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Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor Experiment: The Economic Comparison of a Large-Scale LMFR Breeder & Burner

Description: Results of a study to compare economic factors of of burner- versus breeder-type liquid metal fuel reactors. The study takes into account several pertinent criteria and factors to ensure that the reactors would be reasonable to implement.
Date: May 1957
Creator: Babcock & Wilcox Company
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING PLUTONIUM IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Description: Plutonium is one of the principal materials of both commercial and military nuclear power. It is produced primarily in fission reactors that contain uranium fuel, and its importance arises from the fact that a large portion of the plutonium produced is fissile: like uranium 235, the mass 239 and 241 isotopes of plutonium can be caused to fission by neutrons, including those with low energy. Because such fission events also release neutrons, substantial amounts of energy can be extracted from plutonium in a controlled or an explosive nuclear chain reaction. Now that commercial nuclear reactors provide a noticeable fraction of United States (and world) electrical energy, these reactors account for most plutonium production. For the most part, this material now remains in the irradiated fuel after removal from reactors, but should this fuel be reprocessed, the plutonium could be recycled to provide part and even most of the fissile content of fresh fuel. For the current generation of water-cooled reactors, the amount of plutonium to be recycled is substantial. In fast breeder reactors, designed to produce more fissile material than they destroy, considerably larger quantities of plutonium would be recycled. In other types of advanced reactors, particularly those which depend heavily on thorium as the material from which fissile material (primarily uranium 233) is produced, the amount of plutonium to be handled would be considerably reduced. Because plutonium is a highly toxic substance, great care is taken to contain it at the sites and facilities where it is stored or handled. In addition, it is necessary that devices be available to monitor any releases from these facilities into environmental media and to measure concentrations of plutonium in these media. The radiation protection standards are so strict for plutonium that only small releases and low concentrations can be tolerated. Such considerations, ...
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Nero, A. V., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DAMAGE TO MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND ENERGY COUPLING BY VISIBLE LIGHT

Description: Plutonium is one of the principal materials of both commercial and military nuclear power. It is produced primarily in fission reactors that contain uranium fuel, and its importance arises from the fact that a large portion of the plutonium produced is fissile: like uranium 235, the mass 239 and 241 isotopes of plutonium can be caused to fission by neutrons, including those with low energy. Because such fission events also release neutrons, substantial amounts of energy can be extracted from plutonium in a controlled or an explosive nuclear chain reaction. Now that commercial nuclear reactors provide a noticeable fraction of United States (and world) electrical energy, these reactors account for most plutonium production. For the most part, this material now remains in the irradiated fuel after removal from reactors, but should this fuel be reprocessed, the plutonium could be recycled to provide part and even most of the fissile content of fresh fuel. For the current generation of water-cooled reactors, the amount of plutonium to be recycled is substantial. In fast breeder reactors, designed to produce more fissile material than they destroy, considerably larger quantities of plutonium would be recycled. In other types of advanced reactors, particularly those which depend heavily on thorium as the material from which fissile material (primarily uranium 233) is produced, the amount of plutonium to be handled would be considerably reduced. Because plutonium is a highly toxic substance, great care is taken to contain it at the sites and facilities where it is stored or handled. In addition, it is necessary that devices be available to monitor any releases from these facilities into environmental media and to measure concentrations of plutonium in these media. The radiation protection standards are so strict for plutonium that only small releases and low concentrations can be tolerated. Such considerations, ...
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Aggarwal, B.B.; Quintanilha, A.T.; Cammack, R. & Packer, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revised FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004) 2018-SR-02-1

Description: The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963. The reactor was tested at low power during the first couple years of operation. Power ascension testing above 1 MW commenced in December 1965 immediately following the receipt of a high-power operating license. In October 1966 during power ascension, zirconium plates at the bottom of the reactor vessel became loose and blocked sodium coolant flow to some fuel subassemblies. Two subassemblies started to melt and the reactor was manually shut down. No abnormal releases to the environment occurred. Forty-two months later after the cause had been determined, cleanup completed, and the fuel replaced, Fermi 1 was restarted. However, in November 1972, PRDC made the decision to decommission Fermi 1 as the core was approaching its burn-up limit. The fuel and blanket subassemblies were shipped off-site in 1973. Following that, the secondary sodium system was drained and sent off-site. The radioactive primary sodium was stored on-site in storage tanks and 55 gallon (gal) drums until it was shipped off-site in 1984. The initial decommissioning of Fermi 1 was completed in 1975. Effective January 23, 1976, DPR-9 was transferred to the Detroit Edison Company (DTE) as a 'possession only' license (DTE 2010a). This report ...
Date: October 27, 2011
Creator: Bailey, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004)

Description: The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963.
Date: July 7, 2011
Creator: Bailey, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of Mercury Cooled Breeder Reactors

Description: Abstract: The technical feasibility and economic potential of fast breeder power reactor systems cooled with boiling mercury have been investigated by American-Standard under the United States Atomic Energy Commission's New Reactor Concepts Evaluation Program.
Date: October 13, 1959
Creator: Advanced Technology Laboratories
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

Description: A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Hershcovitch, A. & Roser, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Conceptual Design of a Thorium-Uranium (233) Power Breeder Reactor

Description: From abstract: A conceptual design study has been performed for a sodium cooled, graphite moderated, thermal power-breeder reactor utilizing the Thorium-Uranium 233 breeding cycle. Several aspects of the design of the system are considered but no attempt has been made to supply all the details. It appears that the design presented is feasible and will allow the production of economic power as well as full utilization of thorium resources.
Date: February 1, 1954
Creator: Henrie, J. O. & Weisner, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Evaluation of Advanced Converter Reactors

Description: From foreword: This report is an overall assessment of the technical status and economic potential of advanced converters and breeders, the role of thorium, various reactor fuel cycles, and a systems analysis of the future nuclear-electric power complex.
Date: April 1969
Creator: Advanced Converter Task Force
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department