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The Nonphotosynthetic Fixation of Carbon Dioxide by ThreeMicro-Organisms

Description: Studies by Lynch and Calvin (1952,1953) have established the nature of the compounds incorporating C{sup 14} nonphotosynthetically from C{sup 14}O{sub 2} in thirteen microorganisms: a yeast, a protozoan, two water moulds, one slime mould, three algae, three bacteria, and the green flagellate Euglena Gracilis. With the exception of H. gracilis, and of Lactobacillus cassi which fixed no detectable amounts of carbon dioxide, all these organisms fixed carbon dioxide into amino and organic acids derived from the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and into a few other compounds in individual cases (tyrosine, phenylalanine, polysaccharides [probably glucose polymers], acetic acid and butyric acid). The authors concluded that the presence of C{sup 14} in almost all these compounds could be accounted for by the carboxylation of pyruvate to yield oxalacetic or malic acids, followed by transaminase reactions. In E. gracilis, however, considerable quantities of activity also appeared in phosphorylated compounds in the dark, especially in the sugar monophosphates, phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvic acid. Only with this organisms was a kinetic study performed to determine the identity and degree of labeling of the compounds containing C{sup 14} after varying periods of time. It was not stated definitely by which route carbon dioxide entered the photosynthetic intermediates, but it was implied that it was incorporated directly into phosphoglyceric acid, and that the energy for this process, which in photosynthesis is derived from sunlight, and was provided by respiration or fermentation. Certain aspects of these presumptions however, do not adequately account for all the experimental data.
Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Holm-Hansen, O.; Moses, V. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Although there has been considerable progress toward an understanding of the processes of photosyntehsis in recent years, the advances have been followed rather lcosely by symposia, monographs and reviews of the subject matter, particularly during the last three years. In view of the comprehensive coverage it would appear that the present review might very well be limited to a discussion of certain subjects of special interest to the authors and some with which they are especially familiar. These are (1) the extensive discussion by Warburg and his co-workers of their proposal for the existence of a light induced oxygen absorption (and corresponding carbon dioxide evolution) which can amount to three or four times the net oxygen evolution by the same light; and (2) the discovery of the early participation of 7 and 5 carbon sugars in carbon dioxide reduction in photosyntehsis together with some observations on the kinetics of the metabolic transformations. While it is true that a considerable number of significant publications have appears in other aspects of photosynthesis (the Hill reaction and its coupling with carbon dioxide reduction; photochemistry of chlorophyll and related synthetic materials as model reactions in relatively simple defined physical systems; transfer of light energy within the pigment systems) it is felt that they represent confirmation and extension of ideas which have already been discussed in a variety of earlier reviews and that a re-evaluation of them might very well be postponed until a later time.
Date: March 1, 1952
Creator: Calvin, M.; Bassham, J.A.; Benson, A.A. & Massini, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early Unstable CO2-Fixation Products in Photosynthesis

Description: Some chemical, physical, and chromatographic properties of the hydroxylamine stabilized early products of CO{sub 2} fixation in photosynthesis are described. Although no definitive structural information is yet available, these properties, together with the biochemical context in which the material appears, make possible some likely suggestions about the nature of the substances.
Date: December 19, 1957
Creator: Metzner, Helmut; Metzner, Barbara & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cyanide Effects on Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Chlorella

Description: Green algae have been treated with radioactive KCN in an investigation of the effect of cyanide on photosynthesis. A multitude of products have been found to be formed in very short exposures (10 to 15 sec). One of these products has been identified with the product formed when the algae are given radioactive CO{sub 2} and nonradioactive KCN. The same product has been synthesized by a nonenzymatic cyanohydrin addition reaction on ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate. It has been shown to be a 2-carboxy-pentitol (probably mostly ribitol)-1, 5-diphosphate. Upon hydrolysis it gives an hydroxy acid (or mixture of isomers) closely related to hamamelonic acid. The significance of this and the other as yet unidentified products of cyanide interaction with a biological system is discussed with respect to the use of cyanide as an inhibitor.
Date: December 17, 1957
Creator: Rabin, Bernard R.; Shaw, D. F.; Pon, Ning G.; Anderson, J. M. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The conclusions which have been drawn from the results of C{sup 14}O{sub 2} fixation experiments with a variety of plants are developed in this paper. The evidence for thermochemical reduction of carbon dioxide fixation intermediates is presented and the results are interpreted from such a viewpoint.
Date: April 1, 1950
Creator: Calvin, M.; Bassham, J .A.; Benson, A.A.; Lynch, V.; Ouellet, C.; Schou, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Green Plants

Description: Since the end of the war when the long-lived isotope of carbon, C{sup 14} became available a new tool has been applied in the study of photosynthesis. Because of the interest evoked by the tracer method, research in all areas of photosynthesis has expanded. There have been reviews on various aspects of photosynthesis such as the primary photochemical reaction, quantum efficiency products, and comparative biochemistry, many discussions of which were included in the monograph of The American Society of Plant Physiologists, ''Photosynthesis in Plants''.
Date: January 3, 1950
Creator: Benson, A.A. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Tools for CO2 Fixation by Homogeneous Catalysis - Final Technical Report

Description: The overall goal is the development of new or more efficient methods for the conversion of CO{sub 2} into useful organic products, via the design or discovery of new catalysts, ligands, solvents, and methods. Specific objectives for this funded period: (1) To develop a high-throughput screening technique and use it to develop an efficient catalyst/reagent/solvent system for the synthesis of ureas or carboxylic acids. (2) To use in-situ spectroscopic and kinetic methods to study the mechanism of the synthesis of ureas or carboxylic acids. (3) To develop bifunctional ligands capable of secondary interactions with CO{sub 2}, to detect the interactions, and to demonstrate applications to catalysis.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Jessop, Phillip G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities

Description: This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Benson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.
Date: January 12, 2000
Creator: Fujita, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Microorganisms

Description: Resting cells of eleven microorganisms were exposed to radioactive carbon dioxide for 40 minutes. The radioactive compounds formed during this time were separated and identified by paper chromatography. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei fixed no carbon dioxide and growing cells fixed carbon dioxide primarily in malic and aspartic acids. All of the radioactive compounds formed could have become radioactive by reversal of known decarboxylation reactions.
Date: July 24, 1951
Creator: Lynch, Victoria H. & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XXI. The Cyclic Regenerationof Carbon Dioxide Acceptor

Description: Photosynthesizing plants have been exposed to C{sup 14}O{sub 2} for short periods of time (0.4 to 15 sec.) and the products of carbon dioxide reduction analyzed by paper chromatography and radio autography. Methods have been developed for the degradation of ribulose and sedoheptulose. These sugars, obtained as their phosphate esters from the above C{sup 14}O{sub 2} exposures and from other experiments, have been degraded and their distribution of radiocarbon determined. The distribution of radiocarbon in these sugars, and other data, indicate that sedoheptulose phosphate and ribulose diphosphates are formed during photosynthesis from triose and hexose phosphates, the latter being synthesized, in turn, by the reduction of 3-phosphoglyceric acid.
Date: October 1, 1953
Creator: Bassham, J.A.; Benson, A.A.; Kay, Lorel D.; Harris, Anne Z.; Wilson, A.T. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of light saturated photosynthesis: Concentration and activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Final report, September 1, 1993--February 28, 1997

Description: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is one of the most abundant enzymes on the planet and is responsible for catalysing the net fixation of CO{sub 2} into organic matter. It is central, therefore, to primary productivity in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Rubisco is a large enzyme with low substrate affinity and low catalytic efficiency and is considered to limit the rate of light-saturated photosynthesis. This report summarizes research into the molecular basis of the regulation of phytoplankton photosynthesis. It describes experimental and theoretical studies of the role of Rubisco in regulating the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton. It also describes the integration of a mechanistically based phytoplankton growth model into a description of primary productivity in the sea. This work was conducted as part of the Ocean Margins Program.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Geider, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of photosynthetic carbon fixation on the ocean margins. Final report

Description: The US Department of Energy is concerned with the fate of energy-related materials, including carbon dioxide, in the marine environment. Using laboratory studies, as well as field studies, an attempt was made to understand the molecular regulation of photosynthetic carbon reduction. The objectives were: to determine the mechanism of regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) in phytoplankton in response to changes in light fields; and to determine regulation of (RuBPCase) in response to light under nutrient deprivation.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Paul, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoreduction of CO{sub 2} using metal complexes

Description: Photochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to fuels and chemicals is a challenging task. Work in the area of photochemical CO{sub 2} reduction from the early 1980s to the present is summarized to provide a perspective on the achievements and problems involved in the process.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Fujita, Etsuko
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XVII. Phosphorus Compoundsas Intermediates in Photosynthesis

Description: Studies of carbon dioxide fixation in green plants using the C{sup 14} isotope have shown that in very short times phosphoglyceric acid contains most of the radioactivity. The tracer is present almost entirely in the carboxyl group. The importance of organic phosphates in the subsequent metabolism of phosphoglyceric acid can be seen from the accompanying photographs.
Date: July 8, 1952
Creator: Buchanan, J.G.; Bassham, J.A.; Benson, A.A.; Bradley, D.F.; Calvin, M.; Daus, L.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rangeland plant response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Annual report, 1991

Description: Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on a tallgrass ecosystem were monitored during the 1990 growing season. The chambers, CO{sub 2} delivery system, and data acquisition and control system were in place and operational by 4 April 1990. CO{sub 2} fumigation and data acquisition began on that date. Nitrogen fertilizer as ammonium nitrate was applied at a rate of 45 kg ha {sup -1} on 1 April to the N-fertilized plots. The chambers were 4.5 m in diameter and 4 m in height to allow for destructive sampling for biomass accumulation, leaf area determination, and for grazing esophageally-fistulated sheep. The experimental site was located in pristine Tallgrass Prairie north of/and adjacent to the Kansas State University campus. Vegetation on the site was a mixture of C3 and C4 species and was dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon geradii vitman) and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash). Subdominants included Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.), and tall dropseed (Sporobolus asper var. asper (Michx.) Kunth). Members of the sedge family made up 5-10% of the composition. Principal forbs included western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.), Louisiana sagewort (Artemesia ludoviciana Nutt.), and mayflower scurfpea (Psoralea tenuiflora var. floribunda (Nutt.) Rydb.). Average peak biomass occurs in early August at 425 g m{sup -2} of which 35 g m{sup -2} is from forbs. The area was ideal for meeting the experimental objectives, in that the mixture of C3 and C4 plants would allow for assessment of competitive relationships among numerous species of both carbon fixation pathways.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. 4th Quarterly technical progress report

Description: Microalgae cultivation in large open ponds is the only photosynthetic process likely to directly utilize power plant flue gas CO{sub 2} for production of biomass. The algal biomass can be converted into substitutes for fossil fuels, in particular liquid fuels such as biodiesel (vegetable oil methyl or ethyl esters), thus reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and the potential for global warming. This concept is being investigated, among others, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at Golden, Colorado, with support from PETC.
Date: December 28, 1994
Creator: Benemann, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical assessment of large marine particles: Development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Final report, June 1992--May 1996

Description: The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The overall objective of this work within OMP was to develop an instrument package to measure the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. Pursuant to this the authors have developed a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and assembled the computer and software methods to routinely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the `marine snow` size particles (dia. > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean. The instrument package collects aggregate abundance and size spectrum data using two video camera/strobe subsystems with a third subsystem collecting CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data. Additionally, measurements of particle flux were made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography mooring program. The authors envisioned a three stages development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal and completed. The third stage was limited to scoping work with the LAPS and deployment of ...
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Walsh, I.D. & Gardner, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rangeland Plant response to elevated CO{sub 2}

Description: Plots of a tallgrass prairie ecosystem were exposed to ambient and twice-ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations in open-top chambers and compared to unchambered ambient CO{sub 2} plots during the entire growing season from 1989 through 1993. Dominant species were Andropogon geradii, A. scoparius, and Sorghastrum nutans (C{sub 4}) and Poa pratensis (C{sub 3}). Aboveground biomass and leaf area were estimated by periodic sampling throughout the growing season in 1989 and 1990. In 1991, 1992, and 1993, peak biomass and leaf area were estimated by an early August harvest. Compared to ambient CO{sub 2} levels, elevated CO{sub 2} increased production of C{sub 4} grass species in 1989-1991, but in 1992 and 1993, wet years, there was no difference in C{sub 4} biomass production among treatments. Biomass production of C{sub 3} grass species did not differ among treatments any year. Root ingrowth biomass was greater in 1990 and 1991 on elevated CO{sub 2} plots compared to ambient or chambered-ambient plots. In 1992 and 1993, there was no difference in root ingrowth biomass among treatments.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department