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Direct measurement of strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soils on a real-time basis: 1994 summary report

Description: Traditional methodologies for quantitative characterization of radionuclide-contaminated soils over extended areas are often tedious, costly, and non-representative. A rapid characterization methodology was designed that provides reliable output with spatial resolution on the order of a few meters or less. It incorporates an innovative sensor of square plastic scintillating fibers that has been designed to be placed directly on or above a contaminated soil to detect and quantify high-energy beta particles associated with the decay chains of uranium and/or strontium. Under the direction and auspices of the DOE`s Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a high-energy beta scintillation sensor that was optimized for the detection and quantification of uranium and strontium contamination in surface soils (in the presence of potentially interfering natural and anthropogenic radionuclides), demonstrated and evaluated this detector in various field and laboratory scenarios, and provides this document in completion of the aforementioned requirements.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A. & Thompson, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In his review of radionuclides for dating purposes, Roth noted that there were a large number of nuclides, normally considered ''stable'' but which are radioactive with a very long half-life. Roth suggested that I review the data on the half-life values of these long-lived nuclides for a discussion session at the next meeting. These half-life values for long-lived nuclides include those due to various decay modes, {alpha}-decay, {beta}-decay, electron capture decay, {beta}{beta}-decay and spontaneous fission decay. This report is preliminary but will provide a quick overview of the extensive table of data on the recommendations from that review.
Date: June 29, 2001
Creator: HOLDEN,N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive contamination in liquid wastes discharged to ground at the separations facilities through December 1962

Description: This document summarizes the amounts of radioactive contamination discharged to ground from separations facilities through December 1962. Detailed data for individual disposal sites are presented on a month-to-month basis for the period of January through December 1962. Previous publications of this series are listed in the bibliography and may be referred to for specific information on measurements and radioactivity totals prior to December 1962. Tables list the major disposal sites in the separation facilities, total volume of waste discharged to each location, and the gross amounts of plutonium and beta particle emitters discharged to ground since startup. This same data is presented on a monthly basis for cribs still in use. Information is presented on the source of the waste stream and the settling facility if used. Isotopic data are included for disposal sites from which the waste was analyzed for specific contaminants. Estimates of contamination and volumes discharged to swamps are also included.
Date: March 12, 1963
Creator: Backman, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-call scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination: Topical report, September 15, 1996--October 3, 1996, Tasks 1.11, 1.12 and 1.13

Description: Several flow-cell radiation detector systems are commercially available for quantification of aqueous radioactive solutions. These systems do not use the technique of pulse shape discrimination to identify the incident radiation and therefore are limited in environmental characterization application when coupled to an ion chromatography system. The advantages of the pulse shape discriminating flow-cell detector over the commercially available systems include: (1) lower minimum detectable activity for alpha radiation, (2) reduced radiological interferences that may exist between co-eluted alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides, and (3) possible isotopic information from the ion chromatography system. For Tasks 1.1.1 and 1.1.2 of this project, several scintillation materials were investigated for pulse shape (alpha and beta) discrimination capabilities and the best candidate material was optimized. In addition, the following detector properties were also optimized: scintillator particle size, flow-cell tubing type, and electromagnetic as well as optical crosstalk between the photomultiplier tubes.
Date: April 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford high level waste: Sample Exchange/Evaluation (SEE) Program

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)/Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)/Process Analytical Laboratory (PAL) provide analytical support services to various environmental restoration and waste management projects/programs at Hanford. In response to a US Department of Energy -- Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) audit, which questioned the comparability of analytical methods employed at each laboratory, the Sample Exchange/Exchange (SEE) program was initiated. The SEE Program is a selfassessment program designed to compare analytical methods of the PAL and ACL laboratories using sitespecific waste material. The SEE program is managed by a collaborative, the Quality Assurance Triad (Triad). Triad membership is made up of representatives from the WHC/PAL, PNL/ACL, and WHC Hanford Analytical Services Management (HASM) organizations. The Triad works together to design/evaluate/implement each phase of the SEE Program.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: King, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shipping container for tritiated water

Description: A reusable shipping container for Type B and large quantities of tritiated water has been designed and tested at Mound Facility. An inner and an outer container are used for shipping up to 100,000 Ci of tritium in water absorbed on molecular sieve, silica gel or commercial clay absorbent. The package is commonly called configuration-5 of the model AL-M1 shipping containers. It is the newest member of the AL-M1 family which currently also includes configurations 1 and 3. These other configurations are both for plutonium-239 and uranium-235. The common feature uniting the AL-M1 family is the 55-gal outer drum assembly which is the same for all configurations. The inner containers are quite dissimilar. A ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging'' or SARP was prepared to qualify the new shipping container for DOT/DOE approval. That document is a formal safety analysis of all three AL-M1 insulated drum shipping container configurations. Together these are officially identified as USA/9507/BLF (ERDA-AL). The Certificate of Compliance has been issued and the SARP has been submitted to NRC for review. A description of the configuration-5 inner container is presented. In addition to the prototype used in testing, thirteen of these containers have been fabricated. One is retained at Mound Facility and twelve will be used at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, to collect tritiated wastewater. This wastewater will be shipped to Mound for recovery or dispoal of the tritium.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Watkins, R.A.; Rhinehammer, T.B. & Griffin, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating and maintenance experience in tritium environments

Description: This presentation is a summary of practical experience gained over more than twenty years from analyzing failures of process equipment operated in tritium and deuterium environments. Significant improvements have been achieved in design and procurement of new equipment, testing and selection of materials, and gradually more favorable maintenance experience. Preferred materials and inspection methods are described. 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Tuer, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive contamination in liquid waste discharged to ground at the separations facilities through December, 1964

Description: This document summarizes the amounts of radioactive contamination discharged to ground from chemical separations and laboratory facilities through December, 1964. Detailed data for individual disposal sites are presented on a month-to-month basis for the period of January through December, 1964. Previous publications of this series are listed in the bibliography and may be referred to for specific information on measurements and radioactivity totals prior to December, 1964. Several changes in crib nomenclature were made during 1964. These changes are noted on the individual tables so reference may be made to them in previous reports. Tables I and II list the major disposal sites in the separation facilities, total volume of waste discharged to each location, and the gross amounts of plutonium and beta particle emitters discharged to ground since startup. Tables III through XXIV present this same data on a monthly basis for cribs still in use, and also include information on the source of the waste stream and the settling facility if used. Isotopic data are included for disposal sites from which the waste was analyzed for specific contaminants. Estimates of contamination and volumes discharged to swamps are also included in Tables XXV and XXVI.
Date: May 4, 1965
Creator: Wilson, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium operating safety seminar, Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 30, 1975

Description: A seminar for the exchange of information on tritium operating and safety problems was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The topics discussed are: (1) material use (tubing, lubricants, valves, seals, etc.); (2) hardware selection (valves, fittings, pumps, etc.); (3) biological effects; (4) high pressure; (5) operating procedures (high pressure tritium experiment at LLL); (6) incidents; and (7) emergency planning. (TFD)
Date: March 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technetium-99 in SRP high-level waste and saltstone

Description: Analyses of sludge and soluble waste samples and the inventory of sludge and soluble waste have been used to estimate the concentration of technetium-99 (Tc-99) in sludge solids and soluble waste. These data were also used to establish if the source term assumptions for Tc-99 in the Defense waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet are accurate and determine the fraction of the Tc-99 inventory in the waste that is soluble. This analysis was needed to establish if the present basis for decontaminated salt feed to the saltstone process is correct. These results and the projected leach rate for Tc-99 from saltstone can then be used to establish if Tc-99 must be removed from contaminated supernate.
Date: February 24, 1984
Creator: Fowler, J. R.; Hamm, B. A. & Cook, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

Description: Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Anderson, J.L. & Wilkes, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology

Description: Two distinct sources of information are available from a [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar step-heating experiment: the age spectrum and Arrhenius plot. Model ages are calculated from the flux of radiogenic argon ([sup 40]Ar*) (assuming trapped argon of atmospheric composition) relative to the reactor produced [sup 39]Ar evolved during discrete laboratory heating steps. With the additional assumption that the [sup 39]Ar is uniformly distributed within the sample, we can infer the spatial distribution of the daughter product. ne associated Arrhenius plot, derived by plotting the diffusion coefficient (obtained from the inversion of the 39[sup Ar] release function assuming a single domain) against the inverse temperature of laboratory heating, are a convolution of the parameters which characterize the individual diffusion domains (whether these be dictated by varying length scale, energetics, etc.). However, many and perhaps Most [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra for slowly cooled alkali feldspars are significantly different from model age spectra calculated assuming a single diffusion-domain size. In addition, Arrhenius plots calculated from the measured loss of [sup 39]Ar during the step heating experiment show departures from linearity that are inconsistent with diffusion from domains of equal size. By extending the single diffusion-domain closure model (Dodsontype) to apply to minerals with a discrete distribution of domain sizes, we obtained an internally consistent explanation for the commonly observed features of alkali feldspar age spectra and their associated Arrhenius plots.
Date: January 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

Description: This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.
Date: May 22, 1978
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debris collection from implosion of microballoons

Description: Recovery of krypton from implosion of glass microballoons has been studied in the development of a radiochemical diagnostic for determination of <rho r> /sub fuel/. Collection onto metal surfaces following implosions performed on the OMEGA laser with 1-3 TW (1-2 kJ) of 0.35 ..mu..m light is consistent with an ion implantation mechanism. The dependence of the intrinsic collection efficiency on the energy fluence to the collector surface and its variation in implosions carried out under the same nominal conditions indicate ion energies extending to at least 0.1 MeV and energy distribution functions that are sensitive to the details of the implosion dynamics. Intrinsic sticking efficiencies approaching 0.5 can be obtained in the limit of low total energy fluence to the collector surface (less than or equal to 0.1 J cm/sup -2/).
Date: March 28, 1986
Creator: Prussin, S.G.; Lane, S.M.; Richardson, M.C. & Noyes, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

Description: Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Wysor, R.B.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Lunsford, R.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge dynamics in pellet-fuelled inner-wall jet discharges

Description: This paper reports on the density behavior in JET during pellet-fuelled inner-wall discharges without auxiliary heating. Certain discharges, characterized by minor disruptions at the q = 2 surface, show a ten times more rapid decay of the plasma density than previously observed. It is shown that this is related to the combined effects of plasma and wall properties.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Cohen, S.A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Bartlett, D.V.; Campbell, D.J.; Cheetham, A.D.; de Kock, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report -- Packages LP-50 tritium package (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials)

Description: Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. Each package contains a large quantity (greater than a Type A quantity) of nonfissile material, as defined in AECM 0529. This report provides the details of the safety analysis performed for this type container.
Date: May 1, 1975
Creator: Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G. (comps.) & Cadelli, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Replacement Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site

Description: This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of operational readiness review (ORR) activities for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) located at Savannah River Site (SRS). The EH OA of this facility took place concurrently with an ORR conducted by the DOE Office of Defense Programs (DP). The DP ORR was conducted from January 19 through February 5, 1993. The EH OA was performed in accordance with the protocol and procedures specified in EH Program for Oversight Assessment of Operational Readiness Evaluations for Startups and Restarts,'' dated September 15, 1992. The EH OA Team evaluated the DP ORR to determine whether it was thorough and demonstrated sufficient inquisitiveness to verify that the implementation of programs and procedures adequately ensures the protection of worker safety and health. The EH OA Team performed its evaluation of the DP ORR in the following technical areas: occupational safety, industrial hygiene, and respiratory protection; fire protection; and chemical safety. In the areas of fire protection and chemical safety, the EH OA Team conducted independent vertical-slice reviews to confirm DP ORR results. Within each technical area, the EH OA Team reviewed the DP ORR Plan, including the Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs); the qualifications of individual DP ORR team members; the performance of planned DP ORR activities; and the results of the DP ORR.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Lee, B.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

Description: This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Schell, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

Description: The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Fanning, J.J. & Kim, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of cosmogenic /sup 36/Cl/Cl in young volcanic rocks: An application of accelerator mass spectrometry in geochronology

Description: We have measured /sup 36/Cl/Cl ratios in a number of young volcanic rocks in order to test the feasibility of using /sup 36/Cl buildup as a geochronometer for materials less than about 700,000 years old. All of the analyzed rocks have been dated independently using K-Ar or other radiometric dating methods and have exposure histories that are known or can be reasonably assumed. Measured /sup 36/Cl/Cl ratios in these rocks are in good agreement with the calculated in-situ /sup 36/Cl buildup curve. These analyses indicate that AMS measurement of /sup 36/Cl buildup in young rocks is a potentially powerful new method for dating materials that had previously been undatable, and as such will have broad applications in volcanology, tectonics, geophysics, and Quaternary research.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Leavy, B.D.; Phillips, F.M.; Elmore, D. & Kubik, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF

Description: Our collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. We have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate, lambda/sub c/, and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient, ..omega../sub s/, that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews our experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15K to 800K. In particular, results will be presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Caffrey, A.J.; Anderson, A.N.; Van Siclen, C.D.W.; Watts, K.D.; Bradbury, J.N.; Gram, P.A.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium-90 in the US diet, 1982

Description: Estimates of /sup 90/Sr intake via the total diet in New York City and San Francisco have been made since 1960 from quarterly food samplings and average consumption statistics. The dietary intake of /sup 90/Sr has decreased from the maximum levels attained during 1963-1964, but the decline has become more gradual in recent years due to the continuing small amounts of /sup 90/Sr deposition and the little-changing cumulative deposit of /sup 90/Sr in soil. The annual intake in 1982 averaged 5.4 pCi/day (0.20 Bq/day) in New York, and 2.6 pCi/day (0.096 Bq/day) in San Francisco, little changed from the previous year. Further gradual reductions in /sup 90/Sr intake are anticipated during 1983. 1 reference, 7 figures, 4 tables.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Klusek, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department