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Particle-in-Cell Calculationsof the Electron Cloud in the ILCPositron Damping Ring Wigglers

Description: The self-consistent code suite WARP-POSINST is being used to study electron cloud effects in the ILC positron damping ring wiggler. WARP is a parallelized, 3D particle-in-cell code which is fully self-consistent for all species. The POSINST models for the production of photoelectrons and secondary electrons are used to calculate electron creation. Mesh refinement and a moving reference frame for the calculation will be used to reduce the computer time needed by several orders of magnitude. We present preliminary results for cloud buildup showing 3D electron effects at the nulls of the vertical wiggler field. First results from a benchmark of WARP-POSINST vs. POSINST are also discussed.
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.-L. & Grote, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector

Description: We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort [1]. Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector [2-4]. The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}, which we let vary in the range 1.2 {le} {delta}{sub max} {le} 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 {approx}< {delta}{sub max} {approx}< 1.35 at this location. From this piece of information we estimate features of the EC distribution for various fill patterns, including the average electron number density n{sub e}. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency f{sub RF} = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population N{sub tot}. The density n{sub e} goes through a clear threshold as a function of N{sub tot} in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in N{sub tot} is a factor {approx} 2 higher for f{sub RF} = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor {approx} 2 when N{sub tot} is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed.
Date: August 25, 2008
Creator: Furman, Miguel .A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector

Description: We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} is {approx}> 1.4, and the average electron density is n{sub e} {approx}> 10{sup 10} m{sup -3} at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3].
Date: June 4, 2007
Creator: Furman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formal Devices of Trance and House Music: Breakdowns, Buildups, and Anthems

Description: Trance and house music are sub-genres within the genre of electronic dance music. The form of breakdown, buildup and anthem is the main driving force behind trance and house music. This thesis analyzes transcriptions from 22 trance and house songs in order to establish and define new terminology for formal devices used within the breakdown, buildup and anthem sections of the music.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Iler, Devin
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Novel Non-Destructive Silicon-on-Insulator Nonvolatile Memory - LDRD 99-0750 Final Report

Description: Defects in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) buried oxides are normally considered deleterious to device operation. Similarly, exposing devices to hydrogen at elevated temperatures often can lead to radiation-induced charge buildup. However, in this work, we take advantage of as-processed defects in SOI buried oxides and moderate temperature hydrogen anneals to generate mobile protons in the buried oxide to form the basis of a ''protonic'' nonvolatile memory. Capacitors and fully-processed transistors were fabricated. SOI buried oxides are exposed to hydrogen at moderate temperatures using a variety of anneal conditions to optimize the density of mobile protons. A fast ramp cool down anneal was found to yield the maximum number of mobile protons. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain uniform mobile proton concentrations across a wafer. Capacitors were irradiated to investigate the potential use of protonic memories for space and weapon applications. Irradiating under a negative top-gate bias or with no applied bias was observed to cause little degradation in the number of mobile protons. However, irradiating to a total dose of 100 krad(SiO{sub 2}) under a positive top-gate bias caused approximately a 100% reduction in the number of mobile protons. Cycling capacitors up to 10{sup 4} cycles had little effect on the switching characteristics. No change in the retention characteristics were observed for times up to 3 x 10{sup 4} s for capacitors stored unbiased at 200 C. These results show the proof-of-concept for a protonic nonvolatile memory. Two memory architectures are proposed for a protonic non-destructive, nonvolatile memory.
Date: November 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-cloud Build-up Simulations in the Proposed PS2: Status Report

Description: A replacement for the PS storage ring is being considered, in the context of the future LHC accelerator complex upgrade, that would likely place the new machine (the PS2) in a regime where the electron-cloud (EC) effect might be significant. We report here our current estimate of the EC density ne in the bending magnets and the field-free regions at injection and extraction beam energy, for both proposed bunch spacings, tb = 25 and 50 ns. The primary model parameters exercised are the peak secondary emission yield (SEY) delta max, the electron-wall impact energy at which the SEY peaks, Emax, and the chamber radius a in the fieldfree regions. We present many of our results as a function of the bunch intensity Nb, and we provide a tentative explanation for the non-monotonic behavior of ne as a function of Nb.
Date: May 5, 2010
Creator: Furman, M. A.; De Maria, R.; Papaphilippou, Y. & Rumolo, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parcperdue Geopressure--Geothermal Project: Appendix B

Description: The reservoir models used to perform the drawdown and buildup pressure analyses consist of analytic forms in lieu of the finite difference or numeric simulator types. Analytic models are derived from solutions of the diffusion equation which relate a pressure response with time and distance in the reservoir for a specified flow system. Solutions of the diffusion equation are obtained through mathematical methods such as Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, Neuman's product techniques and Green's functions. Before an analytic solution is derived, the diffusivity equation is expressed in terms of dimensionless potential (m{sub D}), dimensionless distance (r{sub D}) and dimensionless time (t{sub D}). For the cylindrical coordinate case, the diffusivity equation in dimensionless form for a geopressured system is given.
Date: October 5, 1981
Creator: Sweezy, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closedand semi-closed saline formations

Description: Saline aquifers of high permeability bounded by overlying/underlying seals may be surrounded laterally by low-permeability zones, possibly caused by natural heterogeneity and/or faulting. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into and storage in such 'closed' systems with impervious seals, or 'semi-closed' systems with nonideal (low-permeability) seals, is different from that in 'open' systems, from which the displaced brine can easily escape laterally. In closed or semi-closed systems, the pressure buildup caused by continuous industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection may have a limiting effect on CO{sub 2} storage capacity, because geomechanical damage caused by overpressure needs to be avoided. In this research, a simple analytical method was developed for the quick assessment of the CO{sub 2} storage capacity in such closed and semi-closed systems. This quick-assessment method is based on the fact that native brine (of an equivalent volume) displaced by the cumulative injected CO{sub 2} occupies additional pore volume within the storage formation and the seals, provided by pore and brine compressibility in response to pressure buildup. With nonideal seals, brine may also leak through the seals into overlying/underlying formations. The quick-assessment method calculates these brine displacement contributions in response to an estimated average pressure buildup in the storage reservoir. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity and the transient domain-averaged pressure buildup estimated through the quick-assessment method were compared with the 'true' values obtained using detailed numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} and brine transport in a two-dimensional radial system. The good agreement indicates that the proposed method can produce reasonable approximations for storage-formation-seal systems of various geometric and hydrogeological properties.
Date: February 10, 2008
Creator: Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F. & Rutqvist, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of BG28 and KG3 filter glass for Drive Diagnostic Attenuators

Description: BG28 and KG3 filter glasses were tested for use as attenuators in the NIF drive diagnostic (DrD) systems. Tests were performed in the Optical Sciences Laser facility with a 351 nm, 2-step, 3-nsec pulse at fluences ranging up to {approx} 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Single-shot measurements showed no solarization when the samples were allowed to relax for a week after exposure. KG3 filters exhibited no luminescence and no transient pulse distortion. BG28 filters luminesced appreciably and imposed a 'droop' (similar to 'square-pulse distortion') on the signals. The droop parameter is estimated at 0.50 {+-} 0.11 cm{sup 2}/J. Droop is explained in terms of known copper-doped-glass spectroscopy and kinetics (buildup of triplet-state populations, with excited-state absorption). Simulation of the distortion ({approx}1.6%) expected on a 1.8 MJ Haan pulse led to a minor redesign of the Drive Diagnostic with reduced fluence on the BG28 filters to reduce the droop distortion to 0.5%.
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Page, R H; Weiland, T & Folta, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A new 5kV, 1.5MJ modular capacitor bank has been designed for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) at LLNL. The new bank consists of thirty 4mF capacitors that are independently controlled by light-triggered thyristors. By closing all switches simultaneously, the bank will provide a mega-ampere discharge. The new bank will also allow additional capabilities to SSPX, including higher peak gun current, longer current pulses, and multi-pulse plasma buildup. Experiment results for a single stage prototype will be presented, deliver a single large current spike, or, switches can be triggered in sequence to deliver a longer lower current pulse. Multiple pulses can be created by triggering sections of the modular bank in intervals.
Date: May 31, 2005
Creator: Marchiano, M M; Cook, E G; Geer, R W; Kemptner, R O; McLean, H S; Martovetsky, N N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Pulse Position Modulation/Optical CDMA (PPM/O-CDMA) for Gb/s Fiber Optic Networking

Description: Pulse position modulation (PPM) in lasercom systems is known to provide potential advantages over other modulation schemes. [1]. In PPM, a periodic time frame is established and data is transmitted by placing a pulse in any one of several subintervals (or ''slots'') within each frame. In PPM/O-CDMA all users use the same frame structure and each transmits its unique address code in place of the PPM pulse. The advantage of PPM as a pulsed signal format is that (1) a single pulse can transmit multiple bits during each frame; (2) decoding (determining which subinterval contains the pulse) is by comparison rather than threshold tests (as in on-off-keying); (3) each user transmits in only a small fraction of the frame, hence the multi-access interference (MAI) of any user statistically spreads over the entire frame time, reducing the chance of overlap with any other user; and (4) under an average power constraint, increasing frame time increases the peak pulse power (i.e., PPM trades average power for peak power). The most straightforward approach to implementing PPM/O-CDMA data modulator inserts the PPM pulse modulation first, then imposes the O-CDMA coding. A pulsed PPM modulator converts bits (words) into pulse positions. In the case of wavelength/time (W/T) matrix codes, multi-wavelength pulses are generated at the beginning of each frame, at the frame rate. For M-ary PPM, a block of k bits represents M = 2{sup k} unique interval positions in the frame corresponding to M-l specific time delays (the zero delay is also a position). PPM modulation is achieved by shifting the initial pulse into an interval position with delay D(i) (i=0,1,2,..,M-1). The location of a pulse position (selection of a delay) therefore identifies a unique k-bit word in the frame. At the receiver, determining which delay occurs relative to the frame start time decodes ...
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V & Lennon, W J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation for Creep of 3013 Inner Can Lids

Description: The deflection of Type 304L austenitic stainless steel can lids on inner 3013 containers is monitored to identify any buildup of pressure within the container. This paper provides the technical basis to conclude that creep-induced deformation of these lids will be insignificant unless the temperature of storage exceeds 400 C. This conclusion is based on experimental literature data for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel and on a phenomenological evaluation of potential creep processes.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: DAUGHERTY, W. L.; GIBBS, K. M.; LOUTHAN JR., M. R. & DUNN, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Search for Reconnection and Helicity During Formation of a Bounded Spheromak

Description: Recent results from investigations using insertable magnetic probes at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are presented. Experiments were carried out during pre-programmed, constant amplitude coaxial gun current pulses, where magnetic field increases stepwise with every pulse, but eventually saturates. Magnetic traces from the probe, which is electrically isolated from the plasma and spans the flux conserver radius, indicate there is a time lag at every pulse between the response to the current rise in the open flux surfaces (intercepting the electrodes) and the closed flux surfaces (linked around the open ones). This is interpreted as the time to buildup enough helicity in the open flux surfaces before reconnecting and merging with the closed ones. Future experimental and diagnostic plans to directly estimate the helicity in the open flux surfaces and measure reconnection are briefly discussed.
Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Romero-Talamas, C A; McLean, H S; Hooper, E B; Wood, R D; LoDestro, L L & Moller, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

Description: In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.
Date: February 7, 2007
Creator: Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J. & Tsang, C-F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector

Description: To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Zhang, Xiaolong; Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; Chou, Weiren & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visualization of a changing dose field.

Description: To help visualize the results of dose modeling for nuclear materials processing opcrations, we have developed an integrated model that uses a simple dosc calculation tool to obtain estimates of the dose field in a complex geomctry and then post-process the data to produce a video of the now time-dependent data. We generate two-dimensional radiation fields within an existing physical cnvironment and then analyze them using three-dimensional visualization techniques. The radiation fields are generated for both neutrons and photons. Standard monoenergetic diffusion theory is used to estimate the neutron dosc fields. The photon dose is estimated using a point-kernel formalism, with photon shielding effects and buildup taken into account. The radiation field dynamics are analyzed by interleaving individual 3D graphic 'snapshots' into a smoothed, lime dependent, video-based display. In-the-room workers are 'seen' in the radiation fields via a graphical, 3D fly-through rendering of the room. Worker dose levels can reveal surprising dependencies on operational source placement, source types, worker alignment, shielding alignments, and indirect operations from external workers.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Helm, T. M (Terry M.) & Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure drawdown analysis for the Travale 22 well

Description: This work presents preliminary results on the analysis of drawdown data for Travale 22. Both wellhead pressure and flow rate data were recorded in this well for over a period of almost two years. In the past, Barelli et al. (1975) and Atkinson et al. (1977) presented the analysis of five pressure buildup tests. Figure 1 shows the Horner plot for these cases. They found that to have a good match in all cases, it was necessary to assume that the Travale 22 well is intersected by a partially penetrating vertical fracture in a parallel-piped whose bottom side is maintained at constant pressure (boiling front), as shown in Fig. 2. Atkinson et al. also presented an analysis for a pressure interface test run in the Travale-Radicondoli area. In this case, the Travale 22 well was flowing and the pressure recorded at wells R1, R3, R5, R6, R9, and Chl (see Fig. 3 ) . Analysis of these data showed that pressure interference in this reservoir can be matched by considering pure linear flow (Figs. 4 and 5 ) . This indicated the possible presence of a vertical fracture intersecting the Travale 22 well. It was determined that fracture is oriented along the N73{sup o}W direction. In addition, the pressure interference data showed that no boundary exists within 2 kilometers from the fracture plane. It was mentioned that linear flow should take place in both horizontal and vertical directions.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Barelli, A.; Brigham, W.E.; Cinco, H.; Economides, M.; Miller, F.G.; Ramey, H.J., Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Buildup of magmatic pressures in a volcanic system can arise from a variety of mechanisms. Numerical models of the response of volcanic structures to buildup of pressures in magma in dikes and conduits provide estimates of the pressures needed to reopen blocked volcanic vents. They also can bound the magnitude of sudden pressure drops in a dike or conduit due to such reopening. Three scenarios are considered: a dike that is sheared off by covolcanic normal faulting, a scoria cone over a conduit that is blocked by in-falling scoria and some length of solidified magma, and a lava flow whose feed has partially solidified due to an interruption of magma supply from below. For faulting, it is found that magma would be able to follow the fault to a new surface eruption. A small increase in magma pressure over that needed to maintain flow prior to faulting is required to open the new path, and the magma pressure needed to maintain flow is lower but still greater than for the original dike. The magma pressure needed to overcome the other types of blockages depends on the details of the blockage. For example, for a scoria cone, it depends on the depth of the slumped scoria and on the depth to which the magma has solidified in the conduit. In general, failure of the blockage is expected to occur by radial hydrofracture just below the blocked length of conduit at magma pressures of 10 MPa or less, resulting in radial dikes. However, this conclusion is based on the assumption that the fluid magma has direct access to the rock surrounding the conduit. If, on the other hand, there is a zone of solidified basalt, still hot enough to deform plastically, surrounding the molten magma in the conduit, this could prevent breakout ...
Date: August 26, 2005
Creator: Damjanac, B. & Gaffney, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron cloud in the Fermilab Booster

Description: Simulations of the Fermilab Booster reveal a substantial electron-cloud buildup both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, when the second-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is discussed.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Ng, K. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability Issues of the Mu2e Proton Beam

Description: Stability issues of the mu2e proton beam are discussed. These include space-charge distortion of bunch shape, microwave instabilities, mode-coupling instabilities, head-tail instabilities, as well as electron-cloud effects. We have studied several beam stability issues of the proton beam heading to the target for the mu2e experiment. We find bunch-shape distortions driven by the space charge force is reasonably small, and longitudinal microwave instability will unlikely to occur. Electron-cloud buildup, with density up to {rho}{sub e} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 12} m{sup -3} in the Accumulator, can probably drive head-tail instabilities. However, these, together with the instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance can be avoided by restricting the chromaticity to larger than {approx} 0.2. TMCI will not occur even when the electron-cloud wake is included.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Ng, K.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment

Description: Integrated modeling of basin- and plume-scale processes induced by full-scale deployment of CO{sub 2} storage was applied to the Mt. Simon Aquifer in the Illinois Basin. A three-dimensional mesh was generated with local refinement around 20 injection sites, with approximately 30 km spacing. A total annual injection rate of 100 Mt CO{sub 2} over 50 years was used. The CO{sub 2}-brine flow at the plume scale and the single-phase flow at the basin scale were simulated. Simulation results show the overall shape of a CO{sub 2} plume consisting of a typical gravity-override subplume in the bottom injection zone of high injectivity and a pyramid-shaped subplume in the overlying multilayered Mt. Simon, indicating the important role of a secondary seal with relatively low-permeability and high-entry capillary pressure. The secondary-seal effect is manifested by retarded upward CO{sub 2} migration as a result of multiple secondary seals, coupled with lateral preferential CO{sub 2} viscous fingering through high-permeability layers. The plume width varies from 9.0 to 13.5 km at 200 years, indicating the slow CO{sub 2} migration and no plume interference between storage sites. On the basin scale, pressure perturbations propagate quickly away from injection centers, interfere after less than 1 year, and eventually reach basin margins. The simulated pressure buildup of 35 bar in the injection area is not expected to affect caprock geomechanical integrity. Moderate pressure buildup is observed in Mt. Simon in northern Illinois. However, its impact on groundwater resources is less than the hydraulic drawdown induced by long-term extensive pumping from overlying freshwater aquifers.
Date: August 15, 2009
Creator: Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Mehnert, E.; Lin, Y.-F. & Zhang, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

Description: Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2} sequestration projects.
Date: April 2, 2009
Creator: Birkholzer, J.T. & Zhou, Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department