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The Metallurgy of Beryllium

Description: The following report describes a study by the M.I.T. Metallurgical Project to pursue the quest of producing ductile beryllium, as beryllium has a relatively high strength, good corrosion resistance to water and air and a melting point of about 1230 C, features that make it a great potential value among being one of the most effective of all materials for slowing down neutrons with little tendency to absorb them.
Date: 1949
Creator: Kaufmann, Albert R.; Gordon, Paul & Lillie, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical studies of the estimation of beryllium oxide in beryllium metal

Description: From abstract: The estimation of beryllium oxide in beryllium metal depending on the differential solubilities of the two material in dilute hydrochloric acid is presented. The results compare favorably with the present beryllium chloride volatilization procedure. Alternate methods are described, and the limitations and possible errors are discussed.
Date: April 17, 1951
Creator: Rynasiewicz, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current Beryllium Literature : A Selected Bibliography, January 1958 - August 1959

Description: "This bibliography lists selected articles on beryllium which have appeared in journals received in the library of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California and articles, reports, and books which have appeared in the following abstracting services between January, 1958 and August 1959."
Date: September 29, 1959
Creator: Lane, Zanier D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Brush Process "Q" Beryllium with Extruded Cast Beryllium, Extruded Flake, and Extruded Turning

Description: The following report follows an investigation conducted to compare some physical and chemical properties of Brush beryllium bars made by their process "Q" and with those of extruded bars made from cast metal, from compressed Clifton flake metal, and from compressed turnings resulting from machining of previously extruded cast metal.
Date: 1946
Creator: Gordon, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

Description: Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and ˜normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify changes in potential protein biomarkers in beryllium-treated mice. We will correlate ...
Date: January 25, 2013
Creator: Gordon, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Production of Beryllium by the Metallothermic Reduction of Beryllium Fluoride

Description: Report discussing "the production of beryllium by the metallothermic reduction of its fluoride...Charges of BaF2 and Mg reacted smoothly when heated by induction in graphite crucibles and on continued heating the metal and slag separated fairly well. It was found that an addition of CaCl2 to the top of the charge facilitated the separation a great deal. Very clean, massive metal has been produced by this procedure."
Date: September 30, 1945
Creator: Spedding, F. H.; Wilhelm, H. A.; Keller, W. H. & Noher, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

Description: An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. ...
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Ilas, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The control of beryllium hazards

Description: From abstract: "The toxicological properties of beryllium and compounds of beryllium are briefly reviewed, together with the historical development of the recommendations for maximum permissible beryllium air concentrations. The application of the enclosure technique presently in use at this laboratory for the control of beryllium hazards is described... Monitoring procedures used to evaluate the performance of enclosures are discussed."
Date: July 15, 1959
Creator: Lindeken, C. L. & Meadors, Orville L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some properties of beryllium oxide and beryllium oxide - columbium ceramals

Description: High-temperature tensile and thermal-shock investigations were conducted on beryllium oxide and beryllium oxide plus columbium metal additions. X-ray diffraction and metallographic results are given. The tensile strength of 6150 pounds per square inch for beryllium oxide at 1800 degrees F compared favorably with the zirconia bodies previously tested. Additions of 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, and 15 percent by weight of columbium metal failed to improve the shock resistance over that of pure beryllium oxide.
Date: March 2, 1951
Creator: Robards, C. F. & Gangler, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Treatment and Machinability of Beryllium Rod

Description: Purpose: "The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not the machinability of extruded beryllium rod could be improved by appropriate heat treatment. It was thought that this could be accomplished in the extruded Be rod by recrystallization without further growth of these grains. This should impart a certain degree of ductility to the metal. The investigations was divided into two parts: Part I - Heat Treatment of Beryllium Rod; Part II - Machinability of Beryllium Rod."
Date: February 19, 1946
Creator: Norhaft, P. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Extrusion of Beryllium

Description: Abstract: "A method for the extrusion of beryllium into rods and tubing has been developed. The operation is carried out between 1500 and 1900 F and the billet is clad in a layer of soft iron to prevent contact between it and the die steals. Extruded beryllium has much more strength and ductility than cast metal due to the crystal refinement which occurs as a result of the fabrication operation."
Date: 1950
Creator: Creutz, Edward Chester, {}
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemistry of Beryllium

Description: From abstract: This is a review, with annotated bibliography, of the mode of occurrence of the element beryllium. It is not a list of specific ore deposits, but a summary of the types of the types of minerals and rocks in which beryllium has been reported to occur. In addition, the unpublished spectrographic studies of the Geological Survey on mill products are summarized, and data are given on domestic production and reserves and on foreign production.
Date: June 1946
Creator: Fleischer, Michael & Cameron, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross Section for the Formation of Be⁷ from Oxygen Irradiated with High Energy Deuterons

Description: Abstract: "The cross section for the formation of Be⁷ from oxygen irradiated with high energy deuterons has been determined. The values are 4.5 millibarns at 100 Mev, 5.6 millibarns at 150 Mev, and 5.5 millibarns at 190 Mev."
Date: September 1953
Creator: Batzel, Roger Elwood & Coleman, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beryllium in Colorado

Description: Report discussing properties and uses of beryllium and beryl, an ore of beryllium produced as a by-product of mining in Colorado.
Date: March 1950
Creator: Page, Lincoln R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio

Description: 1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.
Date: September 30, 2010
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Enhancing Effect of the Inhalation of Hydrogen Fluoride Vapor on Beryllium Sulfate Poisoning in Animals

Description: Report investigating the possible relationship between fluoride and beryllium toxicity by exposing rats to either beryllium sulfate mist and/or hydrogen fluoride vapor. Materials, experimental methods, and results are described. Bibliography begins on page 23.
Date: 1949
Creator: Stokinger, Herbert E. (Herbert Ellsworth), 1909-; Ashenburg, N. J.; DeVoldre, J.; Scott, J. K. & Smith, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department