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The Energy Saving Potential of Precooling Incoming Outdoor Air by Indirect Evaporative Cooling

Description: This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of e… more
Date: September 1992
Creator: Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y. J.; Wu, H. & Blumstein, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

Description: The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models w… more
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Szydlowski, R. F.; Wrench, L. E.; O`Neill, P. J. & Paton, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

Description: The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models w… more
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Szydlowski, R. F.; Wrench, L. E.; O`Neill, P. J. & Paton, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Selecting representative climate stations for use in a building energy model

Description: An energy impacts model is being refined to support ongoing development of major energy conservation standards for US commercial buildings. When completed, the model will be used to evaluate potential impacts (energy savings and associated costs) of implementing the proposed standards. To work as intended, the model must contain a set of climate stations to represent the wide range of climatic conditions that occur across the United States. Researchers developed a procedure that employs a user-… more
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Hadley, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

Description: This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs… more
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Persistence of savings in multifamily public housing

Description: In a previous study of 43 retrofit cases in multifamily public housing, it was found that initial energy savings did not always persist into the second and third post-retrofit years in the cases where there were at least two years of post-retrofit data. In this study, we revisit the topic of persistence of savings in low-income multifamily buildings by collecting additional energy consumption data from many of the 43 retrofit cases analyzed in the previous work. These new data, in most cases, c… more
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Ritschard, R. & McAllister, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

Description: In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fu… more
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Kolb, J. O.; White, D. L.; Kinney, L. F. & Wilson, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Inspection and assessment of energy conservation opportunities at Ellis Island National Park, Ellis Island, New York

Description: Ellis Island is a National Park Service (NPS) facility located in New York Harbor that hosts two million visitors per year. The main building houses exhibits and artifacts, food and gift concessions, and staff work and office spaces in a 200,000-square-foot floor area. Heating and cooling of the main building are provided by a central heating and cooling plant, housed in an adjacent 20,000-square-foot building, with distribution by nine main fan systems and perimeter radiators. Energy end-use e… more
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Armstrong, P. R.; Parker, G. B. & Richman, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

Description: Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. Larger air conditioners are also more expensive to purchase. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during… more
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Lucas, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Minority Households by Home Type and Housing Vintage

Description: In this paper a descriptive analysis of the relationship between energy consumption, patterns of energy use, and housing stock variables is presented. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover evidence of variations in energy consumption and expenditures, and patterns of energy use between majority households (defines as households with neither a black nor Hispanic head of household), black households (defined as households with a black head of household), and Hispanic households (defined as ho… more
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Poyer, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

1992 National Census for District Heating, Cooling and Cogeneration

Description: District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square fee… more
Date: July 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Integrated estimation of commercial sector end-use load shapes and energy use intensities in the PG&E service area

Description: This project represents a unique research effort to address the commercial sector end-use energy forecasting data needs of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the California Energy Commission (CEC). The object of the project was to develop an updated set of commercial sector end-use energy use intensity (EUI) data that has been fully reconciled with measured data. The research was conducted in two stages. First, we developed reconciled electricity end-use EUIs and load shapes for ea… more
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Akbari, H.; Eto, J.; Konopacki, S.; Afzal, A.; Heinemeier, K. & Rainer, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An analysis of predicted vs monitored space heat energy use in 83 homes. Residential Construction Demonstration Project

Description: In 1983 the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) directed the Bonneville Power Administration to create the Residential Standards Demonstration Program to demonstrate actual construction using the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) and to collect cost and thermal data in residential structures. Much information was gained from that program, and as a consequence, the MCS were reevaluated and updated. A second program, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project was created to further … more
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Downey, P. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Economics and utility energy-efficiency programs: Energy-efficient manufactured housing

Description: As utilities investigate ways to implement conservation programs, the differences between customer and utility economic perspectives become more important. Because utilities bear the cost of new energy sources, energy efficiency investments that are cost-effective to them may not be cost-effective to their customers who pay average energy prices and have different economic parameters. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other parties in the Pacific Northwest have initiated an innovati… more
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Lee, A. D. & Onisko, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

USDOE energy standard compliance test on two-story office building

Description: There exists some skepticism in the design community regarding the ability to design an aesthetically pleasing building that meets the interim energy conservation standard for new commercial buildings initiated by the US Department of Energy. In response to this, a study was undertaken to demonstrate that compliance with energy standards does not mean giving up the architectural intent of a building. An unusual and architecturally pleasing building design was chosen for this study. This two-sto… more
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Bailey, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

New building technologies and building energy standards in the United States

Description: Some new and emerging technologies that may affect building energy consumption are reviewed in this paper. We also describe a brief impact analysis that evaluates the sensitivity of a simulation model to changes in broad categories of building equipment and materials. The analysis results permit direct comparisons of the effect of changes in energy efficiency to these building components. Potential barriers to the use of some new building products are also discussed. The barriers, inherent in t… more
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: O`Neill, P. J.; Jarnagin, R. E. & Schliesing, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Side-by-side evaluation of a stressed-skin insulated-core panel house and a conventional stud-frame house. Final report

Description: Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged… more
Date: January 14, 1994
Creator: Rudd, A. & Chandra, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

Description: The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal fini… more
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Martin, H. L. & Diener, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of the computerized utilities and energy monitoring and control system installed at the US Army, Europe, 222D Base Support Battalion, Baumholder, Germany

Description: ORNL the utilities and energy monitoring and control systems (UEMCSs) installed at the 222D Base Support Battalion (BSB) at Baumholder, Germany. This evaluation relies on examination of existing data and information to determine the effectiveness of the UEMCSs. The Baumholder BSB consists of numerous installations located as far as 63 miles from the principal installation at Baumholder. Only five facilities within these installations currently have support from four essentially separate UEMCSs … more
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Gettings, M. B. & Purucker, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Thermal performance of residential duct systems in basements

Description: There are many unanswered questions about the typical effects of duct system operation on the infiltration rates and energy usage of single- family residences with HVAC systems in their basements. In this paper, results from preliminary field studies and computer simulations are used to examine the potential for improvements in efficiency of air distribution systems in such houses. The field studies comprise thermal and flow measurements on four houses in Maryland. The houses were found to have… more
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Treidler, B. & Modera, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

Description: Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other … more
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Teotia, A. & Poyer, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Impacts of electric demand-side management programs on fuel choice: A case study

Description: Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make $2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has… more
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Lee, A. D.; Kavanaugh, D. C.; Sandahl, L. J. & Vinnard, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

Description: The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student`s to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An i… more
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin & Office., Washington State Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

1980 Base case and feasibility analysis

Description: This report describes a task of documenting a ``base case`` and performing a feasibility analysis for a national residential energy efficiency program for new homes, The principal objective of the task wasto estimate the energy consumption of typical homes built in 1980 and then to identify and assess the feasibility of methods to reduce that consumption by 50%. The goal of the program by the year 2000 is to reduce heating and cooling energy use in new homes built under the program to one-half … more
Date: March 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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