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Shipping container for tritiated water

Description: A reusable shipping container for Type B and large quantities of tritiated water has been designed and tested at Mound Facility. An inner and an outer container are used for shipping up to 100,000 Ci of tritium in water absorbed on molecular sieve, silica gel or commercial clay absorbent. The package is commonly called configuration-5 of the model AL-M1 shipping containers. It is the newest member of the AL-M1 family which currently also includes configurations 1 and 3. These other configurations are both for plutonium-239 and uranium-235. The common feature uniting the AL-M1 family is the 55-gal outer drum assembly which is the same for all configurations. The inner containers are quite dissimilar. A ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging'' or SARP was prepared to qualify the new shipping container for DOT/DOE approval. That document is a formal safety analysis of all three AL-M1 insulated drum shipping container configurations. Together these are officially identified as USA/9507/BLF (ERDA-AL). The Certificate of Compliance has been issued and the SARP has been submitted to NRC for review. A description of the configuration-5 inner container is presented. In addition to the prototype used in testing, thirteen of these containers have been fabricated. One is retained at Mound Facility and twelve will be used at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, to collect tritiated wastewater. This wastewater will be shipped to Mound for recovery or dispoal of the tritium.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Watkins, R.A.; Rhinehammer, T.B. & Griffin, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating and maintenance experience in tritium environments

Description: This presentation is a summary of practical experience gained over more than twenty years from analyzing failures of process equipment operated in tritium and deuterium environments. Significant improvements have been achieved in design and procurement of new equipment, testing and selection of materials, and gradually more favorable maintenance experience. Preferred materials and inspection methods are described. 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Tuer, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and {beta}- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

Description: The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10{sup 4} Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Hahn, F. F.; Griffith, W. C.; Boecker, B. B.; Muggenburg, B. A. & Lundgren, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium operating safety seminar, Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 30, 1975

Description: A seminar for the exchange of information on tritium operating and safety problems was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The topics discussed are: (1) material use (tubing, lubricants, valves, seals, etc.); (2) hardware selection (valves, fittings, pumps, etc.); (3) biological effects; (4) high pressure; (5) operating procedures (high pressure tritium experiment at LLL); (6) incidents; and (7) emergency planning. (TFD)
Date: March 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

Description: Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Anderson, J.L. & Wilkes, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology

Description: Two distinct sources of information are available from a [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar step-heating experiment: the age spectrum and Arrhenius plot. Model ages are calculated from the flux of radiogenic argon ([sup 40]Ar*) (assuming trapped argon of atmospheric composition) relative to the reactor produced [sup 39]Ar evolved during discrete laboratory heating steps. With the additional assumption that the [sup 39]Ar is uniformly distributed within the sample, we can infer the spatial distribution of the daughter product. ne associated Arrhenius plot, derived by plotting the diffusion coefficient (obtained from the inversion of the 39[sup Ar] release function assuming a single domain) against the inverse temperature of laboratory heating, are a convolution of the parameters which characterize the individual diffusion domains (whether these be dictated by varying length scale, energetics, etc.). However, many and perhaps Most [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra for slowly cooled alkali feldspars are significantly different from model age spectra calculated assuming a single diffusion-domain size. In addition, Arrhenius plots calculated from the measured loss of [sup 39]Ar during the step heating experiment show departures from linearity that are inconsistent with diffusion from domains of equal size. By extending the single diffusion-domain closure model (Dodsontype) to apply to minerals with a discrete distribution of domain sizes, we obtained an internally consistent explanation for the commonly observed features of alkali feldspar age spectra and their associated Arrhenius plots.
Date: January 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

Description: This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.
Date: May 22, 1978
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debris collection from implosion of microballoons

Description: Recovery of krypton from implosion of glass microballoons has been studied in the development of a radiochemical diagnostic for determination of <rho r> /sub fuel/. Collection onto metal surfaces following implosions performed on the OMEGA laser with 1-3 TW (1-2 kJ) of 0.35 ..mu..m light is consistent with an ion implantation mechanism. The dependence of the intrinsic collection efficiency on the energy fluence to the collector surface and its variation in implosions carried out under the same nominal conditions indicate ion energies extending to at least 0.1 MeV and energy distribution functions that are sensitive to the details of the implosion dynamics. Intrinsic sticking efficiencies approaching 0.5 can be obtained in the limit of low total energy fluence to the collector surface (less than or equal to 0.1 J cm/sup -2/).
Date: March 28, 1986
Creator: Prussin, S.G.; Lane, S.M.; Richardson, M.C. & Noyes, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

Description: Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Wysor, R.B.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Lunsford, R.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge dynamics in pellet-fuelled inner-wall jet discharges

Description: This paper reports on the density behavior in JET during pellet-fuelled inner-wall discharges without auxiliary heating. Certain discharges, characterized by minor disruptions at the q = 2 surface, show a ten times more rapid decay of the plasma density than previously observed. It is shown that this is related to the combined effects of plasma and wall properties.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Cohen, S.A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Bartlett, D.V.; Campbell, D.J.; Cheetham, A.D.; de Kock, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report -- Packages LP-50 tritium package (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials)

Description: Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. Each package contains a large quantity (greater than a Type A quantity) of nonfissile material, as defined in AECM 0529. This report provides the details of the safety analysis performed for this type container.
Date: May 1, 1975
Creator: Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G. (comps.) & Cadelli, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Replacement Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site

Description: This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of operational readiness review (ORR) activities for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) located at Savannah River Site (SRS). The EH OA of this facility took place concurrently with an ORR conducted by the DOE Office of Defense Programs (DP). The DP ORR was conducted from January 19 through February 5, 1993. The EH OA was performed in accordance with the protocol and procedures specified in EH Program for Oversight Assessment of Operational Readiness Evaluations for Startups and Restarts,'' dated September 15, 1992. The EH OA Team evaluated the DP ORR to determine whether it was thorough and demonstrated sufficient inquisitiveness to verify that the implementation of programs and procedures adequately ensures the protection of worker safety and health. The EH OA Team performed its evaluation of the DP ORR in the following technical areas: occupational safety, industrial hygiene, and respiratory protection; fire protection; and chemical safety. In the areas of fire protection and chemical safety, the EH OA Team conducted independent vertical-slice reviews to confirm DP ORR results. Within each technical area, the EH OA Team reviewed the DP ORR Plan, including the Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs); the qualifications of individual DP ORR team members; the performance of planned DP ORR activities; and the results of the DP ORR.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Lee, B.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

Description: This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Schell, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Fanning, J.J. & Kim, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of cosmogenic /sup 36/Cl/Cl in young volcanic rocks: An application of accelerator mass spectrometry in geochronology

Description: We have measured /sup 36/Cl/Cl ratios in a number of young volcanic rocks in order to test the feasibility of using /sup 36/Cl buildup as a geochronometer for materials less than about 700,000 years old. All of the analyzed rocks have been dated independently using K-Ar or other radiometric dating methods and have exposure histories that are known or can be reasonably assumed. Measured /sup 36/Cl/Cl ratios in these rocks are in good agreement with the calculated in-situ /sup 36/Cl buildup curve. These analyses indicate that AMS measurement of /sup 36/Cl buildup in young rocks is a potentially powerful new method for dating materials that had previously been undatable, and as such will have broad applications in volcanology, tectonics, geophysics, and Quaternary research.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Leavy, B.D.; Phillips, F.M.; Elmore, D. & Kubik, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF

Description: Our collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. We have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate, lambda/sub c/, and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient, ..omega../sub s/, that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews our experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15K to 800K. In particular, results will be presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Caffrey, A.J.; Anderson, A.N.; Van Siclen, C.D.W.; Watts, K.D.; Bradbury, J.N.; Gram, P.A.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium-90 in the US diet, 1982

Description: Estimates of /sup 90/Sr intake via the total diet in New York City and San Francisco have been made since 1960 from quarterly food samplings and average consumption statistics. The dietary intake of /sup 90/Sr has decreased from the maximum levels attained during 1963-1964, but the decline has become more gradual in recent years due to the continuing small amounts of /sup 90/Sr deposition and the little-changing cumulative deposit of /sup 90/Sr in soil. The annual intake in 1982 averaged 5.4 pCi/day (0.20 Bq/day) in New York, and 2.6 pCi/day (0.096 Bq/day) in San Francisco, little changed from the previous year. Further gradual reductions in /sup 90/Sr intake are anticipated during 1983. 1 reference, 7 figures, 4 tables.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Klusek, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the NBS /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be isotopic standard reference material

Description: The National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) community, is in the process of developing a /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be isotopic solution Standard Reference Material (SRM). The starting /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be solution was provided by the ORNL after Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometric characterization for isotopic concentration. The radioactivity purity of the ORNL Master solution was confirmed by gamma-ray spectrometry, then diluted at NBS with solutions made from zone-refined single-crystal beryllium metal and sub-boiling double-distilled hydrochloric acid. Four serial dilutions were necessary to achieve a final /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be isotopic composition of approximately 3 x 10/sup -11/ (g/g). The accuracy of the dilutions was confirmed by liquid scintillation and AMS measurements. The isotopic composition of the ORNL Master solution was also confirmed at NBS by Resonant Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the final solution is being affirmed at the present time through international laboratory AMS measurements.
Date: April 1, 1987
Creator: Inn, K.G.W.; Raman, S.; Coursey, B.M.; Fassett, J.D. & Walker, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of an Emergency Containment System. [Tritium containment]

Description: A system called an Emergency Containment System (ECS) to be used for tertiary containment of tritium was reported at the 13th Air Cleaning Conference. This system was part of the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory then under construction at Mound Facility. A series of experiments has recently been conducted to evaluate the performance of an ECS in capturing tritium accidentally released into an operating laboratory. The ECS is an automatically actuated laboratory air detritiation system utilizing a catalytic oxidation reactor and presaturated oxide adsorption/exchange columns. In the event of an accidental release of tritium into the laboratory, the ECS is automatically activated, and quick-acting pneumatic dampers divert the laboratory air supply and exhaust through the ECS until room concentrations are returned to safe operating levels. The results of the experiments have shown that a tertiary containment of tritium is feasible. In the event of a catastrophic accident, the ECS is capable of preventing the release of a large quantity of tritium to the environment.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Flanagan, T.M.; Rogers, M.L. & Wilkes, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion exchange flowsheet for recovery of cesium from purex sludge supernatant at B Plant

Description: Purex Sludge Supernatant (PSS) contains significant amounts of /sup 137/Cs left after removal of strontium from fission product bearing Purex wastes. To remove cesium from PSS, an Ion Exchange Recovery system has been set up in Cells 17-21 at B Plant. The cesium that is recovered is stored within B Plant for eventual purification through the Cesium Purification process in Cell 38 and eventual encapsulation and storage in a powdered form at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility. Cesium depleted waste streams from the Ion Exchange processes are transferred to underground storage.
Date: April 29, 1977
Creator: Carlstrom, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

Description: Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E. & Schmidt, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma transport in a compact ignition tokamak

Description: Nominal predicted plasma conditions in a compact ignition tokamak are illustrated by transport simulations using experimentally calibrated plasma transport models. The range of uncertainty in these predictions is explored by using various models which have given almost equally good fits to experimental data. Using a transport model which best fits the data, thermonuclear ignition occurs in a Compact Ignition Tokamak design with major radius 1.32 m, plasma half-width 0.43 m, elongation 2.0, and toroidal field and plasma current ramped in six seconds from 1.7 to 10.4 T and 0.7 to 10 MA, respectively. Ignition is facilitated by 20 MW of heating deposited off the magnetic axis near the /sup 3/He minority cyclotron resonance layer. Under these conditions, sawtooth oscillations are small and have little impact on ignition. Tritium inventory is minimized by preconditioning most discharges with deuterium. Tritium is injected, in large frozen pellets, only after minority resonance preheating. Variations of the transport model, impurity influx, heating profile, and pellet ablation rates, have a large effect on ignition and on the maximum beta that can be achieved.
Date: February 1, 1987
Creator: Singer, C.E.; Ku, L.P & Bateman, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hafnium-implanted nickel studied with TDPAC and RBS/channeling before and after laser-surface melting and thermal annealing

Description: The Hf implanted Ni system has been studied by the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique and by Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channeling. Low fluence implants were thermally annealed in vacuum at increasing temperature in order to study the evolution of substitutional and defect-associated solutes using TDPAC. Both detrapping and precipitation (or segregation) effects have been observed. Higher fluence implants were studied by both TDPAC and RBS/channeling in as-implanted as well as laser-surface-melted regimes. 10 figures.
Date: September 15, 1982
Creator: Kaufmann, E. N.; Buene, L.; McDonald, M. L.; Kotthaus, J.; Freitag, K.; Vianden, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department