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Altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of various can-type burners in Bumblebee 18-inch ram jet

Description: An investigation on various can-type burners in a Bumblebee 18-inch ram jet under controlled conditions of pressure altitude and ram pressure ratio was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel with kerosene as fuel. The performance of the following can-type burner configurations was better than that of the other burner configurations investigated: (1) a flame holder having a two-pitch alinement of perforations, 0.07-inch-wide cooling slots, and an arrangement of fuel nozzles located within an annulus having a mean radius of 7.24 inches; and (2) a flame holder having a zero-pitch alinement of perforations, 0.16-inch-wide cooling slots, and an annulus of fuel nozzles having a mean radius of 6.89 inches.
Date: March 16, 1949
Creator: Dupree, D. T.; Nussdorfer, T. J. & Sterbentz, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of propane-air flames in vortex flow

Description: Report presenting a vortex burner in which the vortex strength could be varied at constant flow rate, which was used for a study of propane-air vortex flames. Results regarding the measurement of vortex strength, turbulence, flames in vortex flow, the fuel-lean vortex flame, and stability of vortex flames are provided.
Date: February 1958
Creator: Potter, A. E., Jr.; Wong, E. L. & Berlad, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Some Burner Cross-Section Changes That Increase Space-Heating Rates

Description: Note presenting measurements of turbulent flame speeds and space-heating rates, which were made in a 1/2- by 2-inch glass-walled burner in which area blockage was introduced. Results regarding the effects of fuel-air ratio and velocity variation, effect of restriction shapes, effect of flameholder size without downstream restriction, heat-release rates, flame blowout and interruption by restrictions, flow tracer study, and shadow and direct photographs of the flame are provided.
Date: November 1957
Creator: Boldman, Donald R. & Blackshear, Perry L., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Experiments with Pilot Burners for Ram-Jet Combustors

Description: Memorandum presenting a preliminary development program on can-type pilot burners as part of an overall program to develop a high-altitude, low-drag ramjet combustor. Results regarding single-row circular pilot burners, six-row circular pilot burners, and annular-segment pilot burners are provided.
Date: January 2, 1953
Creator: Farley, John M.; Smith, Robert E. & Povolny, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Tests of a Burner for Ram-Jet Applications

Description: "Preliminary tests have been made of a small burner to meet the requirements for application to supersonic ram jets. The principal requirements were taken as: (1) efficient combustion in a high-velocity air stream, (2) utilization for combustion of only a small fraction of the air passing through the unit, (3) low resistance to air flow, (4) simple construction, and (5) light weight. Tests of a small burner were carried to stream velocities of nearly 150 feet per second and fuel rates such that one-eighth to one-fourth of the total air was involved in combustion" (p. 1).
Date: January 15, 1947
Creator: Huber, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting the State of Fuel and Air Mixtures

Description: From Introduction: "It is the purpose of this paper to describe the physical properties that are necessary to specify mixture quality in a system containing fuel and dry air and to evaluate the theoretical rolation between these properties and the physical properties of the mixture."
Date: May 1946
Creator: Gilbert, Mitchell; Howard, John N. & Hicks, Bruce L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of tail-pipe-burner design variables

Description: Report summarizing several experimental tail-pipe-burner investigations to indicate the effects of tail-pipe-burner design variables on the performance and operating characteristics. Most of the configurations were investigated over a wide range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers. The results indicate the desirable design features of a tail-pipe burner that will operate with high combustion efficiency and exhaust-gas temperature up to an altitude of approximately 50,000 feet.
Date: March 5, 1951
Creator: Fleming, W. A.; Conrad, E. William & Young, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of performance and operating characteristics of a tail-pipe burner for a turbojet engine

Description: Report presenting an investigation to obtain fundamental information required for the design of a satisfactory tail-pipe burner for augmenting turbojet engine thrust. Investigations were also conducted to determine the combustion and pressure-drop characteristics of the most satisfactory burner, to develop a method of controlling the burner-outlet temperature distribution, and to improve the burner ignition characteristics.
Date: October 30, 1947
Creator: Gabriel, David S.; Martinson, E. Vincent & Essig, Robert H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Jet Investigation of a 20-Inch Ram-Jet Combustor Utilizing High-Heat-Release Pilot Burner

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the performance of a 20-inch-diameter ramjet engine with a high-heat-release pilot burner conducted at zero angle of attack in a free-jet test facility at a Mach number of 3.0. Two flame-holder configurations were used in conjunction with the high-heat-release pilot burner over a range of altitudes. Results regarding the performance of the high-heat-release pilot burner and performance of combustion-chamber configurations are provided.
Date: October 16, 1953
Creator: Henzel, James G., Jr. & Wentworth, Carl B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion Characterization of Coal Fines Recovered from the Handling Plant

Description: Effect of swirl settings on NO{sub x} for three firing rates were investigated. It was found that the variation of NO{sub x} concentrations with respect to the change in swirl numbers was significant. But, the variation of NO{sub x} Concentration with respect to firing rates was found to be consistent with the increase in firing rates. The flame stability was accessed by the visual observation of the flame with relation to the burner quarl.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, Surender Rao; Chenevert, Lisa; Cornelius, Christopher & Dwivedi, S. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Energy Savings in Residential Oil-Fired Heating Systems in the United States

Description: Report issued by the National Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on the potential energy savings of residential heating systems. The results of oil-fired heating systems are discussed. This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Kelly, George E.; Didion, David A.; Quigley, D. & Collins, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive Control of Particle Dispersion in a Particle-Laden Circular Jet Using Elliptic Co-Annular Flow: A Means for Improving Utilization and Emission Reductions in Pulverized Coal Burner

Description: A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Choudhuri, Ahsan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared, Natural Gas Burners

Description: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a simple, fast, reliable and nondestructive analytical method. By using the method developed in Clark Atlanta University, consistent and reliable infrared spectral results can be obtained. An accurate radiant energy can be calculated from these infrared spectra by using a blackbody as the calibration standards. By means of the specially-designed-and-lab-made sampling inlet and the Horiba gas analyzers, the compositions of CO{sub 2}, CO, UCH, NOx and O{sub 2} etc. from the combustion exhaust gases have been on-line accurately analyzed. The commercial natural gas IR burner performed differently in the different conditions. For the methane-air combustion, at the equivalence ratio {Phi} = 1, the IR burner produced its maximum radiation efficiency, {approximately}31.4%, and the concentration of CO{sub 2} reached its maximum value, {approximately}10.7%. In the fuel-lean region, the O{sub 2} concentration in the emission gas decreased proportionally as {Phi} increased, but the concentrations of CO and UHC were kept in a couple of hundred ppm ranges. In the fuel-rich region, the O{sub 2} concentration was kept as a constant, {approximately}0.2%, but the CO and UHC concentrations were quickly jumped to thousands ppm or more as {Phi} further increased. The NOx formation was mainly dependent on the combustion temperature, and reached its maximum, {approximately}8 ppm, at {Phi}= {approximately}1. Because of the uniform temperature distribution, the IR burner produced lower NOx than traditional gas burners. Nitrogen is a non-combustible gas. It worked only as diluent for the combustion, reducing the radiant efficiency. Propane has a higher molar combustion enthalpy. It produced a higher combustion temperature and NOx, while maintaining similar radiant efficiency. Hydrogen has a lower combustion activation energy. It enhanced the radiant efficiency, and did not significantly affect the production of NOx, CO{sub 2} and CO.
Date: March 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 ...
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: MCDONALD,R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Performance Diesel Fueled Cabin Heater

Description: Recent DOE-OHVT studies show that diesel emissions and fuel consumption can be greatly reduced at truck stops by switching from engine idle to auxiliary-fired heaters. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has studied high performance diesel burner designs that address the shortcomings of current low fire-rate burners. Initial test results suggest a real opportunity for the development of a truly advanced truck heating system. The BNL approach is to use a low pressure, air-atomized burner derived form burner designs used commonly in gas turbine combustors. This paper reviews the design and test results of the BNL diesel fueled cabin heater. The burner design is covered by U.S. Patent 6,102,687 and was issued to U.S. DOE on August 15, 2000.The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low-pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a pre-filming, air blast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can b e as low as 1300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. At very low firing rates the small passage sizes in pressure swirl nozzles lead to poor reliability and this factor has practically constrained these burners to firing rates over 14 kW. Air atomization can be used very effectively at low firing rates to overcome this concern. However, many air atomizer designs require pressures that can be achieved only with a compressor, greatly complicating the burner package and increasing cost. The work described in this paper has been aimed at the practical adaptation of low-pressure air atomization to low input oil burners. The objective of this work is the development of burners that can achieve the benefits ...
Date: August 5, 2001
Creator: Butcher, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems ...
Date: February 4, 2003
Creator: Rudin, Andrew M.; Butcher, Thomas & Troost, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fireside Corrosion

Description: Oxy-fuel fireside research goals are: (1) determine the effect of oxyfuel combustion on fireside corrosion - flue gas recycle choice, staged combustion ramifications; and (2) develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an ash corrosivity measurement - synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes.
Date: July 14, 2011
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fireside Corrosion USC Steering

Description: Oxy-Fuel Fireside Research goals are: (1) Determine the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on fireside corrosion - (a) Flue gas recycle choice, Staged combustion ramifications, (c) JCOAL Collaboration; and (2) Develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an 'ash corrosivity' measurement - (a) Synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes, (b) Applicable to SH/RH conditions.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Holcomb, G. R. & Tylczak, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Inverted Co-Flow Diffusion Flame for Producing Soot

Description: We developed an inverted, co-flow, methane/air/nitrogen burner that generates a wide range of soot particles sizes and concentrations. By adjusting the flow rates of air, methane, and nitrogen in the fuel, the mean electric mobility diameter and number concentration are varied. Additional dilution downstream of the flame allows us to generate particle concentrations spanning those produced by spark-ignited and diesel engines: particles with mean diameters between 50 and 250 nm and number concentrations from 4.7 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. The range of achievable number concentrations, and therefore volume concentrations, can be increased by a factor of 30 by reducing the dilution ratio. These operating conditions make this burner valuable for developing and calibrating diagnostics as well as for other studies involving soot particles.
Date: June 21, 2005
Creator: Stipe, Christopher B.; Higgins, Brian S.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P. & Sawyer, Robert F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2—Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US),” a

Description: Develop a method for determining the solubility of protective oxides (Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and NiO) in an ash exposed at a particular temperature and gas composition. Metal oxide powder (Cr2O3 and NiO) will be mixed with a synthetic ash, milled for complete mixing, exposed at a variety of exposure times, and removed for analysis. • A decision will be made based on the results on to going further with the next tasks. • Perform the solubility tests on synthetic ashes and ashes collected from various oxyfuel burner rigs. • Correlate the solubility with long term corrosion tests and variables from the b i 4 burner rig tests.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Holcomb, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

Description: We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.
Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Maienschein, J L & Koerner, J G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

Description: The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.
Date: December 31, 2006
Creator: Penrod, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department