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Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

Description: The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.
Date: April 24, 2000
Creator: Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

Description: The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.
Date: April 30, 1998
Creator: Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).
Date: October 15, 1999
Creator: Grigg, Reid B. & Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Efficiency of Miscible C02 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for C02 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: The PRRC-modified DOE pseudomiscible reservoir simulator MASTER was used to conduct a systematic investigation of CO2 flooding using horizontal wells in conjunction with foam. We evaluated the effects of horizontal well radius, length, and location on oil recovery through our testing. This work is necessary to provide field predictions for the use of foam and/or horizontal wells. A number of coreflood tests were performed to examine the effect of foam on oil recovery in heterogeneous porous media. Two coaxial composite cores were used to simulate layered formation systems. The first, an isolated coaxial composite core, was used to simulate a layered formation system of which the layers were not in communication. The second, in capillary contact, simulated layers in communication. Preliminary results suggest that oil displacement is more efficient when surfactant solution is used with CO2 to form CO2-foam. Results from both systems indicate the potential of using foam for improving oil recovery in heterogeneous porous media. Since injectivity loss is a problem in a number of gas injection projects, a preliminary investigation of injectivity loss in WAG was performed. A number of tests were carried out to investigate injectivity loss, indicating that for a given rock the injectivity loss depends on oil saturation in the core during WAG flooding. Higher loss was found in cores with high in-situ oil saturations. No injectivity loss was observed with the naturally fractured carbonate core.
Date: April 6, 1997
Creator: Guo, Boyun (Gordon); Schechter, David S.; Tsau, Jyun-Syung; Grigg, Reid B. & Chang, Shih-Hsien (Eric)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Efficiency of Miscible C02 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for C02 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: A grant, �Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs,� DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-97BC15047, was awarded and started on June 1, 1997. This project examines three major areas in which CO2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. In this quarter we continued the examination of synergistic effects of mixed surfactant versus single surfactant systems to enhance the properties of foams used for improving oil recovery in CO2 floods. The purpose is to reduce the concentration of surfactants and find less expensive surfactants. Also, we are refining reservoir models to handle the complex relationships of CO2-foam and heterogeneous reservoirs. The third area of our report this quarter comprises the results from experiments on CO2-assisted gravity drainage in naturally fractured oil reservoirs. Two more CO2 core flood experiments have been conducted under reservoir conditions to investigate the effect of pressure on oil recovery efficiency during CO2-assisted gravity drainage.
Date: January 23, 1997
Creator: Guo, Boyun (Gordon); Schechter, David S.; Tsau, Jyun-Syung; Grigg, Reid B. & Chang, Shih-Hsien (Eric)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

Description: The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. Additionally, a ten (10) acre field demonstration pilot project is part of this project. This report discusses the activity, during the third calendar quarter (July through September) of 1998 (fourth quarter of the projects fiscal year).
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: McDonald, Paul & Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Implementation of a C02 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

Description: The first project objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second project objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work during the fourth quarter falls within the demonstration project.
Date: April 28, 1998
Creator: Bles, J. Scott & Dollens, Kimberly B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Efficiency Improvements During CO2 Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Description: The objective of this project was to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO2 flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. This report provided results of the second semi-annual technical progress report that consists of three different topics.
Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Schechter, David S. & Vance, Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

Description: The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.
Date: July 26, 2002
Creator: Knight, Bill & Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide with Enhanced Gas Recovery-CaseStudy Altmark, North German Basin

Description: Geologic carbon dioxide storage is one strategy for reducingCO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Depleted natural gas reservoirs are anobvious target for CO2 storage due to their proven record of gascontainment. Germany has both large industrial sources of CO2 anddepleting gas reservoirs. The purpose of this report is to describe theanalysis and modeling performed to investigate the feasibility ofinjecting CO2 into nearly depleted gas reservoirs in the Altmark area inNorth Germany for geologic CO2 storage with enhanced gasrecovery.
Date: October 12, 2005
Creator: Rebscher, Dorothee & Oldenburg, Curtis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole Seismic Monitoring of Injected CO2 at the Frio Site

Description: As part of a small scale sequestration test (about 1500 tonsof CO2) in a saline aquifer, time-lapse borehole seismic surveys wereconducted to aid in characterization of subsurface CO2 distribution andmaterial property changes induced by the injected CO2. A VSP surveydemonstrated a large increase (about 75 percent) in seismic reflectivitydue to CO2 injection and allowed estimation of the spatial extent of CO2induced changes. A crosswell survey imaged a large seismic velocitydecrease (up to 500 m/s) within the injection interval and provided ahigh resolution image of this velocity change which maps the subsurfacedistribution of CO2 between two wells. Numerical modeling of the seismicresponse uses the crosswell measurements to show that this small CO2volume causes a large response in the seismic reflectivity. This resultdemonstrates that seismic detection of small CO2 volumes in salineaquifers is feasible and realistic.
Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.; Hoversten, G.M.; Peterson, JohnE. & Korneev, Valeri A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure duringgeological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault-slip analysis

Description: This paper demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis to estimate themaximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration ofCO2. Two numerical modeling approaches for analyzing faultslip areapplied, one using continuum stress-strain analysis and the other usingdiscrete fault analysis. The results of these two approaches to numericalfault-slip analyses are compared to the results of a more conventionalanalytical fault-slip analysis that assumes simplified reservoirgeometry. It is shown that the simplified analytical fault-slip analysismay lead to either overestimation or underestimation of the maximumsustainable injection pressure because it cannot resolve importantgeometrical factors associated with the injection induced spatialevolution of fluid pressure and stress. We conclude that a fully couplednumerical analysis can more accurately account for the spatial evolutionof both insitu stresses and fluid pressure, and therefore results in amore accurate estimation of the maximum sustainable CO2 injectionpressure.
Date: October 17, 2006
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.; Cappa, F. & Tsang, C.-F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ANTELOPE SHALE TO ESTABLISH THE VIABILITY OF CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CALIFORNIA'S MONTEREY FORMATION SILICEOUS SHALES

Description: During the 1st quarter of 2002 CO{sub 2} injection remained shut-in as we continued to inject water and wait for the producing wells to be repaired. This report is a summary of the CO{sub 2} pilot execution that occurred during the 1st quarter of 2002.
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: Perri, Pasquale R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO{sub 2} Hugg-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, 2nd quarter 1996

Description: The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals.
Date: July 25, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: Progress has been made in each of the three project areas during this quarter. Each quarter we are highlighting one project area. This quarter, Task 2 is highlighted with expanded details. Significant progress has been made this quarter in testing the functionalities of the foam-durability apparatus for assessment of foam properties at reservoir conditions. Another surfactant, Alipal{reg_sign} CD-128 at a concentration of 1000 ppm, was used for core flooding experiments. The foam mobility data showed a significant reduction of CO{sub 2} mobility and a favorable mobility dependence on rock permeability. Two slim tube test series and continuous phase equilibrium were done to examine the effects of pressure, temperature, and oil composition on oil displacement efficiency. A new series of core foam tests were completed to study the effects of flow rate, CO{sub 2} fraction (foam) quality, and rock permeability on foam-flow behavior. We are in the process of moving the foam reservoir simulator MASTER from a workstation to a Pentium PC environment and test MASTER on a 166 MHz Pentium PC. IFT of CO{sub 2}/crude oil has been measured using our pendant drop measurement system at 138{degrees}F and pressures from 850 psig to 2200 psig. The CO{sub 2} gravity drainage experiment that is in progress using a 50md Berea core at 138{degrees}F and pressures from 1700 to 2000 psig has reached 48% oil recovery and is continuing to increase. The mathematical model developed previously matches the experimental response accurately.
Date: July 20, 1996
Creator: Schechter, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoir. Quarterly technical report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: Progress has been made in the area of laboratory analysis of Spraberry oil/brine/rock interactions during this quarter. Water imbibition experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, using cleaned Spraberry cores, synthetic Spraberry reservoir brine, and Spraberry oil. It has been concluded that the Spraberry reservoir cores are weakly water-wet. The average Amott wettability index to water is about 0.55. The average oil recovery due to spontaneous water imbibition is about 50% of original oil in place.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Schechter, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion

Description: The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing, waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.
Date: August 9, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process in a light oil shallow carbonate reservoir. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: The application of cyclic CO{sub 2}, often referred to as the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations; a light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that exists throughout the Permian Basin. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced. The selected site for this demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin`s daily production. There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO{sub 2} projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO{sub 2} H-n-P process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO{sub 2} projects when coupled together.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Prieditis, J. & Wehner, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel CO2-Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

Description: The objective of this contract was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO2.
Date: January 15, 2002
Creator: Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J. & Hamilton, Dr. Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Quarterly technical report

Description: The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth quarter of 1997 in the fourth area.
Date: July 7, 1998
Creator: Schechter, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

Description: The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.
Date: August 7, 2001
Creator: Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J. & Egg, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: The objective of this experimental research is to improve the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous reservoirs. Activities are being conducted in three closely related areas: (1) exploring further the applicability of selective mobility reduction (SMR) in the use of foam flooding, (2) exploring the possibility of higher economic viability of floods at slightly reduced CO{sub 2} injection pressures, and (3) taking advantage of gravitational forces during low interfacial tension (IFT), CO{sub 2} flooding in tight, vertically fractured reservoirs. Progress made this quarter in the following tasks is described: Task 1 CO{sub 2}-foams for selective mobility reduction; task 2 reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} flooding; and Task 3 low IFT processes and gas injection in fractured reservoirs.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Grigg, R.B.; Heller, J.P. & Schechter, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department