in the 200 West Area adjacent to the Z-9 trench. Having realistic values for this parameter is critical to predict future movement of CCl4 in groundwater from the 200 West Area.
Date: July 8, 2005
Creator: Riley, Robert G.; Sklarew, Debbie S.; Brown, Christopher F.; Gent, Philip M.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY2009

Description: This report documents the progress made through FY 2009 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study seeks also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. In previous years the work was funded as two separate projects by various sponsors, all of whom received their funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In FY2009, the projects were combined and funded by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Corporation (CHPRC). Work in FY2009 was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Staff from the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY–Cortland) contributed in previous years.
Date: March 2010
Creator: Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT - Mechanisms of CCl4 Retention and Slow Release in Model Porous Solids and Sediments

Description: A magnetically coupled microbalance system has been used to measure adsorption and desorption isotherms and rates of desorption for carbon tetrachloride on dry prepared porous silica particles with narrow pore size distributions in the mesoporous range. Pore size distributions estimated from the carbon tetrachloride isotherms were found to be in close agreement with those determined using standard low temperature nitrogen adsorption. Three different types of particles were studied, with average pore diameters of 2.7 nm, 4.6 nm, and 5.9 nm. Prior to desorption rate studies, evacuated particulate samples were charged with volatile organic vapor at pressures sufficient to fill all mesopores with condensed fluid. Desorption rates into dry flowing helium were determined at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure, using the microbalance system combined with chromatographic analysis of the exit helium stream. Initial rates were found to decrease significantly, as mass adsorbed decreased. This residual mass was desorbing at such a low rate, that it can be considered a migration resistant fraction of the original mass adsorbed. Attempts to remove this residual mass at higher temperatures were partially successful; however, differences between the microbalance and gas chromatograph responses leave open uncertainty about whether the residual mass was pure carbon tetrachloride. To date, attempts at analysis of the residual mass using solvent extraction have not removed completely this uncertainty. For particles prepared using the same template surfactant, but with different average pore sizes, desorption rates were higher for the larger-pore particles, with correspondingly lower residual mass. Particles prepared with another template surfactant did not follow this pattern, exhibiting intermediate desorption rates and slightly lower residual mass, even though these particles had the smallest pores. These particles exhibited desorption isotherm behavior characteristic of larger pores connected by smaller openings. Except for peculiar behavior in the very early part of desorption experiments for one ...
Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Miller, Dr. Reid C. & Peyton, Dr. Brent M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: City of Rialto, Well No.3 Demonstration System Integration Project, and Baldwin Park Operable Unit, Baldwin Park, California. The groundwater remediation contractors are AMEC Geomatrix and ARA. The sites were visited on July 22, 2008. Fluor Hanford and the U.S. Department of Energy are currently looking at a variety of alternatives to capture carbon tetrachloride, nitrates, and other COCs from 200-ZP-l groundwater. A few of the more important objectives of our visits were to: (1) Evaluate the treatment systems being used by AMEC Geomatrix to address VOCs, perchlorate, NDMA, 1,4,-Dioxane, and 1,2,3 TCP in a drinking water source; (2) Evaluate how effective these treatment methods have been; (3) Determine the types of problems they have encountered with these treatment systems and how they addressed these problems; (4) Determine the types of secondary wastes being generated by the system; (5) Determine how clean of an operation these companies run; and (6) Determine if the site is worth being visited by DOE-RL at a later date.
Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: SA, SIMMONS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geostatistical Analyses of the Persistence and Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

Description: This report documents two separate geostatistical studies performed by researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the carbon tetrachloride plume in the groundwater on the Hanford Site.
Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

Description: Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.
Date: October 31, 2006
Creator: Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V. & Truex, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report : results of the 2005 investigation of contaminant sources at Agra, Kansas.

Description: The 2005 investigation of contaminant sources at Agra, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE; Gotto 2004). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The investigation was designed to (1) update the conceptual site model and (2) investigate sources of previously identified carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater. Six technical objectives were proposed in the ''Work Plan'' (Argonne 2005). The ''Work Plan'' was approved by the KDHE on March 28, 2005 (KDHE 2005). The six objectives were as follows: (1) Determine the current configuration of the carbon tetrachloride plume in the investigation area. (2) Delineate contamination detected in 1998-1999 at the former CCC/USDA facility. (3) Investigate the Pro-Ag Co-op property for evidence of releases of carbon tetrachloride. (4) Investigate the area adjacent to the site of the former retail store for evidence of releases of carbon tetrachloride to the subsurface. (5) Collect data to support the analysis of potential remedial alternatives. (6) Update the inventory of private wells to identify potential downgradient receptors. This report details and interprets the data collected during the 2005 investigation at Agra. The investigation met the objectives defined in the ''Work Plan''.
Date: August 24, 2006
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of first-year operations and performance of the Utica Aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands Restoration Project in October 2004-November 2005.

Description: This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the initial period of system operation, from October 29, 2004, until November 31, 2005. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the first year of operation.
Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Sedivy, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of CCl4 Retention and Slow Release in Model Porous Solids and Sediments

Description: Provide a better description of the processes by which non-polar compounds are retained by sediments and subsequently released. The objective will be reached through a combination of theory and experimentation with model porous materials and natural sediments. Focus is on the behavior of carbon tetrachloride in aquifer sediments.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Riley, Robert & Amonette, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatial Analysis of Contaminants in 200 West Area Groundwater in Support of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Pre-Conceptual Remedy Design

Description: This report documents a preliminary spatial and geostatistical analysis of the distribution of several contaminants of interest (COIs) in groundwater within the unconfined aquifer beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 groundwater operable units. The COIs included in the PNNL study were carbon tetrachloride (CTET), technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-129 (I-129), chloroform, plutonium, uranium, trichloroethylene (TCE), and nitrate. The project included three tasks. Task 1 involved the development of a database that includes all relevant depth-discrete data on the distribution of COIs in the study area. The second task involved a spatial analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of data for the COIs in the study area. The main focus of the task was to determine if sufficient data are available for geostatistical mapping of the COIs in 3D. Task 3 involved the generation of numerical grids of the concentration of CTET, chloroform, and Tc-99.
Date: December 30, 2008
Creator: Murray, Christopher J. & Bott, Yi-Ju
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revised Geostatistical Analysis of the Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Unconfined Aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

Description: This report provides an updated estimate of the inventory of carbon tetrachloride (CTET) in the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 operable units. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) currently is preparing a plan identifying locations for groundwater extraction wells, injection wells, transfer stations, and one or more treatment facilities to address contaminants of concern identified in the 200-ZP-1 CERCLA Record of Decision. To accomplish this, a current understanding of the inventory of CTET is needed throughout the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) previously developed an estimate of the CTET inventory in the area using a Monte Carlo approach based on geostatistical simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of CTET and chloroform in the aquifer. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) (the previous site contractor) requested PNNL to update that inventory estimate using as input a set of geostatistical realizations of CTET and chloroform recently created for a related but separate project, referred to as the mapping project. The scope of work for the inventory revision complemented the scope of work for the mapping project, performed for FH by PNNL. This report briefly describes the spatial and univariate distribution of the CTET and chloroform data, along with the results of the geostatistical analysis and simulation performed for the mapping project.
Date: December 30, 2008
Creator: Murray, Christopher J. & Bott, Yi-Ju
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final work plan : phase II investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

Description: From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of statewide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]) described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the Missouri risk-based corrective action default target level (MRBCA DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and the MoDNR, to ...
Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department