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A Monte Carlo Calculation of the Neutron Detection Efficiency of a Hydrogen Bubble Chamber

Description: Abstract: "The calculation of the efficiency of the Los Alamos hydrogen bubble chamber for detection of neutrons in the energy range 5 to 35 MeV has been done using a "Monte Carlo" technique. The detection efficiency is calculated as a function of energy of the neutron and angle of the proton recoil."
Date: September 1962
Creator: Wooten, J. K. & Bryant, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Energy Physics with Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

Description: Five years ago, our laboratory undertook to adapt the bubble chamber, newly invented by Glaser, to operation with liquid hydrogen, and in large sizes. It was hoped taht this development would yield important new experimental data when the Bevatron was completed. Accompanying papers by other members of the hydrogen bubble chamber group describe the various chambers built in the five year period and the asociated data-reduction apparatus that is needed for efficient utilization of the chambers. Experiments with the 10-cm chamber have yielded interesting data on the interaction of 300-Mev bremsstrahlung radiation with protons, and have shown that a hydrogen bubble chamber is a convenient neutron spectrometer in the 10- to 25-Mev range, the full width (at half maximum) of the 14-mev neutron line from T + D is 1 Mev. This paper, however, describes only those experiments performed at the Bevatron with chambers of 25 cm and 40 cm.
Date: October 14, 1958
Creator: Alvarez, Luis W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Increased activities in Cryogenic Engineering have brought about the need for a compilation of available data. The purpose of the Cryogenic Data Book is to provide a condensed source of reliable data and reference information for those working in the cryogenic field. Specifically the data were compiled with a view toward the design of liquid hydrogen bubble chambers.
Date: May 15, 1956
Creator: Engineerin, National Bureau of Standards. Cryogenic; Chelton, Dudley B.; Mann, Douglas B.; Byrns, R.A. & Hoard, H.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In order to study resonances in the {Sigma}-{pi} system, we have analyzed reactions in which a {Sigma} hyperon and two or three pions are produced in K{sup -}-p interactions at 1.22 {+-} 0.040 and 1.51 {+-} 0.050 GeV/c incident K{sup -} momentum (i. e., 1895 and 2025 MeV center-of-mass energy), using the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory's 72-in. hydrogen bubble chamber.
Date: June 12, 1962
Creator: Alston, Margaret H.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Rosenfeld, Arthur H..; Ticho, Harold K. & Wojcicki, Stanley G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

Description: After the first hydrocarbon bubble chambers were built by Donald Glaser in 1952, work was started at Chicago and Berkeley to find if liquid hydrogen could be used as the working fluid in a bubble chamber. In the fall of 1953, it was found by the Chicago group that superheated liquid hydrogen could be made to boil under the influence of ionizing radiation, but no tracks were observed. The observation of tracks at Berkeley a few months later completed the proof that hydrogen was a usable bubble chamber liquid. (Irradiated liquid nitrogen boils when superheated, but as of spring 1956 no one has seen tracks in liquid nitrogen.) In the past two years, the Chicago group has built several all-glass hydrogen chambers, the most recent of which is approximately 5.5 by 5.5 by 20 cm inside dimensions. Their chambers have been of the so-called clean variety (like Glaser's eariy ones), in which no boiling takes place unless ionizing particles aze present. They have used their latest chamber in an extensive study of the scattering of low-energy pions by protons.
Date: April 4, 1956
Creator: Alvarez, Luis W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Electronics in High-Energy Physics

Description: A brief review of fast electronics is given, leading up to the present state of the art. Cherenkov counters in high-energy physics are discussed, including an example of a velocity-selecting Cherenkov counter. An electronic device to aid in aligning external beams from high-energy accelerators is described. A scintillation-counter matrix to identify bubble chamber tracks is discussed. Some remarks on the future development of electronics in high-energy physics experiments are included.
Date: August 8, 1958
Creator: Weigand, Clyde
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hybrid bubble chamber studies of K+ p and K- p interactions at 75-GeV/c

Description: We propose to expose the FNAL 30' liquid hydrogen bubble chamber to K{sup +} and K{sup -} beams both at 75 GeV/c. Each exposure consists of 100,000 equivalent K pictures. We plan to use the upstream tagging system currently in place and a downstream spectrometer with acceptance considerably increased over that of the current PHC system. This new downstream system will also be equipped with a lead glass photon detector with good spatial and energy resolution. We will study comparison of K{sup +} and K{sup -} results, as well as results from {pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup -} , and {bar p} beams at this energy which are the subject of separate proposals.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Hart, E.L.; Handler, T.; U., /Tennessee; Cohn, H.O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A sample of 2500 {Xi}{sup -} and 500 {Xi}{sup 0} hyperons, produced in {Xi}K, {Xi}K{pi}, and {Xi}K{pi}{pi} final states by K{sup -} (in H{sub 2}) at incident momenta of 1.7 to 2.7 BeV/c, has been analyzed. The data are from an exposure (K-63) of 26 events/{mu}b in the 72-inch bubble chamber; approximately 85% of the {Xi}{sup -} events and 60% of the {Xi}{sup 0} events have been analyzed. For the {Xi}, they determine the spin and decay parameters a{sub {Xi}} and {Phi}{sub {Xi}} = tan{sup -1} ({beta}{sub {Xi}}/{Gamma}{sub {Xi}}). Combining their data with 900 {Xi}{sup -} and 150 {Xi}{sup 0} events from an earlier experiment (K-72), they obtain the following results: (1) {Xi} spin - J = 1/2 favored over J = 3/2 by {approx} 2.5 standard deviations; (2) {Xi} decay parameters (assuming a{sub {Lambda}} = 0.647 {+-} 0.048) - a{sub {Xi}{sup -}} = -0.398 {+-} 0.041, {Phi}{sub {Xi}{sup -}} = 9.8{sup o} {+-} 9.0{sup o}; a{sub {Xi}{sup 0}} = -0.413 {+-} 0.104. They observe {Xi}*(1530) and {Xi}*(1817); their data are insufficient for analysis of suggested {Xi}* resonances at 1705 and 1933 MeV. They measure the {Xi}*(1530) electromagnetic mass difference {Delta}m = m({Xi}*{sup -}) = m({Xi}*{sup 0}) = 2.0 {+-} 3.2 MeV. Using data, part of which has already been described, they find for {Xi}*(1530): J {ge} 3/2 favored over J = 1/2 (the J = 1/2 hypothesis is {approx} 3.5% as probable as the J = 3/2 hypothesis); J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} favored over 3/2{sup -} by {approx} 2.8 standard deviations. For {Xi}*(1817) decaying into {Xi}*(1530) + {pi}, the hypotheses J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +}, 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}, 5/2{sup +}, 7/2{sup -}, etc. (corresponding to {ell} = 1, 2, 0 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 4, respectively) are favored over other hypotheses, but results ...
Date: September 10, 1966
Creator: Merrill, Jr., Deane W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

Description: Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LRL 25-Inch Bubble Chamber

Description: The recently completed 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber combines excellent picture quality with a fast operating cycle. The chamber has a unique optical system and is designed to take several pictures each Bevatron pulse, in conjunction with the Bevatron rapid beam ejection system.
Date: July 1, 1964
Creator: Alvarez, L. W.; Gow, J. D.; Barrera, F.; Eckman, G.; Shand, J.; Watt, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: MIST is an IBM 7090 program prepared at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of a cooperative effort for bubble chamber data processing. The program reads the prepared data and outputs it on magnetic tape in a suitable format for input to the Haze-Fog-Cloudy-Fair Programs used with a flying spot digitizer. MIST deletes erroneous data, edits, sequences, and supplies additional physical data not digitized. MIST also prepares detailed summaries and statistics for the events processed and checks digitizer operation. (H.G.G.)
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Friedman, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The maximum likelihood method is applied to HoughPowell Mark I flying spot digitizer bubble density measurements on bubble chamber tracks. The probabilities that a bubble will be recorded or missed are derived. Application of the maximum likelihood solutions obtained to Mark I data and to direct projection table measurements of the same track gave essentially the same results. (D.C.W.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Strand, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Analysis System for Bubble Chamber Data

Description: A type of precision measuring instrument, a flying spot digitizer, for the analysis of bubble chamber data is described. When the flying spot encounters a bubble image, it is attenuated typically 25 to 75% depending on the directness of hit and the bubble chamber photographic and operating parameters. The width of the bell-shaped attenuation curve is approximates the sum of the spot and bubble image diameters, or 40 to 50 mu . The high precision of the FSD derives from the fact that it is possible to find the center of area of the attenuation curve to a standard deviation of 3 to 4 mu out of the much larger full-width at the base. Each flying spot coordinate is of a precision approximates equal to that given by a measuring projector, but typically 16 flying spot points are obtained to one measuring-projector point, so that the effective error is only 1/4 as large. The digital electronics problem associated with a flying spot digitizer is basically the trapping of the grating count at the time a bubble image center is found, the storage of the number temporarily until the computer is free, and then the transmission of the coordinate to the computer. (H.G.G.)
Date: January 25, 1963
Creator: Hough, P. V. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal to Study Dilepton Neutrino Interactions with the Triplet Quadrupole Beam, the Phase 1 EMI, and the 15' Bubble Chamber Filled with a H-Ne Mixture

Description: The authors propose to study dilepton neutrino events in the 15-foot bubble chamber using the quadrupole beam. The chamber is filled with at least 80% neon (15 ton fiducial target), the EMI is rearranged into 2 planes to give at least 7 absorption lengths for muon identification and give time coincidence, and the beam has a 1 millisecond spill. This will give about 150 dimuon events and 150 muon electron events per 100,000 pictures. They request 200,000 pictures.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Harris, R.; Huson, F.R.; Kahn, S.; Murphy, T.; Smart, W.; /Fermilab et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of Proportional Wire Chambers in Hybrid Systems

Description: This is an agreement between the National Accelerator Laboratory and Professor I. Pless of MIT representing the experimenters to provide selected instrumentation for the beam to the 30-inch bubble chamber, and to use the hybrid chamber for an experiment. This document contains an enumeration of the major items needed for the proper execution of Experiment No. 154 as expressed in the proposal for the experiment, subsequent correspondence, and the draft agreement. This agreement covers phases I and II of the experiment. In Phase I the experimenters will design, construct and bring into operation a complete upstream proportional chamber system. This system will tag incident beam particles as to type by correlating the Cerenkov signals furnished by NAL with the proper incoming particle. In addition, the system will measure the position of the incident particle which passed through the momentum slit. The system will contain three proportional wire chambers (3 planes each) which will provide data suitable for defining the incident beam both as to position and angle. The experimenters will furnish the computer, magnetic tape units, programs, and all necessary readout and interface hardware. When the system is installed, debugged, documented and completely functional, it will be turned over to NAL to be operated as a general facility. Phase II of the experiment consists of an exposure of about 20,000 30-inch bubble chamber pictures ({approx}6 beam tracks per picture) correlated with data from a set of proportional wire chambers downstream from the chamber. The experimenters expect to demonstrate the utility of the proportional chamber spectrometer by attempting to analyze every event. They will do this before requesting a major exposure.
Date: June 23, 1971
Creator: Fong, D.G.; Shapiro, A.M.; Widgott, M.; U., /Brown; Ascoli, G.; Eisenstein, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of the External Muon Identifier Efficiency

Description: We wish to measure the EMI efficiency at hadron momenta higher than the 3 GeV used at the Beavatron. We propose to use the 30 M{sup 3} bubble chamber as the momentum and spatial analyzer of charged hadrons both of the incident beam and those final state hadrons of interactions that occur within the chamber. We would use the EMI modules as mounted on the bubble chamber vacuum tank to measure the efficiency of the EMI absorbers (coils and zinc) over a wide range of momenta. A hadron signature would be either the lack of a proportional chamber (pc) encoding within the '96% muon-circle' or a multiple PC encoding. We shall attempt to identify {pi}-{mu} decays in the chamber to use as a source of muons. Such a test would give us experience in spatially reconstructing tracks within the chamber and in projecting their trajectories out to the EMI detector modules. The early portion of this test could utilize whatever hadron beam the NAL bubble chamber group would be using at the time. We would make a copy of an adequate number of the original frames and compare the film quality with the original ones to test whether the EMI experiments of any sort, neutrinos or hadrons, could use copies rather than the original film negatives. The later portions of the test may require incident beams of momenta and particles of our choosing. Approximately 10{sup 4} interactions would be needed for the early test.
Date: August 15, 1972
Creator: Babaro-Galtieri, A.; Solmitz, F.T.; Stevenson, M.L.; /University of California /LBL, Berkeley; Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department