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Measuring the Temperature of Gases in Boiler Settings

Description: Scope of Report: "The bulletin presents the results of a series of measurements of the temperatures of gases in the most common types of boilers, discusses the errors occurring in the usual methods of measurement, and gives directions for making and using inexpensive thermocouples to determine flue-gas temperatures."
Date: 1918
Creator: Kreisinger, Henry & Barkley, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Powdered Coal as Fuel for Power-Plant Boilers: Tests at Oneida Street Power Station, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Description: From Introduction: "This bulletin presents the results of 36 tests made on a 468-horse-power Edge Moor boiler fired with pulverized coal at the Oneida Street Station of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis."
Date: 1923
Creator: Kreisinger, Henry; Blizard, John; Augustine, C. E. & Cross, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Coal and Briquets as Fuel for House-Heating Boilers

Description: From Introduction: "Perhaps the most important result obtained is that showing the relative value of different fuels for domestic purposes. From Table 16. on page 39, it is possible by comparison to arrive at the probable value of any fuel in any part of the country. The figures in the table show that with a sectional boiler the effectiveness of different fuels depends on the number of thermal units they contain. A brief summary of the results of this investigation is given on page 41."
Date: 1911
Creator: Randall, D. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Marine Boilers

Description: From Scope of Bulletin: "The material presented is divided into two main parts. Part I describes the evaporative tests of the marine water-tube boilers, and Part II describes the evaporative tests of the Scotch marine boiler."
Date: 1924
Creator: Kreisinger, Henry; Blizard, John; Mumford, A. R.; Cross, B. J.; Argyle, W. R. & Sherman, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Dakota Lignite as a Fuel for Power-Plant Boilers

Description: From Introduction: "The tests described in the following report were made by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Reclamation Service, which, in connection with its Williston project, had erected a large pumping plant at Williston, N. Dak., and had installed steam boilers with furnaces designed to burn a "brown lignite" that was mined on adjacent government land. The results of the tests made at Williston, set forth in this report, show that this fuel, through generally considered unsatisfactory, may be used with fair economy under boilers that generate their full rated capacity."
Date: 1912
Creator: Randall, D. T. & Kreisinger, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

Description: Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.
Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Fan, Zhen; Goidich, Steve; Robertson, Archie & Wu, Song
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Transmission of Heat into Steam Boilers

Description: Report discussing the results of investigations into the heat-absorbing abilities of the heating surfaces of boilers. Also discusses the laws that determine the rate of heat transfer from furnace gases through metal plates into boiler water and offers suggestions as to how these laws may be applied.
Date: 1912
Creator: Kreisinger, Hengry & Ray, Walter T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status Report on Studies of Recovery Boiler Composite Floor Tube Cracking

Description: Cracking of the stainless steel layer of co-extruded 304L stainless steel/SA210 Gd A 1 carbon steel black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes has been identified as one of the most serious material problems in the pulp and paper industry. A DOE-funded study was initiated in 1995 with the goal of determining the cause of and possible solutions to this cracking problem. These studies have characterized tube cracking as well as the chemical and thermal environment and stress state of floor tubes. Investigations of possible cracking mechanisms indicate that stress corrosion cracking rather than thermal fatigue is a more likely cause of crack initiation. The cracking mechanism appears to require the presence of hydrated sodium sulfide and is most likely active during shut-downs and/or start-ups. Based on these results and operating experience, certain alloys appear to be more resistant than others to cracking in the floor environment, and certain operating practices appear to significantly lessen the likelihood of cracking. This report is the latest in a series of progress reports presented on this project.
Date: September 12, 1999
Creator: Eng, P.; Frederick, L.A.; Hoffmann, C.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Mahmood, J.; Maziasz, P.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition Rate Measurement of Laser-Ignited Coals

Description: We established a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coals under conditions relevant to utility boilers. Specifically, we determined the ignition mechanism of pulverized-coal particles under various conditions of particle size, coal type, and freestream oxygen concentration. We also measured the ignition rate constant of a Pittsburgh #8 high-volatile bituminous coal by direct measurement of the particle temperature at ignition, and incorporating this measurement into a mathematical model for the ignition process. The model, called Distributed Activation Energy Model of Ignition, was developed previously by our group to interpret conventional drop-tube ignition experiments, and was modified to accommodate the present study.
Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Chen, John C. & Kabadi, Vinayak
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam and hot-water heating plants : inspection and preventive maintenance service

Description: "This Technical Manual is a guide to first and second echelon maintenance services of domestic type steam and hot-water boilers and heating systems." Discusses methods of training personnel, operation and preventive maintenance, procedures for placing equipment in service and for taking it temporarily out of service, and inspections.
Date: June 1947
Creator: United States. War Department.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth and property development of convection pass deposits in recovery boilers : final project project.

Description: As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, the mechanisms of particle deposition and properties of deposits that form in the convection passes of recovery boilers were investigated. Research from experimental facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST), and the University of Toronto (U of T) was coordinated into a single effort to define the controlling mechanisms and rates of deposition. Deposition rates were recorded on a volumetric and mass basis in a Sandia facility for particle sizes in the range of 0.1 to 150 {micro}m. Deposit thickness, mass, spectral emissivity, thermal conductivity, surface temperature, and apparent density were monitored simultaneously and in situ on instrumented probes that allow determination of heat flux and probe surface temperature. Particle composition and mass deposition rates were also recorded in a U of T facility for particle sizes in the range of 100 to 600 {micro}m. These measurements allowed determination of the liquid content and sticking efficiency of carryover particles that inertially impact on a deposition probe. In addition, information on particulates, stable gas species, gas temperature and velocity were obtained from field tests in an operating recovery boiler. The results were used to develop algorithms appropriate for use in computer codes that simulate recovery boilers. Representative calculations were performed using B&W's comprehensive recovery boiler model to demonstrate the use of the algorithms in such computer codes. Comparisons between observations in commercial systems and model predictions were made to identify algorithm strengths and weaknesses.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Lien, Steve J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Baxter, Larry L.; Frederick, W. James Jr. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA) & Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

Description: During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Payette, K. & Tillman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department