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Memory Consolidation in Avoidance-Conditioned Goldfish: Changes in Brain Protein-Synthetic Patterns

Description: Three groups of goldfish were prepared; naive, avoidance-conditioned and pseudo-conditioned animals. Five pseudo-conditioned fish were avoidance trained later and found to have no measurable acquisition of the avoidance conditioning paradigm. Several protein fractions were found to have significantly different rates of synthesis when compared across groups. The possible involvement of these proteins in the memory storage process was discussed.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Montgomery, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brain topography of leadership: neurophysiological correlates of the leadership opinion questionnaire

Description: Laboratory research was performed to understand leadership by attempting to link EEG baseline frequency patterns with data from the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ) assessment survey. Research began with 293 right-handed males, 18-26 years old, who completed the LOQ. Based on their scores, 61 subjects grouped by the Ohio State Leadership Quadrants, were tested using brain-mapping technology.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Dukes, David Jefferson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quantitative EEG Analysis of Individuals with Chronic Pain

Description: Recent advances in neuroimaging and electromagnetic measurement technology have permitted the exploration of structural and functional brain alterations associated with chronic pain. A number of cortical and subcortical brain regions have been found to be involved in the experience of chronic pain (Baliki et al., 2008; Jensen et al., 2010). Evidence suggests that living with chronic pain shapes the brain from both an architectural and a functional perspective, and that individuals living with chronic pain display altered brainwave activity even at rest. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) is a method of spectral analysis that utilizes a fast Fourier transform algorithm to convert analog EEG signals into digital signals, allowing for precise quantification and analysis of signals both at single electrode locations and across the scalp as a whole. An important advance that has been permitted by qEEG analysis is the development of lifespan normative databases against which individual qEEGs can be compared (Kaiser, 2006; Thatcher et al, 2000). Pilot data utilizing qEEG to examine brainwave patterns of individuals with chronic pain have revealed altered EEG activity at rest compared to age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (Burroughs, 2011). The current investigation extended the findings of the pilot study by utilizing qEEG to examine a larger sample of individuals with chronic pain. Individuals with chronic pain displayed significantly reduced slow wave activity in frontal, central, and temporal regions. Findings will be presented in terms of specific patterns of altered EEG activity seen in individuals with chronic pain.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Burroughs, Ramona D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance of Brain-Injured versus Non-Brain-Injured Individuals on Three Versions of the Category Test

Description: To date, no research exists examining criterion-related validity of alternate, computerized forms of the Category Test. The intent of this study was to address criterion-related validity of three full forms of the Category Test. In that, the goal was to examine equivalency of each version in their ability to differentiate brain-injured from non-brain-injured individuals. Forty-nine (N = 49) healthy adults and 45 (N = 45) brain-injured adults were tested using three versions of the Category Test, the BDI, and the WAIS-R NI. ANOVA indicated no significant differences between versions of the Category Test or an interaction between Category Test version and group membership on the total error score. MANOVA performed between versions of the Category Test and Subtest error scores indicated significant differences between versions on Subtest 3 and Subtest 6. Group membership (brain-injured v. non-brain-injured) produced a significant main effect on all subtests of the Category Test except Subtest 2. Several exploratory analyses were performed examining the relationship between neuropsychological impairment, group membership based on Category Test error scores, and the WAIS-R NI. Clinical applications, such as the use of serial testing to index neurorehabilitation gains, were discussed.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Mercer, Walt N. (Walt Neilson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive and Perceptual-Motor Indicators of Lateralized vs. Diffuse Brain Damage in Adults.

Description: Among the goals of the neuropsychological assessment are to detect the presence of brain damage, localize which areas of the brain may be dysfunctional and describe subsequent functional impairments. The sensitivity of neuropsychological instruments in carrying out these functions is a question of some debate. The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of lateralizing indicators from the WAIS-III, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) and Haptic Visual Discrimination Test (HVDT), from the McCarron-Dial System Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (MDS), in ascertaining the presence or absence of brain damage as well as location of lesion. The classification accuracies of using performance level indicators from these tests and lateralizing indicators, alone and together, were compared.
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Date: December 2002
Creator: Gregory, Erin Kathleen Taylor
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brain Growth Spurts and Plateau Periods in Normal Elementary School Pupils

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine whether brain growth spurts occur in normal pupils and to determine whether there was a uniform difference in head circumference between boys and girls. Subjects were 3,062 normal elementary pupils, grades one through six, from one suburban school district. Fiberglass measuring tapes were used to measure pupils' head circumference. The hypotheses of the study predicted that the relationship between head circumference and age would be linear. Further, it was predicted that the differences in head circumference between boys and girls would be uniform over seven specified ages. The first hypothesis was tested using a test for linear trend and deviation from linear trend using the General Linear Models procedure. The results indicated that there was a significant linear trend between head circumference and age. The test for deviation from the linear trend was not significant. This would suggest that any deviation from a straight line observed in the data can be attributed to chance. It was concluded that since there was no significant deviation from linear trend, it would suggest a continuous growth of the brain for the ages included in this study. A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the second hypothesis. The results indicated that the male mean head circumference was significantly larger than that of the female in all age groups. As the interaction of sex and age groups was tested, there was no interaction between sex and age groups. It was concluded that since the interaction between sex and age groups was not significant, there is no indication of differences in the rates of brain growth between boys and girls.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Bhulpat, Cheerapan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Cautioning and Education in the Detection of Malingered Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of cautioning and education on simulating a mild traumatic brain injury on several neuropsychological measures. The measures used included the Word Memory Test (WMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales® - Third Edition (WAIS®-III), Wechsler Memory Scales®-3rd Edition instrument (WMS®-III), 16-item version of the Rey Memory Test, and a self-report symptom checklist. Five experimental groups were used including clinical and non-clinical controls, as well as three simulation groups. The design and implementation of this study also attempted to correct several methodological short comings of prior research by increasing the incentives for participants, expanding the generalizability of findings and examining research compliance and participant self-perception through debriefing. Discriminant analysis was utilized to determine if specific functions existed that would correctly classify and distinguish each experimental group. Several discriminant functions had at least moderate canonical correlations and good classification accuracy. Results also include utility estimates given projected varying base rates of malingering.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Scholtz, Brendon P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

Description: The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate information on brain activity which could be of use to the individual, ...
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Anderson, Lawrence Frederick & Clough, Benjamin W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Description: Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, education-based PA curriculum is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and deliver a physical activity centered education (PACE) program that supplemented the existing rehabilitation program for brain injury. PACE consists of an 8-week (16 session) program aimed to (1) increase self-efficacy for being physically active of PACE program participants, (2) increase PA stage of change in PACE program participants or the maintenance of adequate level of PA, and (3) improve the rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, participation, adjustment) of PACE program participants. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that participation in PACE will result in (1A) increased self-efficacy for PA, (1B) greater self-efficacy for PA than the standard of care group, (2A) increased readiness to be physically active, (2B) greater readiness to change their PA behavior than the standard of care group, (3A) improved rehabilitation outcomes, and (3B) greater rehabilitation outcomes than the standard of care group. the PACE program resulted in: (1) an average increase of 19.36% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.37), (2) 15 of the 22 PACE participants (68.18%) reported readiness to engage in regular PA , and (3) an increase in rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, and participation)In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, readiness for regular PA behavior, and improved short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Woolsey, Anne-Lorraine T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Science of consciousness and the hard problem

Description: Quantum theory is essentially a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter, and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally efficacious and necessary role in brain dynamics. It therefore provides a natural basis, created by scientists, for the science of consciousness. As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing, and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms, as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness. As a second illustration it is explained how, within the quantum framework, the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} directs the actions of a human being. It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporating causally efficacious experimential events into the physical universe in a manner that: (1) puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well defined way, (2) explains in principle how the effects of consciousness, per se, can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it, (3) allows this survival effect to feed into phylogenetic development, and (4) explains how the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} can direct human behaviour.
Date: May 22, 1996
Creator: Stapp, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brain-reactive antibodies: molecular specificity and relationship to biological aging

Description: Brain-reactive antibodies (BRA) increase in frequency with age in several mammalian species and may be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related dementia. In this experiment, the molecular specificity of BRA in mouse sera was determined using an immunoblot assay, and the relationship of BRA to longevity was studied by comparing the rate of formation of specific BRAs in diet restricted C57BL/6NNia, B6D2F1/NNia, and DBA/2NNia, genotypes which differ markedly in life-span.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Apte, Vaijayanti
Partner: UNT Libraries

Head Trauma Release of Histamine from Dural Mast Cells Alters Blood-Brain Barrier: Attenuation with Zolantidine

Description: This study employed a new model of mild-to-moderate head trauma to specifically identify the role of dural mast cell (MC) histamine in trauma-induced increased permeability in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A single line was scored partially through the left dorsal parietal skull. Immediately following the trauma, degranulation was seen in 39% of the MCs on the left and in 2% on the right. After a 20 min survival period, left duras showed 55% with MC degranulation (fewer with complete degranulation) compared to 34% on the right. In the other experiments two parallel lines were scored following the injection of Evan's blue. Histamine assay showed histamine increased in the left cortex to 154% at 5 min, 174% at 10 min, and 151% at 20 min. Fluorescent quantitation of extravasated Evan's blue at 20 min following the trauma gave an increase of 1385% over the value measured for the right cortex. Zolantidine, a selective histamine H2 receptor antagonist, administered at 10- and 20- mg/kg 30 min before the trauma blocked 65% of the Evan's blue extravasation compared with the control and 2.5 mg group.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Laufer, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

From Theory to Practice: A First Look at Success for Life - A Brain Research-Based Early Childhood Program

Description: Success For Life (SFL) is a brain research-based program for children, birth through age six. This research examined the development and implementation of SFL in 13 early childhood settings. Participants were 24 female early childhood teachers and 146 (73 male) children. Teachers included seven infant, four toddler, nine preschool and four kindergarten teachers. Children included infants(n=29), toddlers(n=27), and prek/kindergartners (n=90). A Request for Proposals was disseminated to identify possible implementation sites. After participation was confirmed, teachers attended a full day's training which included a description of brain development/function, the latest brain research, how to implement SFL and other logistics of the study. Program implementation occurred over approximately four months. A field site coordinator visited each site bimonthly to provide on-going technical assistance. This was an intervention project with a pre and post implementation design. Four instruments were used: a teacher questionnaire, a classroom environment measure, a child measure and teacher journals. Results suggested that teachers became more knowledgeable about brain development research and about how children grow and learn. Teachers were better able to make connections between brain research findings and how to apply these findings to their programs and daily activities. Likewise, the environment measure indicated that teachers were better able to arrange environments for learning. They reported that children showed significant increases in skills development and performance in the following areas: physical mastery, social relations/interactions, cognitive development, and language/communications. Additionally, teachers reported improvements in emotional expression and well-being among infants and toddlers. Toddlers and preschoolers showed significant increases in creative/ artistic expression. Finally, teachers indicated that preschoolers showed increases in initiative, use of logic/mathematics skills, and musical coordination and movement. Research findings suggest that Success For Life is able to bridge the gap between theory and practice and benefits children, teachers and programs.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Castro, R. Raquel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance of Children With and Without Traumatic Brain Injury on the Process Scoring System for the Intermediate Category Test

Description: The clinical utility of the Intermediate Category Test, a measure of executive functioning in children 9 to 14 years of age, is currently limited by the availability of only a Total Error score for normative interpretation. The Process Scoring System (PSS) was developed to provide a standardized method of assessing specific processing patterns and problem-solving errors. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the PSS scores to discriminate between children with and without suspected executive deficits, thereby providing evidence of criterion-related validity.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Bass, Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ion exchanger in the brain: Quantitative analysis of perineuronally fixed anionic binding sites suggests diffusion barriers with ion sorting properties

Description: This article proposes that fixed charge-densities in the brain are involved in regulating ion mobility, the volume fraction of extracellular space and the viscosity of matrix components.
Date: December 1, 2015
Creator: Morawski, Markus; Reinert, Tilo; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Tröger, Wolfgang; Reinert, Anja et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Interactive Volume Rendering of Diffusion Tensor Data

Description: As 3D volumetric images of the human body become an increasingly crucial source of information for the diagnosis and treatment of a broad variety of medical conditions, advanced techniques that allow clinicians to efficiently and clearly visualize volumetric images become increasingly important. Interaction has proven to be a key concept in analysis of medical images because static images of 3D data are prone to artifacts and misunderstanding of depth. Furthermore, fading out clinically irrelevant aspects of the image while preserving contextual anatomical landmarks helps medical doctors to focus on important parts of the images without becoming disoriented. Our goal was to develop a tool that unifies interactive manipulation and context preserving visualization of medical images with a special focus on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. At each image voxel, DTI provides a 3 x 3 tensor whose entries represent the 3D statistical properties of water diffusion locally. Water motion that is preferential to specific spatial directions suggests structural organization of the underlying biological tissue; in particular, in the human brain, the naturally occuring diffusion of water in the axon portion of neurons is predominantly anisotropic along the longitudinal direction of the elongated, fiber-like axons [MMM+02]. This property has made DTI an emerging source of information about the structural integrity of axons and axonal connectivity between brain regions, both of which are thought to be disrupted in a broad range of medical disorders including multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and autism [Mos02, FCI+01, JLH+99, BGKM+04, BJB+03].
Date: March 30, 2007
Creator: Hlawitschka, Mario; Weber, Gunther; Anwander, Alfred; Carmichael, Owen; Hamann, Bernd & Scheuermann, Gerik
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of X-Irradiation of Respiration in Frog Brain Tissue Slices Using the Oxygen Electrode Method

Description: The effects of X-irradiation at dosages of 40 r, 80 r, 160 r, 240 r, 320 r, 400 r, 800 r, 4 Kr, 8 Kr, and 16 Kr on the oxygen uptake of frog brain (Rana pipiens) tissue slices were studied. A membrane-covered oxygen electrode method was used to measure the respiratory rate. Continuous recordings were made before, during, and following X-irradiation in all of the test experiments. X-irradiation was delivered from a G. E. beryllium window X-ray unit at 120 KVP, 5 ma with a 1/4 mm Al filter.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Lin, Chen-hsiung
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Two Approaches to Presenting Two Series of Locomotor Skills to Children with Minimal Brain Dysfunction

Description: Because the child with minimal brain dysfunction has problems perceiving the world around him, and as a result, is hindered in the learning process; the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two different methods of instruction in and practice of two series of similar locomotor skills upon the ability of children with minimal brain dysfunction to switch from one activity to another within each series.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Clark, Sharon E.
Partner: UNT Libraries