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Spin waves in CsVBr{sub 3}

Description: Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to measure spin wave excitations in the quasi-one dimensional S = 3/2 magnetic material CsVBr{sub 3}. Dispersion relations were determined using standard triple-axis methods. Fits to linear spin wave theory yield model Hamiltonian parameters describing magnetic interactions in the system.
Date: July 10, 1997
Creator: Nagler, S.E.; Mandrus, D.G. & Tennant, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feedbacks between hydrological heterogeneity and bioremediation induced biogeochemical transformations

Description: For guiding optimal design and interpretation of in-situ treatments that strongly perturb subsurface systems, knowledge about the spatial and temporal patterns of mass transport and reaction intensities are important. Here, a procedure was developed and applied to time-lapse concentrations of a conservative tracer (bromide), an injected amendment (acetate) and reactive species (iron(II), uranium(VI) and sulfate) associated with two field scale biostimulation experiments, which were conducted successively at the same field location over two years. The procedure is based on a temporal moment analysis approach that relies on a streamtube approximation. The study shows that biostimulated reactions can be considerably influenced by subsurface hydrological and geochemical heterogeneities: the delivery of bromide and acetate and the intensity of the sulfate reduction is interpreted to be predominantly driven by the hydrological heterogeneity, while the intensity of the iron reduction is interpreted to be primarily controlled by the geochemical heterogeneity. The intensity of the uranium(VI) reduction appears to be impacted by both the hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. Finally, the study documents the existence of feedbacks between hydrological heterogeneity and remediation-induced biogeochemical transformations at the field scale, particularly the development of precipitates that may cause clogging and flow rerouting.
Date: April 15, 2009
Creator: Englert, A.; Hubbard, S.S.; Williams, K.H.; Li, L. & Steefel, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core Sampling in Support of the Vadose Zone Transport Field Study

Description: Over 130 soil samples were collected from three soil borings in support of the VZFTS. The first boring was sampled just prior to the first injection test. The other two borings were sampled after completion of the injection tests. These soil samples were collected using a 7.6 cm (3 in) ID splitspoon sampler, with internal 15 cm (6 in.) long Lexan? liners. The samples ranged in depth from 4 to 17 m (13.5 to 56.5 ft), and were submitted to various laboratories for hydraulic property characterization and/or geochemical/tracer analyses. Preliminary results indicate that the major concentration front of the bromide tracer reached a relative depth of 5 m (below the injection point) 8 days after the final water injection and had migrated to a relative depth of about 7 m, 4 days later.
Date: March 9, 2001
Creator: Last, George V & Caldwell, Todd G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

Description: Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.
Date: October 21, 2009
Creator: Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J. & Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

Description: The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm{sup 2} using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications.
Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: GUIDOTTI,RONALD A. & REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

Description: We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS{sub 2} couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment.
Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: GUIDOTTI, RONALD A. & REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical pump-probe processes in Nd 3+ doped KPb2Br5, RbPb2Br5, and KPb2CI5

Description: Recently, laser activity has been achieved in the low phonon energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals, neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:KPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}). Laser activity at 1.07 {micro}m was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths 1.18 {micro}m and 0.97 {micro}m resulting from the {sup 4}F{sub 5/2}+{sup 2}H{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub J} transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RPB was achieved for the first time in a solid state laser material. In this paper we present cw pump-probe spectra in order to discuss excited state absorption, reabsorption processes due to the long lived lower laser levels as well as possible depopulation mechanisms feasible for more efficient laser operation in these crystals. The bromides will be compared with potassium lead chloride (Nd{sup 3+}:KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}).
Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Rademaker, K; Huber, G; Payne, S A; Osiac, E & Isaenko, L I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

III-Nitride Dry Etching - Comparison of Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemistries

Description: A systematic study of the etch characteristics of GaN, AlN and InN has been performed with boron halides- (BI{sub 3} and BBr{sub 3}) and interhalogen- (ICl and IBr) based Inductively Coupled Plasmas. Maximum etch selectivities of -100:1 were achieved for InN over both GaN and AlN in the BI{sub 3} mixtures due to the relatively high volatility of the InN etch products and the lower bond strength of InN. Maximum selectivies of- 14 for InN over GaN and >25 for InN over AlN were obtained with ICl and IBr chemistries. The etched surface morphologies of GaN in these four mixtures are similar or better than those of the control sample.
Date: November 10, 1998
Creator: Abernathy, C.R.; Cho, H.; Donovan, S.M.; Hahn, Y-B.; Han, J.; Hays, D.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic Data and Evaluation for Model Validation Wells, MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 near the Project Shoal Area

Description: In 2006, a drilling campaign was conducted at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) to provide information for model validation, emplace long-term monitoring wells, and develop baseline geochemistry for long term hydrologic monitoring. Water levels were monitored in the vicinity of the drilling, in the existing wells HC-1 and HC-6, as well as in the newly drilled wells, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 and their associated piezometers. Periodic water level measurements were also made in existing wells HC-2, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5 and HC-7. A lithium bromide chemical tracer was added to drilling fluids during the installation of the monitoring and validation (MV) wells and piezometers. The zones of interest were the fractured, jointed and faulted horizons within a granitic body. These horizons generally have moderate hydraulic conductivities. As a result, the wells and their shallower piezometers required strenuous purging and development to remove introduced drilling fluids as evidenced by bromide concentrations. After airlift and surging well development procedures, the wells were pumped continuously until the bromide concentration was less then 1 milligram per liter (mg/L). Water quality samples were collected after the well development was completed. Tritium scans were preformed before other analyses to ensure the absence of high levels of radioactivity. Tritium levels were less than 2,000 pico-curies per liter. Samples were also analyzed for carbon-14 and iodine-129, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, as well as major cations and anions. Aquifer tests were performed in each MV well after the bromide concentration fell below acceptable levels. Water level data from the aquifer tests were used to compute aquifer hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity
Date: February 14, 2007
Creator: Lyles, B.; Oberlander, P.; Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Chapman, J. & Healey, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seedless Polyol Synthesis and CO Oxidation Activity of Monodisperse (111) and (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals in Sub-10 nm Sizes

Description: Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac){sub 2}]{sub 2} as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twined hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl{sub 3} as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed Br{sup -} ions from alkylammonium bromides, which led to (100)-oriented nanocubes. Monolayer films of the (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra and (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were deposited on silicon wafers in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough to make model 2D nanoarray catalysts. These nanocatalysts were active for CO oxidation by O{sub 2}, and the turnover frequency was independent of nanoparticle shape, consistent with that previously observed for Rh(111) and Rh(100) single crystals.
Date: March 15, 2010
Creator: Zhang, Yawen; Grass, Michael E.; Huang, Wenyu & Somorjai, Gabor A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rh(I)-Catalyzed Arylation of Heterocycles via C-H Bond Activation: Expanded Scope Through Mechanistic Insight

Description: A practical, functional group tolerant method for the Rh-catalyzed direct arylation of a variety of pharmaceutically important azoles with aryl bromides is described. Many of the successful azole and aryl bromide coupling partners are not compatible with methods for the direct arylation of heterocycles using Pd(0) or Cu(I) catalysts. The readily prepared, low molecular weight ligand, Z-1-tert-butyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrophosphepine, which coordinates to Rh in a bidentate P-olefin fashion to provide a highly active yet thermally stable arylation catalyst, is essential to the success of this method. By using the tetrafluoroborate salt of the corresponding phosphonium, the reactions can be assembled outside of a glove box without purification of reagents or solvent. The reactions are also conducted in THF or dioxane, which greatly simplifies product isolation relative to most other methods for direct arylation of azoles employing high-boiling amide solvents. The reactions are performed with heating in a microwave reactor to obtain excellent product yields in two hours.
Date: July 18, 2007
Creator: Lewis, Jared; Berman, Ashley; Bergman, Robert & Ellman, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic study of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide Pt-C14TAB nanoparticles: Structure and Stability

Description: The vibrational spectra of platinum nanoparticles (12 nm) capped with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C{sub 14}TAB, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We have shown that the thermal decay of Pt-C{sub 14}TAB nanoparticles in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres leads to the release of hydrocarbon chain of surfactant and the formation of strongly bonded layer of ammonium cations on the platinum surface. The platinum atoms accessible to CO chemisorptions were not reducible by hydrogen in the temperature ranging from 30 C to 200 C. A FTIR spectrum of C{sub 14}TAB adsorbed on Pt nanoparticles dramatically perturbed as compared with pure C{sub 14}TAB. New intense and broad bands centered at 1450 cm{sup -1} and 760 cm{sup -1} are making their appearance in Pt-C{sub 14}TAB. It may be speculated, that new bands are result of coupling between conducting electrons of Pt and molecular vibrations of adsorbed C{sub 14}TAB and as a consequence specific vibrational modes of ammonium cation transformed into electron-vibrational modes.
Date: January 9, 2009
Creator: Borodko, Y.; Jones, L.; Frei, H. & Somorjai, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Ultracentrifugal Method for the Determination of Serum Lipoproteins

Description: A convenient method was developed for the ultracentrifugal analysis of all classes of serum lipoproteins which requires a minimum of time, work and materials. The method utilizes the principle of flotation of lipoproteins in a medium of greater density than their own hydrated density. In this procedure the isolation and the analysis of lipoproteins are done in a NaBr mediumn of density 1.20 g/ml. The advantages of this procedure are compared with other available methods, and its application to studies on serum lipoprotein is discussed. (auth)
Date: September 29, 1958
Creator: Del Gatto, L.; Lindgren, F. T. & Nichols, A. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

Description: We report the structure of the organic capping layers of platinum colloid nanoparticles and their removal by UV-ozone exposure. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) studies identify the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and tetradecyl tributylammonium bromide (TTAB)-capped platinum nanoparticles. We found that the UV-ozone treatment technique effectively removes the capping layer on the basis of several analytical measurements including SFGVS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The overall shape of the nanoparticles was preserved after the removal of capping layers, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SFGVS of ethylene hydrogenation on the clean platinum nanoparticles demonstrates the existence of ethylidyne and di-{sigma}-bonded species, indicating the similarity between single-crystal and nanoparticle systems.
Date: December 10, 2009
Creator: Aliaga, Cesar; Park, Jeong Y.; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Hyun Sook; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Yang, Peidong et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Pyridine Hydrogenation on Platinum Nanoparticles

Description: Pyridine hydrogenation in the presence of a surface monolayer consisting of cubic Pt nanoparticles stabilized by tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) was investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy using total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. TIR-SFG spectra analysis revealed that a pyridinium cation (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +}) forms during pyridine hydrogenation on the Pt nanoparticle surface, and the NH group in the C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +} cation becomes more hydrogen bound with the increase of the temperature. In addition, the surface coverage of the cation decreases with the increase of the temperature. An important contribution of this study is the in situ identification of reaction intermediates adsorbed on the Pt nanoparticle monolayer during pyridine hydrogenation.
Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos & Somorjai, Gabor A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field evidence for strong chemical separation of contaminants in the Hanford Vadose Zone

Description: Water and chemical transport from a point source withinvadose zone sediments at Hanford were examined with a leak testconsisting of five 3800-liter aliquots of water released at 4.5 m depthevery week over a 4-week period. The third aliquot contained bromide, D2Oand 87Sr. Movement of the tracers was monitored for 9 months by measuringpore water compositions of samples from boreholes drilled 2-8 m from theinjection point. Graded sedimentary layers acting as natural capillarybarriers caused significant lateral spreading of the leak water. D2Oconcentrations>50 percent of the concentration in the tracer aliquotwere detected at 9-11 m depth. However, increased water contents, lowerd18O values, and geophysical monitoring of moisture changes at otherdepths signified high concentrations of leak fluids were added where D2Oconcentrations were<3 percent above background, suggesting limitedmixing between different aliquots of the leak fluids. Initially highbromide concentrations decreased more rapidly over time than D2O,suggesting enhanced transport of bromide due to anion exclusion. Nosignificant increase in 87Sr was detected in the sampled pore water,indicating strong retardation of Sr by the sediments. These resultshighlight some of the processes strongly affecting chemical transport inthe vadose zone and demonstrate the significant separation of contaminantplumes that can occur.
Date: April 10, 2007
Creator: Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Maher, Katharine; Gee,Glendon W. & Ward, Anderson L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department