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Controlled Assembly of Hybrid Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells bySequential Deposition

Description: This work presents a technique to create ordered and easily characterized hybrid nanocrystal-polymer composites by sequential deposition of tetrapod-shaped cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and poly(3-hexlythiophene). With controlled fabrication and composite morphology, these devices offer several advantages over traditional codeposited hybrid cells, and provide a model system for detailed investigation into the operation of bulk-heterojunction cells.
Date: August 13, 2006
Creator: Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A. & Alivisatos, A. Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

Description: Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn, Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.
Date: June 27, 2001
Creator: Petersen, Michael David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

Description: Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn,Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Petersen, Michael David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

Description: Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detectors provide excellent sensitivity to infrared radiation and are used in passive infrared remote sensors such as the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). However, MCT detectors have a nonlinear response and thus this nonlinearity must be characterized and corrected to provide accurate infrared radiance observations. This paper discusses the significance of the nonlinearity correction applied to AERI data and its impacts on the parameters retrieved from the AERI spectra. It also evaluates the accuracy of the scheme used to determine the nonlinearity of the MCT detectors used in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s AERIs.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Turner, D. D.; Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Dedecker, R. G. & Feltz, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing the plutonium isotopic analysis code FRAM with various CdTe detectors.

Description: The isotopic analysis code Fixed-energy Response-function Analysis with Multiple efficiency (FRAM)1,2 has been proven to successfully analyze plutonium spectra taken with a portable CdTe detector with Peltier cooling, the first results of this kind for a noncryogenic detector.3 These are the first wide-range plutonium gamma-ray isotopics analysis results obtained with other than Ge spectrometers. The CdTe spectrometer measured small plutonium reference samples in reasonable count times, covering the range from low to high burnup. This paper describes further testing of FRAM with two CdTe detectors of different sizes and resolutions using different analog and digital, portable multichannel analyzers (MCAs).
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Vo, Duc T. & Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmentally responsible recycling of thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules. Final technical report

Description: Continuing from the third quarter, all technical objectives of this Phase II SBIR work were previously and successfully completed. This report is therefore brief and contains two elements (1) a comparison of technical objective accomplishments to the stated goals in the original grant proposal (2) a summary of the third key element of this work; a market analysis for the developed recycling technology systems.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Bohland, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct sublattice imaging of interface dislocation structures in CdTe/GaAs(001)

Description: This paper presents directly interpretable atomic resolution images of dislocation structures at interfaces in CdTe/GaAs(001) systems. This is achieved using the technique of Z-contrast imaging in a 300 kV scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with maximum entropy image analysis. In addition to being used to further the understanding of the relation between growth conditions and exhibited properties, the data presented provides direct information on the atomic arrangements at dislocation cores.
Date: January 1995
Creator: McGibbon, A.J.; Pennycook, S.J.; Angelo, J.E. & Mills, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new intense neutron generator and high-resolution detector for well logging applications

Description: Advances in both ion source and gamma-ray detector technology at LBNL are being used to develop a new high-sensitivity neutron logging instrument. Up to 37 mA of current per 10-20 {mu}s pulse, 80-95% D{sup +}, has been produced by a 2 inch diameter pulsed multicusp ion source. A D-T neutron flux of 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} n/s is projected from this data. CdZnTe is being developed as a possible gamma-ray detector because of its potential for good energy resolution and efficiency, and ability to operate at room temperature. 3-D time-dependent Monte Carlo calculations show the utility of this system for locating contaminants, especially chlorine-containing solvents, at remediation sites.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Celata, C.M.; Amman, M. & Donahue, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Faraday effect in Cd{sub 0.57}Mn{sub 0.43}Te in high magnetic field

Description: The experimental results of Faraday rotation (FR) measurements in dilute magnetic semiconductors in high magnetic field are presented (Dirac Series--Los Alamos). The magnetic field is produced by an explosive-driven flux-compression generator (150 T). Measurements have been carried with samples of Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Te with x = 0.43 using 633 nm light at liquid helium temperature. The FR increases in such samples when the magnetic field exceeds 60 T. Interband exchange interaction and the direct influence of the external magnetic field on the exchange interaction must be considered to interpret the experimental results.
Date: March 26, 1997
Creator: Platonov, V.V.; Tatsenko, O.M. & Bykov, A.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HRLEED and STM study of misoriented Si(100) with and without a Te overlayer

Description: The growth of high quality Te on misoriented Si(100) is important as an intermediate phase for epitaxial growth of CdTe. The misorientation angle plays a key role in the growth quality of CdTe/Si(100); this incited the curiosity to investigate the effect of the misorientation angle on the topography of the surface structure of Si(100). The main goal is to show the relation between the misorientation angle, the terrace width and the step height distributions. HRLEED (High Resolution Low Energy Electron Diffraction) provides information in reciprocal space while STM gives real space topographic images of the surface structure. STM and HRLEED measurements were performed on Si(100) with misorientation angle {var_theta} = 0.5{degree}, 1.5{degree} and 8{degree} towards the [110] direction and {var_theta} = 4{degree} towards the [130] direction. Except for the 8{degree} misorientation in which case a regular step array with diatomic step height was observed, for the other misorientations the terrace width was variable. The average terrace width decreased with increasing misorientation angle. A mixture of diatomic and monatomic step heights was observed on the 0.5{degree} and 1.5{degree} misoriented Si(100) samples. It proves that one can not assume purely monatomic step height for low misorientation angles. The results do not agree with the belief that at low miscut angle A and B terraces are equal and that as the misorientation angle increases the B terrace tends to be wider than the A terrace. In fact, pairing of terraces was not observed at all. Te was deposited at a substrate temperature of 200 C. The authors observed a significant reduction in the terrace widths for all miscut angles.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Yala, S. & Montano, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Effects on Magneto-Optical Properties in Cadmium Telluride/(Cadmium, Manganese) Telluride Single Quantum Well with High Manganese Concentration

Description: The pressure effect on the magnetic field induced type I-type II transition is studied in a CdTe/Cd<sub>1-x</sub>Mn<sub>x</sub>Te (x=0.24) single quantum well (SQW). Photoluminescence (PL) measurements under hydrostatic pressures up to 1.07 GPa and long pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T with a pulse duration of 2 sec are reported. The pressures were generated in a plastic diamond anvil cell (DAC). A bend toward lower energies (additional red shift) is observed above 28.5 T in magnetic field dependence of the exciton energy for a 13 Aring thick quantum well. We attribute this red shift to a phenomenon preceding the type I-type II transition after a comparison with a simple quantum mechanical calculation. The onset field of the additional red shift increases by 3.4 T by applying a pressure of 1.07 GPa. Spin-spin coupling between the exciton and the Mn ion in the interface region is also investigated and found to be enhanced by pressure.
Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Yokoi, H.; Tozer,S.; Kim, Y.; Rickel, D.; Kakudate, Y.; Usuba, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct structure determination by atomic-resolution incoherent STEM imaging

Description: Use of a large, annular dark-field (ADF) detector in a scanning transmission electron microscope is shown to give images that can allow direct structure determination, being a convolution between the illuminating probe intensity and an object function localized at the atomic column positions. The ADF image is also shown to resolve crystal spacings more than twice smaller than the phase contrast point resolution limit of the microscope used, with sub-angstrom structural information being retrieved. ADF image of several semiconductor materials are studied.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Nellist, P.D.; Xin, Y. & Pennycook, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

Description: This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below $1.00/W.
Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Sandwisch, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron Transmutation and Hydrogenation Study of Hg₁₋xCdxTe

Description: Anomalous Hall behavior of HgCdTe refers to a "double cross-over" feature of the Hall coefficient in p-type material, or a peak in the Hall mobility or Hall coefficient in n-type material. A magnetoconductivity tensor approach was utilized to identify presence of two electrons contributing to the conduction as well as transport properties of each electron in the material. The two electron model for the mobility shows that the anomalous Hall behavior results from the competition of two electrons, one in the energy gap graded region near the CdZnTe/HgCdTe interface with large band gap and the other in the bulk of the LPE film with narrow band gap. Hg0.78Cd0.22Te samples grown by LPE on CdZnTe(111B)-oriented substrates were exposed to various doses of thermal neutrons (~1.7 x 1016 - 1.25 x 1017 /cm2) and subsequently annealed at ~220oC for ~24h in Hg saturated vapor to recover damage and reduce the presence of Hg vacancies. Extensive Magnetotransport measurements were performed on these samples. SIMS profile for impurities produced by neutron irradiation was also obtained. The purpose for this study is to investigate the influence of neutron irradiation on this material as a basis for further study on HgCdTe74Se. The result shows that total mobility is observed to decrease with increased neutron dose and can be fitted by including a mobility inverse proportional to neutron dose. Electron introduction rate of thermal neutron is much smaller than that of fission neutrons. Total recovering of the material is suggested to have longer time annealing. Using Kane's model, we also fitted carrier concentration change at low temperature by introducing a donor level with activation energy changing with temperature. Results on Se diffusion in liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown HgCdTe epilayers is reported. The LPE Hg0.78Cd0.22Te samples were implanted with Se of 2.0×1014/cm2 at 100keV and annealed at ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: Zhao, Wei
Partner: UNT Libraries

RECRYSTALLIZATION OF CERAMIC MATERIAL FABRICATED FROM Cd1-xZnxTe.

Description: Binary and ternary A(illegible)B(illegible) compounds are conventionally grown from melt. This technique is very complicated and requires complex equipment to provide high pressures and high temperatures to grow stoichiometric compositions. New opportunities for designing materials used in the infrared technique and ionizing radiation detectors are opened by advantages in nanotechnology. In particular difficulties in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te with various Zn content are traditionally used in infrared optics and as a material for ionizing radiation detectors. Zn concentration in the nanopowders produced by the new vapor deposition technique varies from x=0.02 to x=0.1, including the composition Cd{sub illegible}Zn{sub illegible}Te, which is the most promising as a material for ionizing radiation detectors working at room temperature without cooling.
Date: August 29, 2007
Creator: KOLESNIKOV,N.N.; BORISENKO, E.B.; BORISENKO, D.N.; KVEDER, V.V. & JAMES, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of cadmium telluride quantum wires and the similarity of their band gaps to those of equidiameter cadmium telluride quantum dots

Description: High-quality colloidal CdTe quantum wires having purposefully controlled diameters in the range of 5-11 nm are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, using Bi-nanoparticle catalysts, cadmium octadecylphosphonate and trioctylphosphine telluride as precursors, and a TOPO solvent. The wires adopt the wurtzite structure, and grow along the [002] direction (parallel to the c axis). The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to the experimental results for high-quality CdTe quantum dots. In contrast to the predictions of an effective-mass approximation, particle-in-a-box model, and previous experimental results from CdSe and InP dot-wire comparisons, the band gaps of CdTe dots and wires of like diameter are found to be experimentally indistinguishable. The present results are analyzed using density functional theory under the local-density approximation by implementing a charge-patching method. The higher-level theoretical analysis finds the general existence of a threshold diameter, above which dot and wire band gaps converge. The origin and magnitude of this threshold diameter is discussed.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Wang, Lin-Wang; Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Lin-Wang & Buhro, William E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

Description: The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Hughes, Steven Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma Ray Detector Using Gallium Arsenide to Develop an Electrode Detector

Description: The emphasis of the DOE-funded detector project at the University of Michigan has been on the improvement of the performance of room-temperature gamma ray spectrometers. We have concentrated on the material known as CZT, a blend of cadmium and zinc tellurides, as the material of primary interest.
Date: March 26, 1999
Creator: Knoll, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced semiconductor detector development: Development of a room-temperature, gamma ray detector using gallium arsenide to develop an electrode detector. Progress report, September 30, 1994--September 29, 1995

Description: Devices fabricated from wide bandgap materials that can be operated without cooling suffer from poor energy resolution and are limited to very small volumes; this arises largely from poor hole mobility in compound semiconductors. Three different device configurations are being investigated for possibly overcoming this limitation: buried grid-single carrier devices, trenched single carrier devices, and devices using patterned coplanar electrodes (CdZnTe). In the first, leakage problems were encountered. For the second, a set of specifications has been completed, and electron cyclotron resonance etching will be done at an off-campus facility. For the third, Aurora will supply 3 different CdZnTe detectors. An analytical study was done of the patterned electrode approach.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Knoll, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic states in Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te/CdTe strained layer coupled double quantum wells and their photoluminescence

Description: Experimental and theoretical investigation of electronic states in a strained-layer CdTe/CdZnTe coupled double quantum well structure are presented. The optical properties of this lattice-mismatched heterostructure were characterized with photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation and polarization spectroscopies. Influence of electrical field on exciton states in the strained-layer CdTe/CdZnTe coupled double quantum well structure is experimentally studied. The confined electronic states were calculated in the framework of the envelope function approach, taking into account the strain effect induced by the lattice-mismatch. Experimental results are compared with the calculated transition energies.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Li, T.; Lozykowski, H.J. & Reno, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization inconsistencies in CdTe and CZT gamma-ray detectors

Description: In the past few years, significant developments in cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor materials have taken place with respect to both quality and yield. Many of the more recent developments have occurred in the area of CZT crystal growth. This has resulted in an explosion of interest in the use of these materials in ambient temperature gamma-ray detectors. Most, if not all, of the manufacturers of CdTe and CZT have acquired government funding to continue research in development and applications, indicating the importance of these improvements in material quality. We have examined many detectors, along with the accompanying manufacturer`s data, and it has become apparent that a clear standard does not exist by which each manufacturer characterizes the performance of their material. Result is a wide variety of performance claims that have no basis for comparison and normally cannot be readily reproduced. This paper first supports our observations and then proposes a standard that all manufacturers and users of these materials may use for characterization.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Lavietes, A.D. & McQuaid, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cadmium zinc telluride spectral modeling

Description: Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors are the highest resolution room-temperature gamma ray detectors available for isotopic analysis. As with germanium detectors, accurate isotopic analysis using the spectra requires peak deconvolution. The CZT peak shapes are asymmetric, with a long low energy tail. The asymmetry is a result of the physics of the electron/hole transport in the semiconductor. An accurate model of the physics of the electron/hole transport through an electric field will allow the parameterization of the peak shapes as a function of energy. In turn this leads to the ability to perform accurate spectral deconvolution and therefore accurate isotopic analysis. The model and the peak-shape parameterization as a function of energy will be presented.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Dardenne, Y. X., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department