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Pitchblende Deposits at the Wood and Calhoun Mines, Central City Mining District, Gilpin County, Colorado

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution and reserves of pitchblende in the veins. These particular mines were selected because the other mines that had produced pitchblende in the east were either inaccessible, or accessible under such adverse conditions as to make detailed mapping impracticable.
Date: October 1950
Creator: Moore, Frank B. & Butler, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of some innovative fragmentation systems for oil shale

Description: This report describes a large-scale underground mining method, large-hole stoping, using some innovative fragmentation systems (buffer blasting, continuous loading/hauling, and mechanical miners for development). This study includes a literature review and an experimental study of one of the key design factors--buffer blasting. The purpose of the buffer-blasting experiments is to examine the swell that is necessary to achieve satisfactory fragmentation results. The study also includes a technical and economic evaluation of the new mining method compared with conventional room and pillar mining. The purpose of this study is to examine innovative methods that exist today and may provide a more efficient mining system than that currently used. Note that this is a conceptual study, and that the mining for the two mine designs were compared using a daily production rate of 75,000 tones per day. This amount was chosen because it is the maximum amount possible for a rubber-tired room and pillar operation with only a one-shaft complex.
Date: June 1, 1991
Creator: Hieta, M. & Hustrulid, W.A. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

Description: The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N. & Dixon, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

Description: This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Grissom, M.C. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic models of hydrocarbon generation

Description: We are carrying out an integrated program of laboratory experiments, kinetics modeling, and basin thermal history modeling in order to better understand the natural breakdown of organic matter into oil and gas. Our kinetic models of organic maturation are being used to better understand the coupling of generation, cracking, expulsion, and overpressuring in both the laboratory and geologic setting. Currently we are carrying out chemical experiments and developing more efficient chemical kinetic modeling schemes to obtain a better understanding of expulsion and cracking from lean source rocks and from hydrogen-poor (terrestrial) organic source material. We verify the chemical kinetic models by integrating them with thermal history models of hydrocarbon-producing sediments and comparing predicted and observed characteristics of the hydrocarbon occurrence in a variety of settings. We intend to apply this approach to evaluate the potential for deep gas resources in the Pacific Northwest and in the Louisiana Gulf Coast. 11 refs., 4 figs.
Date: October 25, 1990
Creator: Burnham, A.K. & Sweeney, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil-shale material properties

Description: The mechanical properties of oil shale have been under examination at Sandia since 1975 in a program which has involved laboratory and field experimentation along with complementary analytical activities. The dependence of the fragmentation phenomenon on strain rate is important in explosive applications because strain rates realized in typical blasting events extend over a wide range. The model has been used to calculate a variety of explosive geometries in oil shale, with results compared to small- and large-scale experiments, including a small block test with 80 g of explosive and a field test with 5 kg explosive.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Kipp, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

Description: The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr. & Turner, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New method to determine the independent shear moduli of transversely isotropic materials

Description: A new and simple method is presented to determine the independent shear moduli of transversely isotropic materials. The method is tested on Green River Formation oil shale, one of such materials. The method is applicable for linear and nonlinear elastic materials. Mathematical formulation, derivation and solution are given, and test apparatus and results are presented. Comparison with other approximate results and acoustical methods are made. Confirmation of the test method with materials having known shear moduli is also presented.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Chong, K.P.; Chen, J.L.; Uenishi, K. & Smith, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost optimization of stirred ball mill grinding

Description: On going research at the University of Alabama has shown that stirred ball mill grinding is the highest cost unit operation in the beneficiation of Eastern Oil Shales. Minimization of that cost is critical if oils derived by beneficiation and hydroretorting of Eastern shales are to become an economic alternative to conventional crude oils. Cost optimization of stirred ball milling is a substantially different problem than optimizing a conventional (tumbling) mill operation. For conventional mills minimum cost is virtually synonymous with minimum energy consumption. Because the technology is mature and well understood, the operator can predictably optimize within a very narrow range of operating conditions. In contrast, stirred ball milling offers the operator several more degrees of freedom'' in selecting operating conditions. An example is the selection of rotor speed. In general, lower speeds result in lower energy consumption per ton of material ground but at the cost of reduced mill capacity per unit volume. Because stirred ball mills have a high capital cost per unit volume the trade off between energy consumption and capacity becomes critical. This paper presents a generalized total cost mode for stirred ball milling and examines data generated in the grinding of oil shales in terms of the model. The paper also discuss the role of the cost model in guiding future research in grinding circuit optimization.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Schultz, C.W. & Mehta, R.K. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minimum bed parameters for in situ processing of oil shale. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

Description: To minimize the costs and environmental impact associated with the material removal involved in in-situ processing, it is important to determine the minimum conditions (of void, permeability, etc.) actually required for a viable in situ process. This problem is being investigated through laboratory studies and mathematical modeling. The laboratory program this quarter centered around design, fabrication, and initial testing of a new retort vessel and system. Model calculations were made with Sandia's block retorting code in this geometry to determine the most appropriate operating conditions for the run. The ignition heater design used in the first attempt to ignite the sample was unsatisfactory, and, as a result, sustained combustion was not achieved.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Tyner, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and application of a permit information system for shale oil (PERMISSO). Final report appendix: summary sheets of regulations required for oil shale development, June 1978--May 1979

Description: This appendix is comprised of summaries of various governmental permits, licenses and other approvals required for oil shale development. The summaries were completed during the period June--October 1978, and are current as of July 1, 1978, although more recent authority was cited in some cases. One of the major purposes of Phase II of the project will be to update these summaries as statutes and regulations are added, changed or eliminated. This updating will be particularly important in the case of environmental permits and approvals. Many legislative and regulatory changes affecting environmental requirements are pending at this time and will alter many of the summaries herein. In addition, many regulatory proposals have been or likely will be challenged in the courts. When such conflicts are resolved further changes may be in order.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chattanooga Shale conference

Description: Seven papers are included, relating to the exploitation of the uranium contained in shales. One of these papers discusses the IGT Hytort process, and was previously abstracted. Separate abstracts were prepared for the remaining six papers. (DLC)
Date: November 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual kerogen and vitrinite reflectance analyses of the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 Well, Brazoria Co. , Texas

Description: Based on the visual kerogen analyses, the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 Well can be subdivided into six zones and nine sub zones. The stratigraphic section ranges from immature at 2,894 feet to marginally mature at 16,500 feet. From 2,894 to 5,360 feet the organic matter suite is primarily an amorphous spore-pollen assemblage with secondary amounts of vitrinite. Below 6,080 feet the kerogenaceous debris is generally of a vitrinite, plant tissue, spore-pollen mixture with very little amorphous debris. Loss-of-circulation material, indicating drilling problems, is particularly abundant in cutting samples from 9,740 to 10,820 feet. There is a significant jump in the thermal maturation index, T.A.I., at the T-3 seismic horizon between 11,180 and 11,600 feet. As a result of the overall thermal immaturity and due to only fairquality organic matter, one can expect noncommercial accumulations of biogenic methane and/or wet gas.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: Geokinetics, Inc. oil shale research project, Uintah County, Utah

Description: Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) proposes to complete the remaining experimental program to develop the LOFRECO modified horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. This Environmental Assessment Report addresses the impacts of the project, located in a remote area of east-central Utah, about 70 miles south of both Vernal and Roosevelt.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment: tar sand in situ steam injection experiment

Description: A field experiment is planned for the in situ recovery of bitumen from tar sand. The site is located on a ten acre site 6.5 miles West of Vernal, Utah, and the experiment will last about six months. The experiment will utilize steam to lower the viscosity of the bitumen and drive it into production wells where it is recovered. Due to the small scale of this experiment, the impact of the proposed action will be minimal. Impact on local biological life will be minimal. The experiment will have no effect on aquatic habitats. No rare or endangered biological species will be affected by the experiment.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Onshore permitting systems analysis for coal, oil, gas, geothermal and oil shale leases. Final report

Description: The magnitude and complexity of permit processes raises a question as to their impact on the rate and scope of industrial development activity. One particular area where this issue is of concern is in new energy extraction and development activities. The initiation of new energy projects has been a national priority for several years. But, energy projects, because of their potential for creating land disturbances, are subject to many environmental and other regulations. Because of this, the permitting required of energy resource developers is extensive. Within the energy field, a major portion of development activities occurs on federal lands. This is particularly true in the Rocky Mountain states and Alaska where the principal landholder is the federal government. The permitting requirements for federal lands' development differ from those for private lands. This report assesses the impact of permitting processes for energy resource development on federal lands. The permitting processes covered include all of the major environmental, land-use, and safety permits required by agencies of federal and state governments. The lands covered include all federal lands, with emphasis on eight states with major development activities.
Date: September 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulator for unconventional gas resources multi-dimensional model SUGAR-MD. Volume I. Reservoir model analysis and validation

Description: The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are: (1) To develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales. (2) To determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales. (3) To recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales. (4) To analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance. (5) To study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. The flow equations that are the mathematical basis of the two-dimensional model are presented. It is assumed that gas transport to producing wells in Devonian shale reservoirs occurs through a natural fracture system into which matrix blocks of contrasting physical properties deliver contained gas. That is, the matrix acts as a uniformly distributed gas source in a fracture medium. Gas desorption from pore walls is treated as a uniformly distributed source within the matrix blocks. 24 references.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the eastern gas shales

Description: The outgassing characteristics of the shale are being investigated using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An extensive geochemical characterization of the samples is also being performed. This characterization includes the identification of secondary resources. Mechanical testing and mass spectrometry have been integrated to provide some insight into the mechanical properties of the shale and gas released from the shale as a function of newly exposed surface area. Mechanical tests are also being performed in an attempt to determine the effects of moisture on the mechanical properties of the shale. Dilatometry is being used to study the swelling characteristics of the shale samples as a function of exposure to water and other fracturing fluids.
Date: unknown
Creator: Zielinski, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department