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Dimension Stone

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the building material, dimension stone. As stated in the introduction, "the pertinent properties and principal specifications for stone are described along with exploration, mining, finishing, and use technology. A brief history and geologic background are also included" (p. 2). This report includes maps, tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1968
Creator: Barton, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selection of lumber for farm and home building.

Description: A guide to selecting lumber for construction projects. Includes an overview of the classification of woods according to their properties, the various lumber grades and sizes, and the types of lumber products available in the retail market.
Date: January 1958
Creator: Sweet, Carroll Van Rennsaeleer, 1892- & Johnson, R. P. A. (Robert Pilson Albert), 1888-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The limit of strength and toughness of steel

Description: The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the governing principles of strength and toughness, along with the approaches that can be used to improve these properties and the inherent limits to how strong and tough a steel can be.
Date: December 17, 2001
Creator: Guo, Zhen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Properties of High-Density Concretes

Description: From summary: "Methods were developed for measuring various engineering properties of high-density concretes. Data are presented on selected thermal properties of a limonite-iron concrete and the mechanical properties of the limonite-iron concrete, a magnesium oxychloride concrete, and a Portland cement concrete containing steel punchings and shot (no limonite)."
Date: May 1951
Creator: Snyder, M. Jack; Burkart, C. A. & Clegg, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ring-On-Ring Tests and Load Capacity of Cladding Glass

Description: Report issued by the National Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on the load capacity of cladding glass. Testing methods are discussed. This report includes tables, photographs, and illustrations.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Simiu, Emil; Reed, Dorothy A.; Yancey, Charles W. C.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Hendrickson, Erik M.; Gonzalez, Armando C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of experimental and analytical methods to evaluate thermal bridges in wall systems

Description: Twelve ASTM C0236 guarded hot box experiments have been performed on wall systems containing a variety of thermal bridges. All of the wall systems included steel framing. Six walls also had a concrete block wall system and a concrete slab to simulate a wall/floor intersection. Thermal bridges included in the wall systems included steel studs, steel tracks, steel stud/track joints, fasteners (steel framing system), concrete slab, metal bolts and angle iron, and brick ties (concrete block wall). Two-dimensional finite difference modeling was also employed to characterize the wall systems. The experimental test data was used to tune and ultimately validate the computer simulation model. The average variation between the tested and simulated wall system R-Values was 3.3% and ranged from {minus}3.4 to +7.4%. The model was then used to determine the thermal impact of each individual thermal bridge. Beside the standard complement of temperature sensors that are traditionally used for these laboratory experiments, additional sensors were installed near each thermal bridge to define the area and magnitude of the thermal distortion caused by the thermal bridge. These thermal bridges were analytically simulated and the additional heat flux due to each thermal bridge was computed. This paper summarizes the experimental and analytical analyses used to characterize the wall systems and concentrate on the thermal impact each type of thermal bridge has on the overall performance of the wall systems.
Date: March 1997
Creator: Desjarlais, A. O. & McGowan, A. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a system of innovative insulated building blocks under energy related inventions grant. Quarterly progress report, ThermaLock Products, Inc., April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

Description: Progress is briefly presented on the research pertaining to insulated building blocks. Areas covered include development of a stuffing machine, fabrication, sound tests, and earthquake test design.
Date: July 6, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Masonry infill performance during the Northridge earthquake

Description: The response of masonry infills during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake is described in terms of three categories: (1) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing large near field seismic excitations, (2) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation, and (3) highrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation. In general, the infills provided a positive beneficial effect on the performance of the buildings, even those experiencing large peak accelerations near the epicenter. Varying types of masonry infills, structural frames, design conditions, and construction deficiencies were observed and their performance during the earthquake indicated. A summary of observations of the performance of infills in other recent earthquakes is given. Comparison with the Northridge earthquake is made and expected response of infill structures in lower seismic regions of the central and eastern United States is discussed.
Date: March 8, 1996
Creator: Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L. & Adham, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of the temperature dependency of fiberglass insulation R-value on cooling energy use in buildings

Description: Building energy models usually employ a constant, room-temperature-measured value for the thermal resistance of fiberglass roof insulation. In summer, however, the mean temperature of roof insulation can rise significantly above room temperature, lowering the insulation`s thermal resistance by 10% to 20%. Though the temperature dependence of the thermal resistance of porous materials like fiberglass has been extensively studied, it is difficult to theoretically predict the variation with temperature of a particular fiberglass blanket, from first principles. Heat transfer within fiberglass is complicated by the presence of three significant mechanisms - conduction through air, conduction through the glass matrix, and radiative exchange within the matrix - and a complex, unknown internal geometry. Purely theoretical models of fiberglass heat transfer assume highly simplified matrix structures and require typically-unavailable information about the fiberglass, such as its optical properties. There is also a dearth of useful experimental data. While the thermal resistances of many individual fiberglass samples have been measured, there is only one practical published table of thermal resistance vs. both temperature and density. Data from this table was incorporated in the DOE-2 building energy model. DOE-2 was used to simulate the roof surface temperature, roof heat flux, and cooling energy consumption of a school bungalow whose temperature and energy use had been monitored in 1992. The DOE-2 predictions made with and without temperature variation of thermal conductivity were compared to measured values. Simulations were also run for a typical office building. Annual cooling energy loads and annual peak hourly cooling powers were calculated for the office building using both fixed and variable thermal conductivities, and using five different climates. The decrease in the R-value of the office building`s roof led to a 2% to 4% increase in annual cooling energy load.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Levinson, R.; Akbari, H. & Gartland, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chicago partners in the American dream: A local effort within the national homeownership strategy

Description: President Clinton and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have set a goal of increasing homeownership in America. Currently the rate of homeownership is approximately 64 percent of the population. The goal is to raise that rate to 67.5 percent by the year 2000, a higher rate than ever recorded in U.S. history. Achieving the goal will require about 8 million families to acquire homes of their own. HUD has developed a plan for reaching the national homeownership goal. The plan is known as the National Homeownership Strategy. It was formulated with input from more than 50 public- and private-sector groups and consists of 100 objectives designed to make homeownership easier and affordable for American families. Among the objectives are expanded use of energy conservation and new construction technologies. The groups participating in the formulation of the National Homeownership Strategy formed a collaboration that was named the National Partners in Homeownership. Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a collaboration of Chicago organizations implementing the National Homeownership Strategy on a local level. It has made achieving the objectives of the Strategy the foundation for its local partnership. The Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a grassroots collaboration, combining the experience, resources, and expertise of a variety of local organizations. The fundamental goal of the Chicago Partners in the American Dream is to create 5,000 homeownership opportunities in nine to twelve focused areas within Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Communities in the Chicagoland market by the end of the year 2000.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Wallace, E.; Cavallo, J.; Peterson, N. & Nelson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASTM standards for measuring solar reflectance and infrared emittance of construction materials and comparing their steady-state surface temperatures

Description: Numerous experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that painting roofs white reduces air conditioning load up to 50%, depending on the thermal resistance or amount of insulation under the roof. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of a building and climate. In earlier work, the authors have estimated the national energy savings potential from reflective roofs and paved surfaces. Achieving this potential, however, is conditional on receiving the necessary Federal, states, and electric utilities support to develop materials with high solar reflectance and design effective implementation programs. An important step in initiating an effective program in this area is to work with the american Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the industry to create test procedures, rating, and labeling for building and paving materials. A subcommittee of ASTM E06, E06.42, on Cool Construction Materials, was formed as the vehicle to develop standard practices for measuring, rating, and labeling cool construction materials. The subcommittee has also undertaken the development of a standard practice for calculating a solar reflectance index (SRI) of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces. SRI is a measure of the relative steady-state temperature of a surface with respect to a standard white surface (SRI = 100) and a standard black surface (SRI = 0) under standard solar and ambient conditions. This paper discusses the technical issues relating to development of these two ASTM standards.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Akbari, H.; Levinson, R. & Berdahl, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

Description: This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: BISHOP, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.

Description: Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.
Date: November 16, 2000
Creator: Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M. & Raraz, A. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of uncertain material parameters using modal test data

Description: Analytical models of wind turbine blades have many uncertainties, particularly with composite construction where material properties and cross-sectional dimension may not be known or precisely controllable. In this paper the authors demonstrate how modal testing can be used to estimate important material parameters and to update and improve a finite-element (FE) model of a prototype wind turbine blade. An example of prototype blade is used here to demonstrate how model parameters can be identified. The starting point is an FE model of the blade, using best estimates for the material constants. Frequencies of the lowest fourteen modes are used as the basis for comparisons between model predictions and test data. Natural frequencies and mode shapes calculated with the FE model are used in an optimal test design code to select instrumentation (accelerometer) and excitation locations that capture all the desired mode shapes. The FE model is also used to calculate sensitivities of the modal frequencies to each of the uncertain material parameters. These parameters are estimated, or updated, using a weighted least-squares technique to minimize the difference between test frequencies and predicted results. Updated material properties are determined for axial, transverse, and shear moduli in two separate regions of the blade cross section: in the central box, and in the leading and trailing panels. Static FE analyses are then conducted with the updated material parameters to determine changes in effective beam stiffness and buckling loads.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Veers, P.S.; Laird, D.L.; Carne, T.G. & Sagartz, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

Description: This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 15, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activation of materials proposed for use in superconducting linac applications

Description: Samples of construction materials proposed for use in both superconducting and conventional high-power linear accelerators have been activated with 800 and 2,000 MeV protons to study the decay characteristics of these activated materials. Irradiation times ranged from 10 minutes to 18.67 hours. The decay characteristics of these activated materials were measured and compared to calculated decay curves based on simplified assumptions.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Hanson, A.L.; Snead, C.L.; Greene, G.A.; Chan, K.C.D. & Safa, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive strength of masonry (f{sub m}{prime}) for the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant, Hollow Clay Tile Walls

Description: Prism tests have been performed on the HCT walls. The three groups of data were treated as separate data points and averaged. The recommended effective compressive strengths for HCT walls are 735 psi for single wythe 6- and 8-in. walls, and 495 psi for the double wythe 13-in. walls.
Date: April 17, 1995
Creator: Fricke, K.E. & Flanagan, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department