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A new device for filtering hydrofluoric acid and other strong acids. Information report

Description: During the course of a research problem involving hydrofluoric acid it became necessary to filter concentrated hydrofluoric solutions to remove various solid materials. The search for a suitable filter media finally led to the use of a commercially manufactured plastic material known as ``Sponge Teflon`` (polytetrafluoroethylone) which is produced by the DuPont Company. This material, which comes in 1/8 in. sheets, is used primarily as a gasket material in acid lines, and is impervious to all acids, including hydrofluorle acid.
Date: July 9, 1948
Creator: Bell, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

Description: This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.
Date: March 31, 2003
Creator: Hitzman, D. O.; Stepp, A. K.; Dennis, D. M. & Graumann, L. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

Description: This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Blythe, Gary; Currie, John & DeBerry, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intracrystalline diffusion in clinoptilolite: Implications for radionuclide isolation

Description: Experiments have been performed to measure the rate of exchange diffusion in the zeolite clinoptilolite (CL) for elements important to radionuclide isolation at Yucca Mountain, NV. Clinoptilolite is one of the major sorptive minerals in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, and occurs both as a major component in zeolitized units (Calico Hills), and in fractures in non-zeolitized tuffs (Topopah Spring). Field evidence and numerical modeling suggests that the movement of fluids through the tuff rocks adjacent to the potential repository may occur via episodic flow through fractures. Under conditions of rapid fracture flow the effective sorptive capacity of fracture-lining clinoptilolite may be controlled by exchange diffusion rather than exchange equilibrium.
Date: November 16, 1995
Creator: Roberts, S.K.; Viani, B.E. & Phinney, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor

Description: The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer) . An additional objective is to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times. Both of these objectives have been nearly achieved, however this work has shown the great importance of the liquefaction solvent characteristics and the solvent-catalyst interaction on the liquefaction process. This has prompted us to do a preliminary investigation of solvents and the solvent-catalyst systems in coal liquefaction. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1) Conversion vs time data have been extended to 5 coals of ranks from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal. A broad range of reaction rates have been observed with a maximum in the high volatile bituminous range. 2) A series of direct coal liquefaction runs have been made using a range of nitrogen containing solvents that given high liquefaction conversions of coal. These runs are now being analyzed. 3) The coalification process has been shown by TGA to go through an intermediate stage which may account for the greater reactivity of bituminous coals in the direct coal liquefaction process. 4) It was shown that coal rank can be accurately determined by thermogravimetric analysis
Date: April 3, 1997
Creator: Huang, He; Klein, Michael T. & Calkins, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of spent electropolishing solution for removal of cobalt-60

Description: The Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing (IMET) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory electropolishes various types of irradiated metal specimens prior to examination of metallurgical and mechanical properties. The standard electropolishing solution used at IMET for most specimens consists of a 7:1 methanol/sulfuric acid mixture, with smaller amounts of a 3:1 methanol/nitric acid solution and a 10:6:1 methanol/2-butoxyethanol/perchloric acid solution also being used. Cobalt-60 is the primary source of gamma radiation in the spent solutions, with lesser amounts from manganese-54 and iron-59. A treatment method is needed to remove most of the Co-60 from these solutions to allow the waste solutions to be contact-handled for disposal. A wide range of adsorbents was tested for removing cobalt from the electropolishing solutions. No adsorbent was found that would treat full strength solution, but a complexing ion exchange resin (Chelex 100, BioRad Labs, or Amberlite IRC-718, Rohm and Haas Co.) will remove cobalt and other heavy metals from partially neutralized (pH=3) solution. A 5 wt% sodium hydroxide solution is used for pH adjustment, since more concentrated caustic caused sodium sulfate precipitates to form. Lab-scale column tests have shown that about 10 bed volumes of methanol/sulfuric acid solution, 30 bed volumes of methanol/nitric acid solution or 15 bed volumes of methanol/2-butoxyethanol/perchloric acid solution can be treated prior to initial Co-60 breakthrough.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Taylor, P.A.; Youngblood, E.L. & Macon, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

Description: The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K. & Chao, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The release of technetium from defense waste processing facility glasses

Description: Laboratory tests are being, conducted using two radionuclide-doped Defense Waste Processing, Facility (DWPF) glasses (referred to as SRL 13IA and SRL 202A) to characterize the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SN) ratio on the release and disposition of {Tc} and several actinide elements. Tests are being conducted at 90{degrees}C in a tuff ground water solution at SN ratios of 10, 2000, and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} and have been completed through 1822 days. The formation of certain alteration phases in tests at 2000 and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} results in an increase in the dissolution rates of both classes. The release of {Tc} parallels that of B and Na under most test conditions and its release increases when alteration phases form. However, in tests with SRL 202A glass at 20,000 ,{sup {minus}1}, the {Tc} concentration in solution decreases coincidentally with an increase in the nitrite/nitrate ratio that indicates a decrease in the solution Eh. This may have occurred due to radiolysis, glass dissolution, the formation of alteration phases, or vessel interactions. Technetium that was reduced from {Tc}(VII) to {Tc}(IV) may have precipitated, thou-h the amount of {Tc} was too low to detect any {Tc}-bearing phases. These results show the importance of conducting long-term tests with radioactive glasses to characterize the behavior of radionuclides, rather than relying on the observed behavior of nonradioactive surrogates.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Ebert, W.L.; Wolf, S.F. & Bates, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic measurements on the silicates of the Yucca Mountain potential repository. Final report for October 1994--September 1995

Description: This Final Report includes a summary and discussion of results obtained under this project on the solubilities in subcritical aqueous solutions of Mont St. Hilaire analcime, Wikieup analcime, and Castle Creek Na-clinoptilolite. Also included here are the methods and results of hydrothermal flow-through experiments designed to measure the rates of Na-clinoptilolite dissolution and precipitation at 125{degree}C. In this report, high-temperature solubility measurements made in our lab are integrated and discussed along with the low-temperature measurements made at Yale University. The final report prepared by the group at Yale University (Lasaga et al.) includes a synthesis of dissolution rate measurements made between 25{degree} and 125{degree}C on the Na-clinoptilolite.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Barnes, H.L. & Wilkin, R.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of flooded 3 x3x3 arrays of plutonium metal

Description: In the early 1980`s, thirteen experiments using plutonium metal cylinders were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory. The experimental method consisted of flooding a 3 x3 x3 array with water until criticality was achieved. Ten of the thirteen experiments went critical while the other three remained subcritical upon full reflection. This paper evaluates these experiments to develop benchmark descriptions for validation of computational tools used by criticality safety specialists. Six of the ten critical experiments were found acceptable as benchmark experiments. Sensitivity studies were performed to find the effect of experimental limits and uncertainties on the k{sub eff} value. Analysis of the experiments was performed by MCNP with continuous energy ENDF/B-V cross section data. K{sub eff} values for all benchmark experiments were computed using MCNP with ENDF/B-V data, KENO-Va with Hansen Roach cross section, and KENO-Va with 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Although these experiments were flooded, KENO-Va calculations show that these were, in fact, fast systems. 3 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Pitts, M.; Rahnema, F. & Williamson, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endurance testing With Li/Na electrolyte

Description: Test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17, 000 hr with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hr at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system- defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J. & Sishtla, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mercury removal from liquid and solid mixed waste

Description: Based on bench-scale laboratory experiments, the following conclusions were reached: Sulfur-impregnated, activated, carbon pellets (Mersorb) can be used to remove mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) to below EPA`s toxic characteristic level (0.2 mg/L). Mersorb works under acid conditions (pH 2) but its capacity is reduced by approximately 50% compared with neutral conditions. Competing ions present in the target waste stream reduced the Mersorb capacity by 50%. Mersorb appears to be economical compared with leading ion exchange resin. KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution can be used to remove up to 99% of Hg in contaminated soil and glass. KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution worked well with several mercury species, including Hg{sup 0}, HgO, HgS, and HgCl{sub 2}. KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution worked well with a wide variety of initial mercury concentrations. Radionuclide surrogate studies suggested that uranium will not partition into KI/I{sub 2} leaching solutions. Cesium may partition into the KI/I{sub 2} leaching solution because of the high solubility of cesium salts.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Gates, D.D.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.; Cameron, P.A.; Perona, J.J. & Chao, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Susceptibility of polysiloxane and colloidal silica to degradation by soil microorganisms

Description: This report is a description of the laboratory study undertaken to determine the biodegradability of Colloidal Silica (CS) and PolySiloXane (PSX), a new generation of barrier liquids employed by the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology in the containment of subsurface contaminants. Susceptibility of either material to microbial degradation would suggest that the effectiveness of a barrier in the subsurface may deteriorate over time. Degradation may result from several different biological events. Organisms may consume the material as a carbon and/or energy source, organisms may chemically change the material as a detoxification mechanism, or organisms may erode the material by their physical penetration of the material during growth. To determine if degradation occurs, physical interactions between soil microbes and the barrier materials were analyzed, and the metabolic activity of individual organisms in the presence of CS and PSX was measured.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Lundy, D.Z.; Hunter-Cevera, J.C. & Moridis, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrophobic Dewatering of Fine Coal. Topical report, March 1, 1995-March 31, 1997

Description: Many advanced fine coal cleaning technologies have been developed in recent years under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, they are not as widely deployed in industry as originally anticipated. An important reason for this problem is that the cleaned coal product is difficult to dewater because of the large surface area associated with fine particles. Typically, mechanical dewatering, such as vacuum filtration and centrifugation, can reduce the moisture to 20-35% level, while thermal drying is costly. To address this important industrial problem, Virginia Tech has developed a novel dewatering process, in which water is displaced from the surface of fine particulate materials by liquid butane. Since the process is driven by the hydrophobic interaction between coal and liquid butane, it was referred to as hydrophobic dewatering (HD). A fine coal sample with 21.4 pm median size was subjected to a series of bench-scale HD tests. It was a mid-vol bituminous coal obtained from the Microcel flotation columns operating at the Middle Fork coal preparation plant, Virginia. All of the test results showed that the HD process can reduce the moisture to substantially less than 10%. The process is sensitive to the amount of liquid butane used in the process relative to the solids concentration in the feed stream. Neither the intensity nor the time of agitation is critical for the process. Also, the process does not require long time for phase separation. Under optimal operating conditions, the moisture of the fine coal can be reduced to 1% by weight of coal.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Yoon, R.; Sohn, S.; Luttrell, J. & Phillips, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS - PHASE II

Description: The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period January 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. This contract is with the University of kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.
Date: October 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

Description: Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D. & Harden, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a centrifugal downhold separator with in-situ recycle of produced water (initial tests with 34.1 API gravity crude)

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently developing a Centrifugal Downhole Separator (CDHS) which will extend the application of remotely operated separations equipment developed for the nuclear industry to in-well recovery of oil with in-situ recycle of the produced water. These units have been successfully used for surface treatment of produced water and wastewater generated during environmental clean-up operations. Performance data has shown that centrifugal units are capable of separating stable emulsions into ``single-phase`` streams with generally less than 1% cross-phase contamination. Initial testing will be conducted with a bench-scale separator to determine the separation efficiency of various crude oils and to provide information necessary to scale up the separator. Information from the bench-scale unit will be used in the design of a larger prototype, which will have a much larger height/diameter ratio and will incorporate some of the components necessary for down-hole operations. The prototype separator will be operated in the lab to verify scale-up parameters and separation efficiencies, as well as to provide information necessary to design a full-scale system. The full-scale system will be fabricated, installed in the field, and operated to demonstrate the technology. This paper discusses the initial testing of the bench-scale separator with a crude oil having an API gravity of 34.06{degrees}.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Walker, J.F.; Jubin, R.T. & Robinson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. First quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. During the past quarter, a number of project tasks have been initiated. All documents required for project startup (i.e., work plans, management plans, etc.) have been submitted to DOE for approval. A bench-scale TES unit and an apparatus for studying tribocharging mechanisms have been designed and are currently being fabricated. One of the three coal samples to be used for bench-scale testing has been acquired.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H. & Adel, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste minimization methods for treating analyticl instrumentation effluents at the source

Description: Recently there has been increasing interest in minimizing analytical laboratory wastes. The driving forces behind this interest are the ever increasing costs and liabilities associated with waste disposal. Thus, many analytical laboratories, like the Defense Waste Processing Technology-Analytical Laboratory (DWPT-AL), located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), are looking into treating their own wastes. The DWPT-AL operates four laboratory modules that produce hazardous liquid effluents from the analytical instrumentation: Spectroscopy, Chromatography I, Chromatography II, and Wet Chemistry. The hazardous waste from these modules is being sent to SRS Waste Management at a cost of approximately $13,000 per drum, which corresponds to approximately $325,000 to $520,000 per year. If the hazardous characteristics of and the hazardous components in the analytical instrument effluents or example preparation wastes can be altered and/or reduced in such a way as to render the stream non-hazardous, the large volume of non-hazardous waste can be disposed of via process drains. Therefore, the primary goal of this project was to reduce the amount of hazardous waste being generated by the DWPT-AL, thereby substantially reducing the costs associated with its disposal. A secondary goal was to develop in-line methods using primarily adsorption/ion exchange columns that can be used to treat the liquid effluent as it emerges from the analytical instrument as a slow, dripping flow. The second goal allows the treatment method to become part of the operating procedure associated with the instrument; thus, the effluent would not be considered a waste until it emerges from the in-line column.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Policke, T.R.; Ritter, J.A. & Barnhart, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrodeposition progress report, October 1--31, 1948

Description: The general points being considered in the construction of equipment for the production of High Level Postum Gauzes were mentioned in the last progress report. A more detailed discussion of the progress to date will be made here. The development work of plating postum out of hydrofluoric acid has proceeded to the point where it is desired to make some runs plating out quantities of postum from 10--250 units per gauze. The following points have been considered in a report for limited distribution.
Date: December 31, 1948
Creator: Orban, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process

Description: A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a particle bottom size of about 28M - 100 M. ! Smaller diameter cyclones, 4 ...
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Torak, Edward R. & Suardini, Peter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department