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In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer

Description: Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Klasson, K.T.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C. & Gaddy, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 17 - Use of Acoustic Energy and Humic Acids to Mobilize DNAPLS from the Subsurface

Description: Contamination of the subsurface with dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) is common throughout the US, especially at Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These compounds are difficult to remove, as they are poorly soluble in water and tend to stay in pools or sorb strongly to aquifer materials because of their cohesiveness and nonpolarity. Pump and treat is a technology application that offers remediation and contaminant plume containment. However, because of poor mobility and limited volubility, DNAPLs can persist as a contaminant source for years, even decades. Enhanced removal of these compounds from the subsurface requires methods to reduce cohesiveness and improve volubility. Acoustic energy introduced to the subsurface has the potential to disrupt the DNAPL pool and improve mixing. Even with this major improvement, remediation of the contamination maybe slow because of poor volubility. Surfactant compounds can also reduce cohesiveness and improve apparent volubility through the formation of micelles containing DNAPL. Commercial surfactants are subject to problems: they are expensive and toxic, sorb to aquifer materials, and exert a biochemical oxygen demand. Nonpolar compounds (DNAPLs) can be sorbed. Humic acids are poorly biodegradable, generally not well adsorbed to aquifer materials, and nontoxic. The combination of acoustic energy and humic acids has high potential for faster, less expensive remediation of subsurface DNAPL contamination when used to enhance pump-and-treat methods or in situ bioremediation.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Kurz, Marc D. & Gallagher, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discriminating between west-side sources of nutrients and organiccarbon contributing to algal growth and oxygen demand in the San JoaquinRiver

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the Salt and Mud Slough tributaries as sources of oxygen demanding materials entering the San Joaquin River (SJR). Mud Slough and Salt Slough are the main drainage arteries of the Grasslands Watershed, a 370,000-acre area west of the SJR, covering portions of Merced and Fresno Counties. Although these tributaries of the SJR are typically classified as agricultural, they are also heavily influenced by Federal, State and private wetlands. The majority of the surface water used for both irrigation and wetland management in the Grassland Watershed is imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta through the Delta-Mendota Canal. In this study, they measured algal biomass (as chlorophyll a), organic carbon, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and other measures of water quality in drainage from both agricultural and wetland sources at key points in the Salt Slough and Mud Slough tributaries. This report includes the data collected between June 16th and October 4th, 2001. The objective of the study was to compare agricultural and wetland drainage in the Grasslands Watershed and to determine the relative importance of each return flow source to the concentration and mass loading of oxygen demanding materials entering the SJR. Additionally, they compared the quality of water exiting our study area to water entering our study area. This study has demonstrated that Salt and Mud Sloughs both contribute significant amounts of oxygen demand to the SJR. Together, these tributaries could account for 35% of the oxygen demand observed below their confluence with the SJR. This study has characterized the sources of oxygen demanding materials entering Mud Slough and evaluated the oxygen demand conditions in Salt Slough. Salt Slough was found to be the dominant source of oxygen demand load in the study area, because of the higher flows in this tributary. ...
Date: July 24, 2002
Creator: Wstringfellow@lbl.gov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: Final Annual Report to BPA and NOAA Fisheries, 2008.

Description: The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Project (ISEMP) program monitors the status and trend of water quality elements that may affect restoration project effectiveness in the Entiat subbasin. As part of this effort, the PNW Research Station (PNW) measures, analyzes and interprets temporal trends in natural stream water pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and temperature. The Entiat River is currently on the Clean Water Act 303(d) list for pH exceedence, and there is insufficient information to determine the spatial and temporal extent or potential causes of this exceedence. In the late spring 2007, PNW deployed data-logging, multiparameter probes at four locations in the Entiat subbasin to measure water quality parameters, focusing on pH. Data collection was seasonally interrupted by river ice in early December. Daily average pH did not exceed the water quality standard of 8.5 at any of the measurements sites. However, instantaneous values did exceed this standard near the mouth of the Entiat River during late summer-fall period. This suggested that in the lowest portion of the river peaks in pH may be occurring because of photosynthesis caused by high rates of periphyton productivity in response to increased sunlight, temperature, and possible nutrient enrichment. Conversely, dissolved oxygen reached annual low levels during this same late summer-fall period, in part because of increased water temperatures and increased biochemical oxygen demand.
Date: March 11, 2008
Creator: Woodsmith, Richard & Bookter, Andy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

Description: Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J. & Gupta, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1994.

Description: This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory's operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory. Brookhaven National Laboratory's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological emissions and effluents to the environment were evaluated. Among the permitted facilities, two instances of pH exceedances were observed at recharge basins, possibly related to rain-water run-off to these recharge basins. Also, the discharge from the Sewage Treatment Plant to the Peconic River exceeded. on ten occasions, one each for fecal coliform and 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (avg.) and eight for ammonia nitrogen. The ammonia and Biochemical Oxygen Demand exceedances were attributed to the cold winter and the routine cultivation of the sand filter beds which resulted in the hydraulic overloading of the filter beds and the possible destruction of nitrifying bacteria. The on-set of warm weather and increased aeration of the filter beds via cultivation helped to alleviate this condition. The discharge of fecal coliform may also be linked to this occurrence, in that the increase in fecal coliform coincided with the increased cultivation of the sand filter beds. The environmental monitoring data has identified site-specific contamination of groundwater and soil. These areas are subject to Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies under the Inter Agency Agreement. Except for the above, the environmental monitoring data has continued to demonstrate that compliance was achieved with applicable environmental laws and regulations governing emission and discharge of materials to the environment, and that the environmental ...
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: NAIDU,J.R. & ROYCE,B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

San Joaquin River Up-Stream DO TMDL Project Task 4: MonitoringStudy Interim Task Report #3

Description: The purpose of the Dissolved Oxygen Total Maximum Daily LoadProject (DO TMDLProject) is to provide a comprehensive understanding ofthe sources and fate of oxygen consuming materials in the San JoaquinRiver (SJR) watershed between Channel Point and Lander Avenue (upstreamSJR). When completed, this study will provide the stakeholders anunderstanding of the baseline conditions of the basin, provide input foran allocation decision, and provide the stakeholders with a tool formeasuring the impact of any waterquality management program that may beimplemented as part of the DO TMDL process. Previous studies haveidentified algal biomass as the most significant oxygen-demandingsubstance in the DO TMDL Project study-area between of Channel Point andLander Ave onthe SJR. Other oxygen-demanding substances found in theupstream SJR include ammonia and organic carbon from sources other thanalgae. The DO TMDL Project study-area contains municipalities, dairies,wetlands, cattle ranching, irrigated agriculture, and industries thatcould potentially contribute biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to the SJR.This study is designed to discriminate between algal BOD and othersources of BOD throughout the entire upstream SJR watershed. Algalbiomass is not a conserved substance, but grows and decays in the SJR;hence, characterization of oxygen-demanding substances in the SJR isinherently complicated and requires an integrated effort of extensivemonitoring, scientific study, and modeling. In order to achieve projectobjectives, project activities were divided into a number of Tasks withspecific goals and objectives. In this report, we present the results ofmonitoring and research conducted under Task 4 of the DO TMDL Project.The major objective of Task 4 is to collect sufficient hydrologic (flow)and water quality (WQ) data to characterize the loading of algae, otheroxygen-demanding materials, and nutrients fromindividual tributaries andsub-watersheds of the upstream SJR between Mossdale and Lander Avenue.This data is specifically being collected to provide data for the Task 6Modeling effort. Task 4 provides input and calibration data for flow andWQ modeling associated with ...
Date: March 30, 2007
Creator: Stringfellow, William; Borglin, Sharon; Dahlgren, Randy; Hanlon,Jeremy; Graham, Justin; Burks, Remie et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxiczone.

Description: Each summer, an area of low dissolved oxygen (the hypoxic zone) forms in the shallow nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters from the Mississippi River Delta westward to near the Texas/Louisiana border. Most scientists believe that the leading contributor to the hypoxic zone is input of nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate growth of phytoplankton. As the phytoplankton subsequently die, they fall to the bottom waters where they are decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition process consumes oxygen in the bottom waters to create hypoxic conditions. Sources other than the two rivers mentioned above may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding pollutants. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone. Many of these platforms discharge varying volumes of produced water. However, only limited data characterizing oxygen demand and nutrient concentration and loading from offshore produced water discharges have been collected. No comprehensive and coordinated oxygen demand data exist for produced water discharges in the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the results of a program to sample 50 offshore oil and gas platforms located within the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The program was conducted in response to a requirement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for offshore oil and gas discharges. EPA requested information on the amount of oxygen-demanding substances contained in the produced water discharges. This information is needed as inputs to several water quality models that EPA intends to run to estimate the relative contributions of the produced water discharges to the occurrence of the hypoxic zone. Sixteen platforms were sampled 3 times each at approximately one-month intervals to give an estimate of temporal variability. An additional 34 ...
Date: August 24, 2005
Creator: Veil, J. A.; Kimmell, T. A. & Rechner, A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

Description: An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Peterson, Eric S.; Trudeau, Jessica; Cleary, Bill; Hackett, Michael & Greene, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VOC Control in Kraft Mills - Final Report: Task A and Task B

Description: The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA).
Date: September 26, 2001
Creator: Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VOC Control in Kraft Mills

Description: The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA).
Date: September 26, 2001
Creator: Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

Description: An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20�25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.
Date: April 30, 2003
Creator: Peterson, E.S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M. & Greene, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anaerobic fermentation of simulated in-situ oil shale retort water

Description: The feasibility of removing soluble organics from oil shale retort water by anaerobic digestion with methane production was experimentally investigated. The following conclusions were made. The retort water studied had to be pretreated to remove toxic and add deficient constituents before it could be successfully treated with the anaerobic fermentation process. Pretreatment included pH adjustment to 7, ammonia reduction, and nutrient addition. A digested sludge from a conventional municipal sewage treatment plant was successfully acclimated to the retort water studied. A major fraction of the organics in the retort water studied was stabilized by conversion to CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ using the anaerobic fermentation process. BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiences were 76 to 80 percent. The effluent from anaerobic fermentation of the retort water studied (BOD/sub 5/ : 530 to 580 mg/l) may be suitable for treatment by conventional aerobic processes. The growth of the methane formers, which stabilize the organics, is nutrient limited in the retort water studied. The pretreatment of the retort water studied removed 49 percent of the BOD/sub 5/. This was probably due to the reduction in solubility of high molecular weight fatty acids at neutral pHs. A major component removed from the retort water studied during anaerobic fermentation was fatty acids. The long hydraulic residence time used in this study would not be used in practice.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Ossio, E.A.; Fox, J.P.; Thomas, J.F. & Poulson, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuous biodegradation of waste xylene

Description: Use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. The INEL Biotechnology Unit is developing the technology for the in-plant treatment of waste industrial solvents. The work centers around the use of microorganisms specially selected for their ability to degrade common industrial solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. Because these waste solvents are often contaminated with other materials (heavy metals, water, detergents, etc.) they are difficult and expensive to dispose and many times are not economical to recover through recycling. Even if the disposal option is used, the generator is still faced with continued liability in the event of mishandling or improper disposal of the waste. Biological treatments offers the option of reducing these solvents into harmless by-products provided that both the requisite microorganisms and the proper processing technology are successfully brought together. Work on the optimization of a bioreactor process for the degradation of xylene will be discussed. 15 figs., 7 refs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Higdem, D.M. & Nowers, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution of thiosulfate to COD and BOD in oil shale process wastewater

Description: Thiosulfate accounted for a significant portion of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (7 to 20%) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (14 to 41%) of the four oil shale process waters studied. As such, accurate measurement of the thiosulfate oxygen demand of retort water is critical in assessing its environmental impacts on receiving waters and in designing biological treatment systems to treat it. The contribution of thiosulfate to the COD of oil shale retort waters can be accurately measured in a standard COD test. The BOD of thiosulfate in retort water is more difficult to determine and may require the development of a special thiosulfate acclimated seed. Thiosulfate recovery of a known thiosulfate spike ranged from 92 to 100% in the COD test and from 64 to 119% in the BOD test. Considerable variability in recovery was found between the process waters studied. When determining the BOD of oil shale process waters, care must be taken to insure a viable population of thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wong, A. L. & Mercer, B. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of superior liquid coolants CCF-1. Semiannual technical progress report for September 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

Description: This semiannual report summarizes the results of physical property testing, FHSA toxicity testing and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) testing on five solar heat transfer fluids. The status of solar collector stagnation testing at New Mexico State University on four solar heat transfer fluids is reviewed. Cost effectiveness will be evaluated from the results of these and other tests yet to be undertaken, including stagnation performance in solar collectors. This economic evaluation will be presented in the final technical report at the conclusion of all contract tasks.
Date: February 28, 1979
Creator: Hodges, R M & Marinik, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes

Description: Research efforts during the past quarter have centered on increasing yeast protein production using ozonated spent sulfite liquor (SSL) and improving the biodegradability of SSL by ultrasonic treatments. Continuous-flow fermentation experiments demonstrated the suitability of ozonated SSL as a substrate for Torula yeast growth. Yeast yields averaging between 2.0--2.2 g/l of SSL were obtained at the optimum retention time of 1.8 days. This contrasts to yeast production rates of 4.8--5.0 g/l of SSL in two day batch cultures. Lower yields were expected under continuous-flow conditions as compared to batch conditions, but production rates were sufficient to warrant further investigation. In contrast, effluent from anaerobic digestors used for methane production supported very little yeast growth even though it contains appreciable amounts of acetate. A toxic product or products apparently are synthesized during fermentation which are inhibitory to the Torula yeast. Experiments were also run to determine if sonic treatments would increase the content of fermentable substrates in SSL. Results indicated striking increases in BOD levels of SSL after sonication, especially when used in conjunction with ozonation. Such gains in available carbon would likely result in increased methane and yeast production.
Date: March 15, 1978
Creator: Jurgensen, M.F. & Patton, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

Description: A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: English, C.J.; Petty, S.E. & Sklarew, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological conversion of biomass to methane, the effect of reactor design on kinetics

Description: An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the effect of reactor type on methane production. This study showed that if a balanced population of organisms can be maintained in the initial stage, multi-stage fermentation is more efficient than a complex mix system. However, when the system is stressed, failure in the multi-stage system is more rapid. If the objective is to maximize the conversion of solids to methane, a staged system will produce more methane per unit volume of reactor. If the objective is to maximize the methane production per unit volume of reactor, a single stage complete-mix reactor operating near the critical retention time is required.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Geisser, H R & Pfeffer, J T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

Description: The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.
Date: June 14, 1979
Creator: Jurgensen, M.F. & Patton, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

Description: Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Ossio, E. & Fox, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Quarterly progress report, June 1--September 30, 1977

Description: During the past quarter, work has continued on the use of beef feed lot manure for the production of methane. Additional data were collected on the operation of the fermentors at thermophilic temperatures. Data were also collected at the mesophilic temperature. A considerable effort has been expended on characterizing the reactor effluent and evaluating the dewatering characteristics of the reactor slurry. Evaluation of the type of reactor on methane yields have continued. Data were collected on these systems operating at a total retention time of 10 days. Response of the system and reaction rates were determined.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Pfeffer, J T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Annual report, June 15, 1977--June 15, 1978

Description: Studies on desugared spent sulfite liquor, DSSL, subjected to ozonation indicate that this complex organic substrate in water solution reacts readily with ozone to produce lower molecular weight organic fragments which can be metabolized by a variety of microorganisms. Ozone uptake is complete up to approximately 15 g/l and results in an increase of 35% BOD and a reduction of 16% COD. The production of BOD is pH dependent with a maximum occurring at aroung pH 3. The production of methane via fermentation of DSSL is greatly enhanced by the ozonation reaction. Methane production on raw DSSL is only 45.3 standard cc/1 of DSSL. After ozonation of the DSSL during which 15 g/l of ozone are reacted, the resulting product yields 1239 standard cc/1. The hypothesis that methane is produced from acetic acid, held by several prior workers, could not be corroborated in this study. Liquor remaining in the fermenter after gas production has essentially ceased in much richer in acetic acid than ozonated DSSL. Continuous fermentation studies operated to optimize gas production produced a fermentate containing 3.96 g/l of acetic acid. The production of protein accomplished through the growth of Torula yeast on DSSL is also enhanced by the ozonation reaction. Two variants show minimal growth on unozonated DSSL but cell densities of 5 g/l were obtained with the rough variant when this substrate has been ozonated. In contrast to the methane fermentation which showed high ozone consumption to be beneficial, the yeast prefer very minimal ozone reaction. Yeast growth was not vigorous on methane fermentate shown to be rich in acetic acid.
Date: June 15, 1978
Creator: Jurgensen, M.F. & Patton, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of effects of phenol recovery on biooxidation and tertiary treatment of SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

Description: Addition of phenol recovery to the wastewater treatment scheme in the Baseline Design for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant was evaluated as a major post-Baseline effort. Phenol recovery affects many downstream processes, but this study was designed to assess primarily its effects on biooxidation and subsequent tertiary treatment. Two parallel treatment schemes were set up, one to treat dephenolated wastewaters and the other for processed nondephenolated wastewaters, a simulation of the Baseline Design. The study focused on comparisons of five areas: effluent quality; system stability; the need for continuous, high-dose powdered activated carbon (PAC) augmentation to the bioreactor; minimum bioreactor hydraulic residence time (HRT); and tertiary treatment requirements. The results show that phenol recovery improves the quality of the bioreactor effluent in terms of residual organics and color. With phenol recovery, PAC augmentation is not required; without phenol recovery, PAC is needed to produce a comparable effluent. Dephenolization also enhances the stability of biooxidation, and reduces the minimum HRT required. With tertiary treatment, both schemes can meet the effluent concentrations published in the SRC-I Final Envivornmental Impact Statement, as well as the anticipated effluent limits. However, phenol recovery does provide a wider safety margin and could eliminate the need for some of the tertiary treatment steps. Based solely on the technical merits observed in this study, phenol recovery is recommended. The final selection should, however, also consider economic tradeoffs and results of other studies such as toxicology testing of the effluents. 34 references, 30 figures and 26 tables.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Mitchell, J.W.; Watt, J.C.; Cowan, W.F. & Schuyler, S.E.
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