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Pitchblende Deposits at the Wood and Calhoun Mines, Central City Mining District, Gilpin County, Colorado

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution and reserves of pitchblende in the veins. These particular mines were selected because the other mines that had produced pitchblende in the east were either inaccessible, or accessible under such adverse conditions as to make detailed mapping impracticable.
Date: October 1950
Creator: Moore, Frank B. & Butler, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of some innovative fragmentation systems for oil shale

Description: This report describes a large-scale underground mining method, large-hole stoping, using some innovative fragmentation systems (buffer blasting, continuous loading/hauling, and mechanical miners for development). This study includes a literature review and an experimental study of one of the key design factors--buffer blasting. The purpose of the buffer-blasting experiments is to examine the swell that is necessary to achieve satisfactory fragmentation results. The study also includes a technical and economic evaluation of the new mining method compared with conventional room and pillar mining. The purpose of this study is to examine innovative methods that exist today and may provide a more efficient mining system than that currently used. Note that this is a conceptual study, and that the mining for the two mine designs were compared using a daily production rate of 75,000 tones per day. This amount was chosen because it is the maximum amount possible for a rubber-tired room and pillar operation with only a one-shaft complex.
Date: June 1, 1991
Creator: Hieta, M. & Hustrulid, W.A. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

Description: The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N. & Dixon, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil-shale material properties

Description: The mechanical properties of oil shale have been under examination at Sandia since 1975 in a program which has involved laboratory and field experimentation along with complementary analytical activities. The dependence of the fragmentation phenomenon on strain rate is important in explosive applications because strain rates realized in typical blasting events extend over a wide range. The model has been used to calculate a variety of explosive geometries in oil shale, with results compared to small- and large-scale experiments, including a small block test with 80 g of explosive and a field test with 5 kg explosive.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Kipp, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

Description: The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr. & Turner, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New method to determine the independent shear moduli of transversely isotropic materials

Description: A new and simple method is presented to determine the independent shear moduli of transversely isotropic materials. The method is tested on Green River Formation oil shale, one of such materials. The method is applicable for linear and nonlinear elastic materials. Mathematical formulation, derivation and solution are given, and test apparatus and results are presented. Comparison with other approximate results and acoustical methods are made. Confirmation of the test method with materials having known shear moduli is also presented.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Chong, K.P.; Chen, J.L.; Uenishi, K. & Smith, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost optimization of stirred ball mill grinding

Description: On going research at the University of Alabama has shown that stirred ball mill grinding is the highest cost unit operation in the beneficiation of Eastern Oil Shales. Minimization of that cost is critical if oils derived by beneficiation and hydroretorting of Eastern shales are to become an economic alternative to conventional crude oils. Cost optimization of stirred ball milling is a substantially different problem than optimizing a conventional (tumbling) mill operation. For conventional mills minimum cost is virtually synonymous with minimum energy consumption. Because the technology is mature and well understood, the operator can predictably optimize within a very narrow range of operating conditions. In contrast, stirred ball milling offers the operator several more degrees of freedom'' in selecting operating conditions. An example is the selection of rotor speed. In general, lower speeds result in lower energy consumption per ton of material ground but at the cost of reduced mill capacity per unit volume. Because stirred ball mills have a high capital cost per unit volume the trade off between energy consumption and capacity becomes critical. This paper presents a generalized total cost mode for stirred ball milling and examines data generated in the grinding of oil shales in terms of the model. The paper also discuss the role of the cost model in guiding future research in grinding circuit optimization.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Schultz, C.W. & Mehta, R.K. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minimum bed parameters for in situ processing of oil shale. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

Description: To minimize the costs and environmental impact associated with the material removal involved in in-situ processing, it is important to determine the minimum conditions (of void, permeability, etc.) actually required for a viable in situ process. This problem is being investigated through laboratory studies and mathematical modeling. The laboratory program this quarter centered around design, fabrication, and initial testing of a new retort vessel and system. Model calculations were made with Sandia's block retorting code in this geometry to determine the most appropriate operating conditions for the run. The ignition heater design used in the first attempt to ignite the sample was unsatisfactory, and, as a result, sustained combustion was not achieved.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Tyner, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

Description: This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Grissom, M.C. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture mechanics of oil shale: some preliminary results

Description: Results of a comprehensive series of fracture toughness tests on oil shale from Anvil Points are presented. Since oil shale is layered and transversely isotropic, three-point-bend specimens representing 20 and 40 gal/ton were tested in the three principal crack orientations--divider, arrester, and short transverse. These specimens were fatigue cracked to produce a sharp natural crack in a stable manner by means of loading between fixed limits of the crack opening displacement. Crack front position was marked by immersing the specimen in a penetrating dye so that the crack length could be determined after final failure. Load-to-failure records of load vs. crack opening displacement showed evidence of crack surface interference or crack closure. Fracture toughness was found to decrease by approximately 40 percent for an increase in kerogen content from 20 to 40 gal/ton. Highest values of fracture toughness were found for the divider geometry, lowest for short transverse, and intermediate for arrester with the actual values varying from 0.3 to 1.1 MN m/sup -/sup 3///sub 2/.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Schmidt, R. A. Huddle, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hugoniots of Colorado oil shale

Description: Standard experimental shock wave techniques were used to obtain Hugoniots of Anvil Points oil shale as functions of richness and orientation in the pressure regime encountered in the near-field region of an explosion. The shock response was found to be sensitive to kerogen content but independent of bedding orientation relative to the direction of shock propagation. A two-component model combining the inferred dynamic parameters for the end members (kerogen and mineral matrix) is adequate to predict the Hugoniots of oil shale of any arbitrary composition. Hence, the Hugoniots, as for other material properties, can be ultimately uniquely related to the oil yield. Preliminary dynamic results from samples obtained from other sites in Colorado and Wyoming indicate that this is generally true within the accuracy required for predictive explosive rock breakage calculations. 7 figures.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Carter, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic models of hydrocarbon generation

Description: We are carrying out an integrated program of laboratory experiments, kinetics modeling, and basin thermal history modeling in order to better understand the natural breakdown of organic matter into oil and gas. Our kinetic models of organic maturation are being used to better understand the coupling of generation, cracking, expulsion, and overpressuring in both the laboratory and geologic setting. Currently we are carrying out chemical experiments and developing more efficient chemical kinetic modeling schemes to obtain a better understanding of expulsion and cracking from lean source rocks and from hydrogen-poor (terrestrial) organic source material. We verify the chemical kinetic models by integrating them with thermal history models of hydrocarbon-producing sediments and comparing predicted and observed characteristics of the hydrocarbon occurrence in a variety of settings. We intend to apply this approach to evaluate the potential for deep gas resources in the Pacific Northwest and in the Louisiana Gulf Coast. 11 refs., 4 figs.
Date: October 25, 1990
Creator: Burnham, A.K. & Sweeney, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser induced pyrolysis techniques. [For chemical characterization]

Description: The application of laser pyrolysis techniques to the problems of chemical analysis is discussed. The processes occurring during laser pyrolysis are first briefly reviewed. The problems encountered in laser pyrolysis gas chromatography are discussed using the analysis of phenanthrene and binary hydrocarbons. The application of this technique to the characterization of naturally occurring carbonaceous material such as oil shales and coal is illustrated. (JSR)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Vanderborgh, N. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of high pressure oil shale Hugoniots

Description: A collection of low and high stress level Hugoniot data for a low kerogen content, porous Anvil Points oil shale are analyzed with the P-..cap alpha.. model to give a Hugoniot for kerogen free shale. The P-..cap alpha.. model suggests an ''elastic'' yield stress, P/sub e/, of 0.5 GPa and a solid density complete compaction pressure, P/sub s/, of 10.0 GPa. Knowledge of this behavior permits the calculations of the in situ, ''effective,'' Hugoniot of kerogen from extensive Hugoniot data for various mixtures of shale and kerogen. The Hugoniot of kerogen free shale is U/sub s/ = 4.30 + 1.27 u/sub p/ (km/s); rho/sub o/ = 2.65 Mg/m/sup 3/ and of kerogen is U/sub s/ = 3.09 + 1.16 u/sub p/ (km/s); rho/sub o/ = 1.05 Mg/m/sup 3/, where U/sub s/ is the shock velocity, u/sub p/ the particle velocity and rho/sub o/ the initial density.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Munson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrocode simulation of the oil shale rubblization experiment at Rock Springs Site 12

Description: An oil shale rubblization experiment will be performed during late summer of 1977. This experiment will involve the formation of three horizontal hydrofractures in an underground oil shale bed, the introduction and subsequent detonation of a slurry explosive in two of these hydrofractures, as well as various measurements of physical events and conditions associated with the dynamic experiment and with the environment. Preliminary calculations have been made with a one-dimensional hydrocode to assess some of the dynamic aspects of the upcoming experiment. Results of these calculations are presented along with a general description of the stress wave propagation, material motion, and fracture phenomena which will occur during and just after the explosive detonation. This memo is intended to be a timely discussion of the current plan and expected results of the rubblization experiment. The one-dimensional calculations will be followed by additional calculations based on a two-dimensional approach to the problem. (10 figs) (DLC)
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Boade, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shales under dynamic stress

Description: For the computer modeling of the in-situ fracturing of oil shales for retorting, the dynamic properties of oil shale need to be determined. Elastic properties and dynamic tensile strength were measured on shales from the Anvil Points Mine. The response to plane stress impulses was measured. 7 figures. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Olinger, B. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of low stress oil shale Hugoniots

Description: Analysis of low stress Hugoniot data on Anvil Points oil shale was accomplished through careful categorization of data depending upon density. Density is directly related to kerogen content and kerogen content is a strong variable in determining the Hugoniot. For a given density (kerogen content), the shock velocity-particle velocity data show a minimum in shock velocity believed related to yielding in the rock constituent of the oil shale. Low stress Hugoniot data blend smoothly with high pressure data. Further data selection permitted evaluation of the orientation dependence (approximately 15 percent in wave speed) of the shock velocity. Wave propagation speed in a direction normal to the bedding planes is less than that parallel to the bedding planes. A weak minimum in wave speed occurs between 0 and 45/sup 0/.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Munson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and application of a permit information system for shale oil (PERMISSO). Final report appendix: summary sheets of regulations required for oil shale development, June 1978--May 1979

Description: This appendix is comprised of summaries of various governmental permits, licenses and other approvals required for oil shale development. The summaries were completed during the period June--October 1978, and are current as of July 1, 1978, although more recent authority was cited in some cases. One of the major purposes of Phase II of the project will be to update these summaries as statutes and regulations are added, changed or eliminated. This updating will be particularly important in the case of environmental permits and approvals. Many legislative and regulatory changes affecting environmental requirements are pending at this time and will alter many of the summaries herein. In addition, many regulatory proposals have been or likely will be challenged in the courts. When such conflicts are resolved further changes may be in order.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chattanooga Shale conference

Description: Seven papers are included, relating to the exploitation of the uranium contained in shales. One of these papers discusses the IGT Hytort process, and was previously abstracted. Separate abstracts were prepared for the remaining six papers. (DLC)
Date: November 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual kerogen and vitrinite reflectance analyses of the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 Well, Brazoria Co. , Texas

Description: Based on the visual kerogen analyses, the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 Well can be subdivided into six zones and nine sub zones. The stratigraphic section ranges from immature at 2,894 feet to marginally mature at 16,500 feet. From 2,894 to 5,360 feet the organic matter suite is primarily an amorphous spore-pollen assemblage with secondary amounts of vitrinite. Below 6,080 feet the kerogenaceous debris is generally of a vitrinite, plant tissue, spore-pollen mixture with very little amorphous debris. Loss-of-circulation material, indicating drilling problems, is particularly abundant in cutting samples from 9,740 to 10,820 feet. There is a significant jump in the thermal maturation index, T.A.I., at the T-3 seismic horizon between 11,180 and 11,600 feet. As a result of the overall thermal immaturity and due to only fairquality organic matter, one can expect noncommercial accumulations of biogenic methane and/or wet gas.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: Geokinetics, Inc. oil shale research project, Uintah County, Utah

Description: Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) proposes to complete the remaining experimental program to develop the LOFRECO modified horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. This Environmental Assessment Report addresses the impacts of the project, located in a remote area of east-central Utah, about 70 miles south of both Vernal and Roosevelt.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: tar sand in situ steam injection experiment

Description: A field experiment is planned for the in situ recovery of bitumen from tar sand. The site is located on a ten acre site 6.5 miles West of Vernal, Utah, and the experiment will last about six months. The experiment will utilize steam to lower the viscosity of the bitumen and drive it into production wells where it is recovered. Due to the small scale of this experiment, the impact of the proposed action will be minimal. Impact on local biological life will be minimal. The experiment will have no effect on aquatic habitats. No rare or endangered biological species will be affected by the experiment.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department