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FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

Description: This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When the scCO2 was ...
Date: September 27, 2011
Creator: Cantrell, Kirk J.; Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, C. J.; Zhong, Lirong; Jung, Hun Bok & Um, Wooyong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Termination Report

Description: OAK-B135 The results produced by this project include: (1) Development of econometrically estimated marginal abatement and associated production curves describing response of agricultural and forestry emissions/sink/offsets enhancements for use in integrated assessments. Curves were developed that reflected agricultural, and forestry production of traditional commodities, carbon and other greenhouse gas offsets and biofuels given signals of general commodity demand, and carbon and energy prices. This work was done jointly with Dr. Ronald Sands at PNNL. A paper from this is forthcoming as follows Gillig, D., B.A. McCarl, and R.D. Sands, ''Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks: Developing a Family of Response Functions,'' Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, forthcoming, 2004. An additional effort was done involving dynamics and a second paper was prepared that is annex A to this report and is Gillig, D., and B.A. McCarl, ''Integrating Agricultural and Forestry Response to GHG Mitigation into General Economy Frameworks: Developing a Family of Response Functions using FASOM,'' 2004. (2) Integration of the non dynamic curves from (1) into in a version of the PNNL SGM integrated assessment model was done in cooperation with Dr. Ronald Sands at PNNL. The results were reported at the second DOE conference on sequestration in the paper listed just below and the abstract is in Annex B of this report. Sands, R.D., B.A. McCarl, and D. Gillig, ''Assessment of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Options within a United States Market for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions,'' Presented at the Second Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Alexandria, VA, May 7, 2003. The results in their latest version show about half of the needed offsets by 2030 can be achieved through agriculture through a mix of sequestration and biofuel options. (3) Alternative agricultural sequestration estimates were developed in conjunction with personnel at Colorado State University using ...
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: McCarl, Bruce & Gillig, Dhazn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pathways and Mechanisms of OceanTracer Transport: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

Description: This funding enabled the following published manuscripts in which we have developed models of direct relevance to ocean carbon sequestration and of the oceanic iron cycle, its connection to the global carbon cycle, and the sensitivity of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the external source of iron. As part of this process we have developed the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model which has enabled us to perform rigorous and efficient sensitivity studies.
Date: November 6, 2006
Creator: Marshall, John & Follows, MIchael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT: An Integrated Inter-temporal Analysis of Land Use Change in Forestry and Agriculture: An Assessment of the Influence of Technological Change on Carbon Sequestration and Land Use.

Description: This project built a global land use model to examine the implications of land based carbon sequestration on land uses. The model also can be used to assess the costs of different land-based actions to reduce carbon emissions.
Date: October 30, 2008
Creator: Sohngen, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FutureGen: A Brief History and Issues for Congress

Description: This report briefly summarizes the history of FutureGen, discusses why it has gained interest and support from some Members of Congress and the Administration while remaining in initial stages of development, and offers some policy considerations on barriers that challenge its further development as a model for a carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) program.
Date: April 3, 2013
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery Act Funding for DOE Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Projects

Description: This report discusses current legislation regarding the potential of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) as a mitigation strategy for lowering global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Congress has appropriated more than $7 billion since FY2008 to CCS activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Date: February 18, 2016
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Research, Development, and Demonstration at the U.S. Department of Energy

Description: This report aims to provide a snapshot of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) program, including its current funding levels and the budget request for FY2014, together with some discussion of the program’s achievements and prospects for success in meeting its stated goals.
Date: June 10, 2013
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Funding for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CSS) at DOE: In Brief

Description: This report discusses current legislation regarding the potential of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) as a mitigation strategy for lowering global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Congress has appropriated more than $7 billion since FY2008 to CCS activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Date: April 19, 2016
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The FutureGen Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project: A Brief History and Issues for Congress

Description: This report briefly summarizes the history of FutureGen, discusses why it has gained interest and support from some members of Congress and the Administration while remaining in initial stages of development, and offers some policy considerations on barriers that challenge its further development as a model for a carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) program. A timeline history of FutureGen is included at the end of this report.
Date: February 10, 2014
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Research, Development, and Demonstration at the U.S. Department of Energy

Description: This report aims to provide a snapshot of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) program, including its current funding levels and the budget request for FY2014, together with some discussion of the program's achievements and prospects for success in meeting its stated goals.
Date: February 10, 2014
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Description: This report covers carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), but not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans. Forests and agricultural lands store carbon, and the world's oceans exchange huge amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere through natural processes.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Description: This report covers only CCS and not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans. Forests and agricultural lands store carbon, and the world's oceans exchange huge amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere through natural processes.
Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

Description: This report assesses prospects for improved, lower-cost technologies for each of the three current approaches to CO2 capture: post-combustion capture; pre-combustion capture; and oxy-combustion capture.
Date: October 21, 2013
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Research, Development, and Demonstration at the U.S. Department of Energy

Description: This report aims to provide a snapshot of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) program, including its current funding levels and the budget request for FY2014, together with some discussion of the program's achievements and prospects for success in meeting its stated goals.
Date: September 30, 2013
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration Pipelines: Jurisdictional Issues

Description: This report reviews the history of pipeline regulation, including the limited history of interstate CO2 pipeline regulation, and examines the regulatory missions of FERC, the STB, and other agencies. The report discusses possible responses to perceived jurisdictional uncertainties under existing law as well as potential legislative steps intended to address any potential regulatory “gap” in interstate CO2 pipeline jurisdiction.
Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: Vann, Adam & Parfomak, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pipelines for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Control: Network Needs and Cost Uncertainties

Description: This report examines key uncertainties in CO2 pipeline requirements for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) by contrasting hypothetical pipeline scenarios in one region of the United States. The report summarizes the key factors influencing CO2 pipeline configuration for major power plants in the region, and illustrates how the viability of different sequestration sites may lead to enormous differences in pipeline costs.
Date: January 10, 2008
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects

Description: Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects
Date: April 29, 2013
Creator: Spane, Frank A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

Description: This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.
Date: September 30, 2011
Creator: Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C. & Anderson, Richard M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC RIVER PLUMES

Description: Oceanic river plumes represent some of the most productive environments on Earth. As major conduits for freshwater and nutrients into the coastal ocean, their impact on water column ecosystems extend for up to a thousand km into oligotrophic oceans. Upon entry into the oceans rivers are tremendous sources of CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Yet owing to increased light transmissivity from sediment deposition coupled with the influx of nutrients, dramatic CO2 drawdown occurs, and plumes rapidly become sinks for CO2. Using state-of-the-art gene expression technology, we have examined the molecular biodiversity of CO2 fixation in the Mississippi River Plume (MRP; two research cruises) and the Orinoco River Plume (ORP; one cruise). When the MRP extends far into the Gulf because of entrainment with the Loop Current, MRP production (carbon fixation) can account for up to 41% of the surface production in the Gulf of Mexico. Nearer-shore plume stations (“high plume,” salinity< 32 ppt) had tremendous CO2 drawdown that was correlated to heterokont (principally diatom) carbon fixation gene expression. The principal form of nitrogen for this production based upon 15N studies was urea, believed to be from anthropogenic origin (fertilizer) from the MRP watershed. Intermediate plume environments (salinity 34 ppt) were characterized by high levels of Synechococcuus carbon fixation that was fueled by regenerated ammonium. Non-plume stations were characterized by high light Prochlorococcus carbon fixation gene expression that was positively correlated with dissolved CO2 concentrations. Although data from the ORP cruise is still being analyzed, some similarities and striking differences were found between the ORP and MRP. High levels of heterokont carbon fixation gene expression that correlated with CO2 drawdown were observed in the high plume, yet the magnitude of this phenomenon was far below that of the MRP, most likely due to the lower levels of anthropogenic nutrient input. ...
Date: June 21, 2013
Creator: PAUL, JOHN H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP - REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CO2 MOVEMENT DURING SEQUESTRATION

Description: The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika & Hoversten, G. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Iron Complexing Ligands on the Long Term Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment of HNLC waters

Description: The central hypothesis of this project is that natural iron-complexing organic ligands in seawater differentially regulate iron availability to large (microplankton) and small (nano and picoplankton) class of phytoplankton and thereby strongly influence the potential carbon sequestration in High Nitrate Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. The primary project goals are to: 1) determine how different natural and synthetic Fe chelators affect Fe availability to phytoplankton species that are representative of offshore HNLC waters, 2) elucidate how the changes in absolute concentrations of these chelators affect the longer-term ecosystem response to alleviation of Fe limitation, and 3) ascertain how changes in the ligand composition affect rates of cell sinking and aggregation - representative measures of the efficiency of carbon sequestration to the deep.
Date: November 18, 2006
Creator: Wells, Mark L.; Perry, Mary Jane; Cochlan, William P. & Trick, Charles G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

Description: Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.
Date: February 19, 2008
Creator: Sinsabaugh, R.L.; Zak, D.R. & Moorhead, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest Carbon Markets: Potential and Drawbacks

Description: This report describes current markets for forest carbon sequestration, the potential for using forest to offset other sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and the drawbacks related to forest carbon sequestration efforts.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Gorte, Ross W. & Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department