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Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

Description: There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.
Date: February 29, 2008
Creator: Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T. & Davidson, Casie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Long-Term Average Cost of CO2 Transport and Storage

Description: Paper describes general trends in the cost of CO2 transport and storage (including measurement, monitoring, and verification) and how these can be used to justify a proxy cost to cover a large number of potential CCS commercial deployment scenarios.
Date: March 3, 2008
Creator: Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T. & Davidson, Casie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response to: “Long-term effectiveness and consequences of carbon dioxide sequestration” by Gary Shaffer, published in Nature Geosciences, 27 June 2010.

Description: Shaffer’s (2010) article reports on the long term impact of less than perfect retention of anthropogenic CO2 stored in deep geologic reservoirs and in the ocean. The central thesis of this article is predicated on two deeply flawed assumptions. The first and most glaring is the implicit assumption that society has only one means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). Secondly, there is absolutely no geophysical nor geomechanical basis for assuming an exponential decay of CO2 stored in deep geologic formations as done by Schaffer. Shaffer’s analysis of the impact of leakage from anthropogenic CO2 stored in deep geologic reservoirs are based upon two fundamentally flawed assumptions and therefore the reported results as well as the public policy conclusions presented in the paper need to be read with this understanding in mind as far less CO2 stored below ground because society drew upon a broad portfolio of advanced energy technologies over the coming century coupled with a more technically accurate conceptualization of CO2 storage in the deep subsurface and the important role of secondary and tertiary trapping mechanisms would have yield a far less pessimistic view of the potential role that CCS can play in a broader portfolio of societal responses to the very serious threat posed by climate change.
Date: July 12, 2010
Creator: Dooley, James J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visualizing the Surface Infrastructure Used to Move 2 MtCO2/year from the Dakota Gasification Company to the Weyburn CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Project: Version of July 1, 2009

Description: Google Earth Pro has been employed to create an interactive flyover of the world’s largest operational carbon dioxide capture and storage project. The visualization focuses on the transport and storage of 2 MtCO2/year which is captured from the Dakota Gasification Facility (Beula, North Dakota) and transported 205 miles and injected into the Weyburn oil field in Southeastern Saskatchewan.
Date: July 9, 2009
Creator: Dooley, James J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of the 23rd Session of the IPCC

Description: In the context of this agenda item discussion took place on the management plan for the AR4 SYR. The Panel agreed that further consideration will be given by the Bureau to aspects of arrangements for management of the AR4 SYR, and progress reported to the Panel.
Date: September 2005
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Report of the 24th Session of the IPCC

Description: The meeting highlighted recent progress in the work of the IPCC, in particular the completion of the two Special Reports on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC), and on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and the preparations for the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Among other speakers, the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Mr Klaus Töpfer addressed the Session on the linkages between science and climate change policy and the increasing need for information from the IPCC. He reaffirmed UNEP's commitment to the IPCC and supported early planning for the period beyond AR4. The Deputy Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), also addressed the Panel on the importance of the principles of impartiality, transparency, scientific authority and integrity for the past success of the IPCC, the linkages of WMO programmes and IPCC assessments, and WMO's commitment to the IPCC.
Date: September 2005
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Assessment of the Commercial Availability of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies as of June 2009

Description: Currently, there is considerable confusion within parts of the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technical and regulatory communities regarding the maturity and commercial readiness of the technologies needed to capture, transport, inject, monitor and verify the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in deep, geologic formations. The purpose of this technical report is to address this confusion by discussing the state of CCS technological readiness in terms of existing commercial deployments of CO2 capture systems, CO2 transportation pipelines, CO2 injection systems and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) systems for CO2 injected into deep geologic structures. To date, CO2 has been captured from both natural gas and coal fired commercial power generating facilities, gasification facilities and other industrial processes. Transportation via pipelines and injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface are well established commercial practices with more than 35 years of industrial experience. There are also a wide variety of MMV technologies that have been employed to understand the fate of CO2 injected into the deep subsurface. The four existing end-to-end commercial CCS projects – Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah and Weyburn – are using a broad range of these technologies, and prove that, at a high level, geologic CO2 storage technologies are mature and capable of deploying at commercial scales. Whether wide scale deployment of CCS is currently or will soon be a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is largely a function of climate policies which have yet to be enacted and the public’s willingness to incur costs to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Earth’s climate. There are significant benefits to be had by continuing to improve through research, development, and demonstration suite of existing CCS technologies. Nonetheless, it is clear that most of the core technologies required to address capture, transport, injection, monitoring, management and verification ...
Date: June 26, 2009
Creator: Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L. & Dahowski, Robert T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

Description: This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.
Date: July 14, 2010
Creator: Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T. & Davidson, Casie L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

Description: This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.
Date: May 14, 2007
Creator: McFarland, James R. & Herzog, Howard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department