374 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Well Logging with Californium-252

Description: Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Boulogne, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Documentation and analysis for packaging for surface moisture measurement system 7A containers

Description: This documentation and analysis for packaging documents that two, procured, carbon steel 5-gal drums meet all applicable U.S.Department of Transportation-7A requirements. One container will be used to transport a 0.009 Ci 252 Cf source and the other to transport a 1.7 Ci Am-Be source to and from various 200 Area tank farms.
Date: June 17, 1996
Creator: Clem, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Californium-252: neutron source for industry and medicine

Description: From eleventh conference on radioisotopes; Tokyo, Japan (13 Nov 1973). The history, production, and availability of /sup 252/Cf and its many potential uses are discussed. Applications in life sciences, education chemical analysis, exploration for natural resources, industrial process control, neutron radiography, nondestructive inspection, and neutron flux enhancement are described. (TFD)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Reinig, W.C.; Permar, P.H. & Cornman, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

Description: Potential applications for devices or systems containing $sup 252$Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on $sup 252$Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of $sup 252$Cf devices should increase from $1.5 million in 1975 to $10.8 million in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of $sup 252$Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Permar, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed {sup 252}Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the {sup 252}Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R. & Knauer, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

Description: A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.
Date: October 10, 1995
Creator: Osborne-Lee, I.W. & Alexander, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dosimetry of an Implantable 252 Californium Source

Description: The radiation dose from 252 Californium needles designed for use as a source of neutrons for radiotherapy has been measured. The dosimetry information presented in this paper will enable clinical studies of neutron radiotherapy with 252 Californium needles to be planned and begun.
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: Oliver, G.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time and frequency domain measurements for plutonium metal rings

Description: The {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis method was used to measure the neutron multiplication factor for subcritical systems and to identify fissionable materials and configurations. These measurements with the moderator-ring configuration have shown that the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise methods, both in the time and frequency domain, can be used to identify and distinguish the {sup 242}Pu from the {sup 239}Pu ring. Signatures for each ring can be used to track and confirm the presence of these two types of Pu rings. Because of the sensitivity of these signatures to mass, these measurements can also confirm the Pu mass. These preliminary measurements have not yet explored the full range of capability of this method for this application.
Date: September 1996
Creator: Mihalczo, J. T.; Pare, V. K.; Blakeman, E. D.; Valentine, T. E.; Vessard, S. & Pruvost, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Moderation of neutron spectra

Description: Most of the accelerators that produce the various microenergetic neutron sources required for low-energy neutron dosimetry studies have been shut down. One alternative to accelerator-produced sources is the use of fission neutron or ({alpha},n) sources with unique neutron spectra. The problem with this solution is that maintenance of these sources is impractical. To help overcome this impracticality, the authors propose the use of moderating materials to produce a variety of spectra using a minimum number of sources. In the study, they performed Monte Carlo transport calculations under the following conditions: transporting neutrons from bare {sup 252}Cf or {sup 241}Am-Be sources from the center of various-sized spheres; tallying neutron spectra at 50 cm from the source. Of the twelve different moderating materials they studied, they found pure copper to be an ideal moderator. In this paper, they present flux-weighted energies, neutron spectra, and dose information for both {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources in bare and six-moderator configurations.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hsu, H.H. & Chen, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of high-activity {sup 252}Cf sources for neutron brachytherapy

Description: The Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center of Wayne State University (WSU), Detroit, Michigan, is using {sup 252}Cf medical sources for neutron brachytherapy. These sources are based on a 20-year-old design containing {le} 30 {micro}g {sup 252}Cf in the form of a cermet wire of Cf{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a palladium matrix. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been asked to develop tiny high-activity {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for use with remote afterloading equipment to reduce treatment times and dose to clinical personnel and to expedite treatment of brain and other tumors. To date, the REDC has demonstrated that {sup 252}Cf loadings can be greatly increased in cermet wires much smaller than before. Equipment designed for hot cell fabrication of these wires is being tested. A parallel program is under way to relicense the existing source design for fabrication at the REDC.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R.; Miller, J.H.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Rivard, M.J. & Marsh, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy

Description: This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Rivard, M. J.; Wierzbicki, J. G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P. J.; Fontanesi, J.; Martin, R. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Californium-252 Neutron Sources for Medical Applications

Description: Californium-252 neutron sources are being prepared to investigate the value of this radionuclide in diagnosing and treating diseases. A source resembling a cell-loaded radium needle was developed for neutron therapy. Since therapy needles are normally implanted in the body, very conservative design criteria were established to prevent leakage of radioactive. Methods are being developed to prepare very intense californium sources that could be used eventually for neutron radiography and for diagnosis by neutron activation analysis. This paper discusses these methods.
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: Boulogne, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Californium-252: A New Isotopic Source for Neutron Radiography

Description: This report discusses a new isotopic source for neutron radiography, Californium-252. Nuclear reactors are the usual source of neutrons for radiography, primarily because of their intense neutron beams. If neutron radiography is to have widespread use, intense transportable neutron sources are required that can be used in plants, in laboratories and in the field.
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: Reinig, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department