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Studies of fusion reactor blankets with minimum radioactive inventory and with tritium breeding in solid lithium compounds: a preliminary report

Description: The feasibility of fusion reactor blankets with low residual activity is examined. Several designs are examined with regard to activation, tritium breeding ratio, mechanical design, tritium removal from the blanket, and thermal cycle efflciency. Using aluminum (SAP) as a structural material, it should be possible to build CTR blankets with ~10 curies/MW(e) of long-lived (half life one day or greater) residual activity (other than tritium), which is many orders of magnitude less than with Nb or stainless steel blankets. In the designs examined in this study, tritium is bred in -solid-lithium-containing materials, e.g., LiAl alloy, which have high-equilibrium tritium pressures. The tritium diffuses into either the helium-coolant stream, from which it is removed by absorption, or into the vacuum region between the first wall and plasma. Depending on processing methods and blanket parameters, the tritium blanket inventory should range from 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/ curies/ MW(e). Tritium breeding ratios range from 0.9 to 1.5 depending on blanket design, while therrnal cycle efficiency is estimated to range from 35% to well over 40%, depending on design. Several module designs are developed in which helium-coolant exit temperatures are substantially above the operating temperature limit (~400 deg C) for the aluminum (SAP) structure. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1973
Creator: Powell, J.R.; Miles, F.T.; Aronson, A. & Winsche, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of US demo helium-cooled blanket options

Description: A He-V-Li blanket design was developed as a candidate for the U.S. fusion demonstration power plant. This paper presents an 18 MPa helium-cooled, lithium breeder, V-alloy design that can be coupled to the Brayton cycle with a gross efficiency of 46%. The critical issue of designing to high gas pressure and the compatibility between helium impurities and V-alloy are addressed.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Wong, C.P.C.; McQuillan, B.W. & Schleicher, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket Safety Analysis: Preliminary Analyses of Downflow Through a Lateral Row 1 Blanket Model Under Near RHR Conditions

Description: To address a concern about a potential maldistribution of coolant flow through an APT blanket module under low flow near RHR conditions, a scoping study of downflow mixed convection in parallel channels was conducted. Buoyancy will adversely effect the flow distribution in module bins with downflow and non-uniform power distributions. This study consists of two parts: a simple analytical model of flow in a two channel network, and a lumped eleven channel FLOWTRAN-TF model of a front lateral Row-1 blanket module bin. Results from both models indicate that the concern about coolant flow in a vertical model being diverted away from high power regions by buoyancy is warranted. The FLOWTRAN-TF model predicted upflow (i.e., a flow reversal) through several of the high power channels, under some low flow conditions. The transition from the regime with downflow in all channels to a regime with upflow in some channels was abrupt.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: External HR Break Near Inlet Header

Description: The APT blanket system has about 57 MW of thermal energy deposited within the blanket region under normal operating conditions from the release of neutrons and the interaction of the High energy particles with the blanket materials. This corresponds to about 48 percent of total thermal energy deposited in the APT target/blanket system. The deposited thermal energy under normal operation conditions is an important input parameter used in the thermal-hydraulic design and accident analysis.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Normal Operation (NO) of APT Blanket System and its Components Based on Initial Conceptual Design

Description: This report is one of a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the APT.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blanket Module Boil-Off Times during a Loss-of-Coolant Accident - Case 0: with Beam Shutdown only

Description: This report is one of a series of reports that document LBLOCA analyses for the Accelerator Production of Tritium primary blanket Heat Removal system. This report documents the analysis results of a LBLOCA where the accelerator beam is shut off without primary pump trips and neither the RHR nor the cavity flood systems operation.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 3: External HR Break at Pump Outlet without Pump Trip

Description: This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal (HR) system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spheromak reactor: Physics opportunities and issues

Description: The spheromak is a magnetic confinement device with a more attractive fusion reactor potential than the leading geometry, the tokamak. This results in large part from the absence of a toroidal field coil and other structures linking the plasma along the geometric axis. However, because of the lack of a strong external magnetic field, the physics is more complex so that considerable research is required to learn how to achieve the reactor potential. Several critical physics issues am considered here, including stability to low mode number magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes, energy confinement, helicity injection and current drive, the magnetic turbulence associated with this dynamo, and the beta (ratio of plasma and magnetic pressures) which can be supported in the geometry.
Date: June 20, 1996
Creator: Hooper, E.B. & Fowler, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

Description: The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket System Internally Dry Flooded Cavity Accident Based on Initial Plate-Type Design

Description: Typically, heat conduction alone is insufficient for cooling components under decay heat conditions. However, due to various design features associated with the blanket modules heat conduction alone can transfer all of the deposited energy when under flooded cavity conditions.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 5: External RHR Break Near Inlet Header

Description: This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Hamm, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department