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Is Carbon Dioxide an Ore-Forming Fluid Under Shallow Earth Conditions?

Description: Report discussing the effects of shallow earth conditions on carbon dioxide in order to determine if these conditions create a fluid carbon dioxide phase that leads to deposition of uranium ores. Part I provides information on the solid phase, and part II contains information on the gaseous phase.
Date: December 1954
Creator: Garrels, R. M. & Richter, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot-Plant Studies of the Hot-Carbonate Process for Removing Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide

Description: From Summary: "Pilot-plant studies of the hot-carbonate process are described in this report. The initial work was done in a small pilot plant using inert gas containing carbon dioxide and nitrogen."
Date: 1962
Creator: Field, J. H.; Benson, H. E.; Johnson, G. E.; Tosh, J. S. & Forney, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nonphotosynthetic Fixation of Carbon Dioxide by ThreeMicro-Organisms

Description: Studies by Lynch and Calvin (1952,1953) have established the nature of the compounds incorporating C{sup 14} nonphotosynthetically from C{sup 14}O{sub 2} in thirteen microorganisms: a yeast, a protozoan, two water moulds, one slime mould, three algae, three bacteria, and the green flagellate Euglena Gracilis. With the exception of H. gracilis, and of Lactobacillus cassi which fixed no detectable amounts of carbon dioxide, all these organisms fixed carbon dioxide into amino and organic acids derived from the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and into a few other compounds in individual cases (tyrosine, phenylalanine, polysaccharides [probably glucose polymers], acetic acid and butyric acid). The authors concluded that the presence of C{sup 14} in almost all these compounds could be accounted for by the carboxylation of pyruvate to yield oxalacetic or malic acids, followed by transaminase reactions. In E. gracilis, however, considerable quantities of activity also appeared in phosphorylated compounds in the dark, especially in the sugar monophosphates, phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvic acid. Only with this organisms was a kinetic study performed to determine the identity and degree of labeling of the compounds containing C{sup 14} after varying periods of time. It was not stated definitely by which route carbon dioxide entered the photosynthetic intermediates, but it was implied that it was incorporated directly into phosphoglyceric acid, and that the energy for this process, which in photosynthesis is derived from sunlight, and was provided by respiration or fermentation. Certain aspects of these presumptions however, do not adequately account for all the experimental data.
Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Holm-Hansen, O.; Moses, V. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A virtual tall tower network for understanding continental sources and sinks of CO2

Description: Our understanding of the North American terrestrial carbon cycle is limited by both a lack of continental atmospheric CO2 data, and by a need for methods to interpret these and other continental data with confidence. In response to this challenge a rapid expansion of the N. American carbon cycle observational network is underway. This expansion includes a network of continuous, continental CO2 mixing ratio observations being collected at a subset of AmeriFlux towers. Progress in developing this resource includes instrument development, site installation, calibration and intercalibration efforts, and initiation of a uniform data product. Progess in applying these data include proposed methods for interpreting surface layer measurements in atmospheric inversions (the virtual tall towers approach), examination of coherence patterns in continental mixing ratios in response to weather and climate, and application of these mixing ratio measurements in formal atmospheric inversions. Future work will merge these methods with interpretation of flux towers observations of terrestrial carbon fluxes in an effort to create a single coherent diagnosis of North American terrestrial carbon fluxes over a multi-year period.
Date: March 9, 2007
Creator: Davis, K. J.; Richardson, S. J. & Miles, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Sequestration in Forests

Description: This report examines basic questions concerning carbon sequestration in forests. The first section provides a brief background on congressional interest in forest carbon sequestration. The second describes the basic carbon cycle in forests, with an overview of how carbon cycling and storage vary among different types of forests. The third section then addresses how forest carbon is considered in the global climate change debate.
Date: August 6, 2009
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Description: This report covers only CCS and not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans. Forests and agricultural lands store carbon, and the world's oceans exchange huge amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere through natural processes.
Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress

Description: Congress is considering several legislative strategies that would reduce U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases—primarily carbon dioxide (CO2)—and/or increase uptake and storage of CO2 from the atmosphere. Both approaches are viewed by many observers as critical to forestalling global climate change caused, in part, by the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities.
Date: February 18, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

Description: This report examines the current effort to develop technology that would capture CO2. First, the paper outlines the current status of carbon capture technology. Second, the paper examines the role of government in developing that technology, both in terms of creating a market for carbon capture technology and encouraging development of the technology. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of implications of capture technology for climate change legislation.
Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Parker, Larry; Stine, Deborah D. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration Pipelines: Jurisdictional Issues

Description: This report reviews the history of pipeline regulation, including the limited history of interstate CO2 pipeline regulation, and examines the regulatory missions of FERC, the STB, and other agencies. The report discusses possible responses to perceived jurisdictional uncertainties under existing law as well as potential legislative steps intended to address any potential regulatory “gap” in interstate CO2 pipeline jurisdiction.
Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: Vann, Adam & Parfomak, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pipelines for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Control: Network Needs and Cost Uncertainties

Description: This report examines key uncertainties in CO2 pipeline requirements for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) by contrasting hypothetical pipeline scenarios in one region of the United States. The report summarizes the key factors influencing CO2 pipeline configuration for major power plants in the region, and illustrates how the viability of different sequestration sites may lead to enormous differences in pipeline costs.
Date: January 10, 2008
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on SAES(R) St909 Methane Cracking

Description: Methane/carbon dioxide cracking tests using a bench scale system have been performed using SAES(R) St909 getter. The report shows carbon dioxide reduced the St909 methane cracking efficiency under a variety of test conditions. These bench scale tests revealed the complex interactions between reactive species expected to be present in future plant operations.
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: Klein, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

Description: This report examines the current effort to develop technology that would capture CO2 (carbon dioxide). It outlines the current status of carbon capture technology; examines the role of government in developing that technology, both in terms of creating a market for carbon capture technology and encouraging development of the technology; and concludes with a discussion of implications of capture technology for climate change legislation.
Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Parker, Larry; Stine, Deborah D. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discuses the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electric power plants. The first section of this report provides an overview of the RGGI cap-and-trade program and the participating RGGI states. The subsequent sections discuss selected issues raised by RGGI that may be of interest to Congress. The final section provides some final observations that may be instructive to policymakers.
Date: May 16, 2017
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department