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The Vapor Pressure of Beryllium Fluoride

Description: Abstract: "Vapor pressures of BeF2 were measured over the temperature range of 746-968 using the transpiration method. The extrapolated boiling point is shown to be 1159[degrees]. The melting point is about 803[degrees]."
Date: 1953
Creator: Sense, K. A.; Snyder, M. J. & Clegg, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation and Examination of Beryllium Carbide

Description: From abstract: "The properties of beryllium carbide were studied to determine its suitability as a high-temperature refractory. Various methods of preparing it were tried and a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting products were determined."
Date: 1953
Creator: Mallett, Manley William; Durbin, E. A.; Udy, M. C.; Vaughan, D. A. & Center, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Production of Beryllium by the Metallothermic Reduction of Beryllium Fluoride

Description: Report discussing "the production of beryllium by the metallothermic reduction of its fluoride...Charges of BaF2 and Mg reacted smoothly when heated by induction in graphite crucibles and on continued heating the metal and slag separated fairly well. It was found that an addition of CaCl2 to the top of the charge facilitated the separation a great deal. Very clean, massive metal has been produced by this procedure."
Date: September 30, 1945
Creator: Spedding, F. H.; Wilhelm, H. A.; Keller, W. H. & Noher, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Enhancing Effect of the Inhalation of Hydrogen Fluoride Vapor on Beryllium Sulfate Poisoning in Animals

Description: Report investigating the possible relationship between fluoride and beryllium toxicity by exposing rats to either beryllium sulfate mist and/or hydrogen fluoride vapor. Materials, experimental methods, and results are described. Bibliography begins on page 23.
Date: 1949
Creator: Stokinger, Herbert E. (Herbert Ellsworth), 1909-; Ashenburg, N. J.; DeVoldre, J.; Scott, J. K. & Smith, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The toxicological properties of beryllium and compounds of beryllium are briefly reviewed, together with the historical developmert of the recommendations for maximum permissible beryllium air concentrations. The application of the enclosure technique for the control of beryllium hazards is described. Emphasis is placed on the design objectives of partial and total enclosures and the related function of auxiliary components. Monitoring procedures used to evaluate the performance of enclosures are discussed. (auth)
Date: July 15, 1959
Creator: Lindeken, C. L. & Meadors, O. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

Description: This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be ...
Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Goldberg, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.
Date: February 18, 2011
Creator: Youmans-Mcdonald, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

Description: Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to generate dusts, mists, fumes, or small particulates. A beryllium exposure control program should minimize airborne concentrations, the potential ...
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Herr, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of The Analysis of The Blood Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Data From The Oak Ridge Y-12 Study

Description: The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. Newman [18] has discussed the clinical significance of the BeLPT and described a standard protocol that was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a ''stimulation index'' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the stimulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were considered in the early 1990's by Frome et al. [7]. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. The purposes of this report are to further evaluate the LAV method using new data, and to describe a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that (1) at least two SIs show a ''positive'' response to beryllium, and (2), that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge and consist of 1080 worker and 33 nonexposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the ...
Date: December 18, 2001
Creator: Frome, EL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Spherical particles of beryllium oxide containing and enclosing UO/sub 2/ particles (-1O micron) were prepared by dispersing a suspension of UO/sub 2/ in a concentrated viscous solution of a basic beryllium saIt in a liquid organic medium, drying, and firing. The spheres produced were porous and would require densification to make the beryllium oxide protective to the UO/sub 2/. Precipitation of beryllium hydroxide or carbonate on UO/sub 2/ particles suspended in solutions of beryllium salts under various conditions produced no actual coating of the UO/sub 2/ particles. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1962
Creator: McDowell, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of high field DHVA-effect and induced magnetism in single crystal TiBe/sub 2/

Description: Recently much interest has been given to itinerant magnetism in cubic Laves phase or C15 materials. Primarily this stems from the discussion of the relationship of p-state pairing and ferromagnetism in ZrZn/sub 2/ by Enz and Matthias, and the possibility of triplet superconductivity. The most recent work in this field has focused on the isoelectronic, isostructural material TiBe/sub 2/, and the possibility that this material is metamagnetic. That TiBe/sub 2/ is close to some form of magnetic instability can be infered indirectly from the peaked nature of its density of states near the fermi level, but also from the observation of ferromagnetism in TiBe/sub 2-x/Cu/sub x/, when x is greater than about 0.15. In this paper a single crystal of pure TiBe/sub 2/ is considered in fields larger than 15 Tesla (T) and at a temperature of 1.3/sup 0/K.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: van Deursen, A.P.J.; van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Verhoef, W.A.; de Vroomen, A.R.; Smith, J.L.; de Groot, R.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Uranium-aluminum compounds were prepared by solidsolid reaction of aluminum powder and uranium hydride; x-ray-diffraction patterns showed that single phases of UAl/sub 2/, UAl/sub 3/, and UAl/sub 4/ could be achieved. The uranium-beryllium compound, UBe/sub 1//sub 3/, was prepared by solid-solid reaction of berylllum powder and uranium hydride. The uranium-boron compounds, UB/sub 2/ UB/sub 4/, and UB/sub 1//sub 2/ were prepared by solid reaction, and single borides were obtained; carbon contamination was especially serious in these samples. The uranium-carbon compounds, UC and UC/sub 2/, were prepared by solid-solid reactlons to 1200 deg C; the x-ray-diffraction patterns showed a mixture of phases, and higher temperatures are probably required. The uranium- nitrogen compounds, UN and UN/sub 2/, were prepared by reaction of uranium with ammonia at 850 deg C for UN/sub 2/ and subsequent heating of that product in vacuum for UN. The uranium-selenium compounds, USe and USe/sub 2/, were prepared in very small samples; the violence of the reaction of selenium with uranium hydride and the lack of availability of hydrogen selenide limits the size of preparations. The uranium-silicon samples, USi/sub 2/ and USi/sub 3/ were prepared by solid-solid reaction of UH/sub 3/ and 8i; numerous attempts were made to prepare U8i. One of the USi/sub 2/ samples was alpha -USi/sub 2/ and the other was beta -USi/sub 2/. The uranium-sulfur compounds, US and US/sub 2/, were prepared; US/sub 2/ was prepared by forming unanium hydride in a flow furnace and then reacting the hydride with hydrogen sulfide; US was prepared by reacting some of the US/sub 2/ with UH/sub 3/. (auth)
Date: January 15, 1961
Creator: Eding, H.J. & Carr, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of 2.0-Bev Protons in Mice

Description: The biological effects of proton beams of 2.0 to 2.2 Bev were studied in mice. Physical studies of particle distribution and depth dosimetry are described. Data are presented on lethal dosage measurements and studies of light element activation in tissues through proton reactions (p,pn) as determined by whole-body counting of gamma activity. (C.H.)
Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Jesseph, J. E.; Moore, W. H.; Bond, V. P. & Lippincott, S. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crystallographic topology and its applications

Description: Geometric topology and structural crystallography concepts are combined to define a new area we call Structural Crystallographic Topology, which may be of interest to both crystallographers and mathematicians. In this paper, we represent crystallographic symmetry groups by orbifolds and crystal structures by Morse - functions. The Morse function uses mildly overlapping Gaussian thermal-motion probability density functions centered on atomic sites to form a critical net with peak, pass, pale, and pit critical points joined into a graph by density gradient-flow separatrices. Critical net crystal structure drawings can be made with the ORTEP-III graphics pro- An orbifold consists of an underlying topological space with an embedded singular set that represents the Wyckoff sites of the crystallographic group. An orbifold for a point group, plane group, or space group is derived by gluing together equivalent edges or faces of a crystallographic asymmetric unit. The critical-net-on-orbifold model incorporates the classical invariant lattice complexes of crystallography and allows concise quotient-space topological illustrations to be drawn without the repetition that is characteristic of normal crystal structure drawings.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, C.K.; Burnett, M.N. & Dunbar, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project SAPPHIRE uranium-beryllium dose rate analysis

Description: During a six-week period in the fall of 1994 a team of 31 US government and Y-12 personnel packaged and removed several thousand kilograms of material containing highly enriched uranium from the (former Soviet Union) Republic of Kazakhstan for interim storage at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This classified mission, known as PROJECT SAPPHIRE, had been initiated at the request of the Kazakhstan government in order to rid itself of possible security problems. Planning for the mission included assurance of the health and safety of the team members, as well as compliance with all local, IAEA, and US government regulations regarding the handling, packaging, transportation, and storage of radioactive and fissile material. The mission classification restrictions were relaxed following the return of the team and material to the United States. The material to be removed, in the form of small billets and rods of uranium metal and uranium-beryllium alloy and oxide powder, was sealed by team members on site into two-liter steel cans. Two or three cans each were loaded into more than 400 IAEA certified fissile material shipping container, and each container was packed into a large steel drum for transport by US Air Force cargo planes to the United States.
Date: June 21, 1995
Creator: Cramer, S.N.; Lewis, K.D. & Moses, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cause of pitting in beryllium

Description: Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem.
Date: April 16, 1982
Creator: Kershaw, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling of the magnetoresistance of UBe/sub 13/ under pressure

Description: We report magnetoresistance measurements of the heavy electron compound UBe/sub 13/ above the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ and below 4 K for pressures P up to 19 kbar and for magnetic fields H up to 9T. We observe strong negative magnetoresistance at all pressures and temperatures. The resistivity /rho/ is quadratic in temperature T from T/sub c/ up to a maximum temperature of 1 K at 1 bar increasing to 2 K at 19 kbar. The slope of the T/sup 2/ term decreases with both H and with P. We find that delta(H) /triple bond/ /minus/ (/rho/(H) /minus/ /rho/(0))/rho/(0) for a given pressure scales as a function of HT and exhibits power law behavior over one decade with an exponent of 1.7. In addition, delta(H) at high pressure shows this same power law over a more limited HT range. 16 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Willis, J.O.; McElfresh, M.W.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L. & Fish, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Absence of antiferromagnetic order in UBe sub 13

Description: The linear magnetostriction ({lambda}{sub //} and {lambda}{sub //}) of a single-crystalline sample of the heavy-fermion compound UBe{sub 13} has been measured for fields B < 8 T (B{sub //}(100)) in the temperature interval 0.3 < T < 12 K. We find neither evidence for the antiferromagnetic order (T{sub N}=8.8 K) nor for the magnetostrictive oscillations, that were reported recently. Instead {lambda} varies proportional to B{sup 2} as expected for a normal paramagnetic metal. 8 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: de Visser, A.; van Dijk, N.H.; Franse, J.J.M. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)); Lacerda, A.; Flouquet, J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures); Fisk, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamics and magnetism in Th sub x U sub 1-x Be sub 13-y B sub y

Description: We report specific heat and {mu}SR measurements on Th (x = 0.019) and/or B (y = 0.03) substituted UBe{sub 13}. The specific heat data show that either Th or B substitution reduces the Kondo temperature T{sub K} and increases the entropy at the superconducting transition by almost 20%, indicating an enhanced density of states. However, whereas {mu}SR shows clear evidence for magnetic correlations for Th substitutions (0.019 < x < 0.043), no magnetism is observed for B substitutions. The enhanced specific heat jump in the B-substituted material is associated with a change in the superconducting properties as T{sub K} is reduced.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Heffner, R.H.; Beyermann, W.P.; Hundley, M.F.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department