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open access

Cognitive control of induced pain: an analog comparison of four strategies

Description: The specific purpose of the study was to determine the differential efficacy of three different multicompetent cognitive strategies in the control of an induced pain. An exploratory investigation was also conducted to determine the relationship of health locus of control, expectancy, compliance, and anxiety ratings with the variables of pain tolerance and subjective pain ratings.
Date: August 1978
Creator: McKinlay, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Measurement of Fidelity and Social Validity: Caregiver Application of Trial-Based Functional Analysis Procedures

Description: The present study utilized multiple-baseline and multi-probe across participants designs to measure both fidelity and efficacy of caregivers as primary interventionists when using trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) procedures. Participants included any caregiver of a child with a medical or educational diagnosis of autism and challenging behavior. Caregiver fidelity of implementation of TBFA procedures was measured across three phases: baseline, training, and independent implementation or generalization. Within the implementation phase, caregivers independently conducted TBFAs on their respective children within the home setting. Fidelity, efficacy, and social validity across each participant were measured. Each caregiver was able to reach fidelity during the training phase, and three out of five caregivers were able to identify a clear behavior function for their child's behavior within the implementation phase of the study. Social validity was evaluated. Results indicate that caregivers may be able to supplement traditional interventionists during the TBFA process. Implications for future practice are reviewed.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Feldman, Sara P.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A comparison of the effectiveness of microtraining, positive verbal reinforcement via immediate feedback, and traditional parent skill groups in teaching specific parent skills and improving parent attitudes

Description: This investigation concerned teaching specific parent skills and improving parent attitudes. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three techniques and combinations of techniques in teaching specific parent skills and improving parent attitudes. The techniques considered were microtraining, verbal reinforcement via immediate feedback, and traditional parent training.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Fain, Charlotte N.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The effects of commitment, commitment with rational justification, and an educational technique on smoking behavior with college students

Description: Eight groups of approximately ten college students each who smoked at least one package of cigarettes a day were observed for two 30 -minute sessions a week for a 5-week period. During the treatment session, students either made commitments not to smoke during post-treatment sessions, made commitments along with reasons, only gave reasons why they should not smoke, or made no statements.
Date: December 1975
Creator: O'Banion, Dan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Use of Relaxation-Suggestions and Modeling-Instructions in Modifying Eating Behavior of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded

Description: Training programs designed to remediate eating deficits of higher level patients have involved some combination of verbal instructions, manual guidance, modeling, and reinforcement. Training methods which incorporate relaxation and imagery to facilitate behavior change have received little attention with this population. The current study was designed to explore the use of relaxation and suggestions as a training strategy to modify the shoveling behavior of moderately and mildly retarded institutionalized clients. Three treatment methods, relaxation-suggestion with reinforcement, modeling-instruction with reinforcement, and relaxation-suggestion alone, were compared. A greater reduction in shoveling behavior was hypothesized for the modeling-instruction with reinforcement group than for either of the relaxation-suggestion groups, and a greater reduction in shoveling behavior was hypothesized for the relaxation suggestion with reinforcement group than for the relaxation-suggestion alone group.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Polo, Linda Bridget.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report: Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis

Description: This report analyzes research performed to test the Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis. This behavior modification technique uses prompting and reinforcement to help with children who have disabilities.
Date: August 2016
Creator: What Works Clearinghouse (Institute of Education Sciences)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Effects of Priming and Contingent Attention on Novel Play Episodes in a Child with Autism

Description: This study evaluated the effects of priming and contingent attention procedures on play variability in a child with autism. During baseline, numbers of novel play episodes, different play episodes, and actions occurred at low rates. Priming procedures did not produce desired change. When contingent attention was implemented, significant increases occurred in novel play episodes, different actions, and different play episodes. These results show that attention contingent on variable play episodes can increase the number of novel responses to play materials. The results are discussed within the context of treatment and future research.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Josendale, Julianne R.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Effects of Monitoring and Incompatible Contingencies on Say/Do Correspondence.

Description: This study investigated effects of monitoring on correspondence between nonverbal responding and verbal descriptions of those contingencies, when verbal descriptions and contingencies were compatible and when incompatible. In the Nonverbal Component, the contingency for key pressing was either on a 0.8 s IRT or a 3.4 s IRT. In the Verbal Component, subjects made responses to a statement about the contingency for reinforcement in the Nonverbal Component. Shaping was used to establish targets of 0.8 s and 3.4 s in this component. Results indicated that across 7/8 opportunities subjects exhibited nonverbal and verbal behavior that was sensitive to their respective contingencies regardless of compatibility. This sensitivity to contingencies was not affected by the presence of a monitor.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Crye, Amy Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Effects of Descriptive Praise on Instructional Control Over Varied and Stereotyped Play of a Five-Year-Old Boy

Description: This study investigated the effects of instructional cues on varied and stereotyped play responses of one typically developing 5-year-old child. Responses were observed across four sets of play materials: blocks, DUPLO® blocks, markers and paints. Training included praise contingent upon forms consistent with the instruction. Two instructions were each trained with corresponding instruction signs, "Try something different" (on blue paper) and "Do the same thing" (on yellow paper) for block and DUPLO block forms. Results show differentiated novel responding during the experimental phase. The same differential effect in marker forms occurred in the sign alone phase. When the sign plus instruction was introduced for painting sessions, novel forms in the same condition discontinued and began to occur in the different condition. These findings suggest stimulus control of behavioral variation and behavioral consistency. The implications for both science and society are discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Bank, Nicole L.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

An Evaluation of an Intensive Toilet Training Model

Description: The current evaluation assessed the effectiveness of an intensive toilet training procedure for three young boys with autism. The evaluation extended the work of LeBlanc et al. (2005) by assessing parents’ preference to include the usage of urine alarm and positive practice. In addition, we collected descriptor data on challenging behaviors. All three parent participants’ elected not to use the urine alarm and one parent elected to discontinue the implementation of positive practice techniques. Researchers chose a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of the intervention. All three child participants’ increased successful self-initiations for the toilet and decreased accidents across home and clinic settings. Findings suggest that clinicians should partner with parents to develop individualized toileting interventions that are acceptable and effective.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Doan, Dai
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

An Investigation of I.Q. and Achievement Score Increase in Classes for the Emotionally Disturbed and Minimally Brain Injured as a Result of Operant Conditions Using Tangible Reinforcers

Description: This study was an objective investigation of an operant program in behavior modification using tangible reinforoers, which was conducted in two Special Education classes in the Denton Independent School District.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Cooksey, James Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Suppressive effects of a stimulus correlated with reprimands for automatically-maintained eye poking.

Description: A functional analysis, conducted to assess the variables maintaining the chronic eye poking of a female diagnosed with profound mental retardation, indicated that the behavior persisted in the absence of social contingencies. A procedure was initiated in a training environment in which a punisher (mild reprimand) was delivered contingent on eye poking in the presence, but not in the absence, of a neutral stimulus (wristbands). Using a combination of multiple baseline and multielement experimental designs, it was determined that that eye poking was suppressed in the presence of the previously neutral stimulus, even in environments in which the reprimand contingency was inoperative.
Access: Restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2003
Creator: McKenzie, Scott Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Using Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior

Description: We manipulated delay and magnitude of reinforcers in two concurrent schedules of reinforcement to decrease a prevalent behavior while increasing another behavior already in the participant's repertoire. The first experiment manipulated delay, implementing a five second delay between the behavior and delivery of reinforcement for a behavior targeted for decrease while no delay was implemented after the behavior targeted for increase. The second experiment manipulated magnitude, providing one piece of food for the behavior targeted for decrease while two pieces of food were provided for the behavior targeted for increase. The experiments used an ABAB reversal design. Results suggest that behavior can be decreased without the use of extinction when contingencies favor the desirable behavior.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Palmer, Ashlyn
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Analyzing Contingencies of Behavioral and Cultural Selection

Description: A choice paradigm was used to evaluate allocation of interlocking behavior of two groups of two participants between responses having operant consequences only and responses having cultural consequences. In a discrete trial BABABAB design, each participant could select one of three options, which delivered either 3 or 5 points. In B (cultural consequence) conditions, two of the options had additional effects: the 3-point option also added 3 points to the other participant's earnings, and one of the 5-point options also subtracted 5 points from the other participant's earnings. The third option was unchanged in both conditions and delivered 5 points to the participant who selected it. Results indicated that participants in both groups initially frequently produced response combinations that earned 8 points for one or the other individual (and 0 or 3 points for the other), but allocation of responding increasingly changed to combinations that produced 6 points for each individual. This shift in performances away from maximum individual reinforcement towards maximum group reinforcement indicates cultural contingencies did not act in concert with operant contingencies, suggesting they are different mechanisms of selection.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Hunter, Chad S.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Cigarette Smoking Behavior: Self-Managed Change

Description: In the present study, three self-managed treatment programs were compared with respect to their ability to effect and maintain change in the cigarette smoking behavior of 27 subject volunteers from the population of employees of a Veterans Administration hospital. Subjects were randomly assigned to a self—imposed delay group, a self-directed relaxation group, and a self-monitoring group. The experimental program lasted 6 weeks with a 20-minute individual meeting each week. Three months following treatment, subjects were contacted by mail and were asked to monitor their smoking behavior for one week, and to return their average daily smoking rate by mail. The results provide support for the effectiveness of the self-management technique of self-imposed delay as a durability—enhancing treatment procedure. The effectiveness of self-management techniques as a general class of treatment strategies was not supported. A task for future research would be to establish the effectiveness of the delay technique implemented earlier in the cigarette smoking chain, as well as to determine whether effectiveness is increased or decreased by a specification of the content of a delay interval.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Taylor, Paul Wesley
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Development and Validation of Measures of Generalization of a Behavior Management Package

Description: In order for the benefits of a behavior management skills training program to reach clients, caregivers must use the behavior management skills in the natural environment. The current study took place at a large residential facility for adults with disabilities, in which caregivers had received prior training in which they demonstrated behavior management skills and maintained those skills in contrived role plays. The current study represents a preliminary analysis of generalization of these skills in the natural environment; thus, a measurement system for when caregivers should demonstrate the tools was developed. The specific purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a program to establish stimulus control over observers' measurement of appropriate behaviors. Researchers systematically developed and validated a measurement system of "good behaviors" that could be used across clients. The process of development and refinement of the measurement system is described. When the system was finalized, three observers' accuracy in using the system was assessed by comparing measured values to that of the code writer. Following feedback on individual instances of behavior, all observers scored the three target behaviors accurately. Ecological validity was assessed by surveying professionals at the facility and ecological validity results suggested a valid measurement system was developed.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Speckin, Lauren Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Control over Therapist Interactions as a Reinforcer for a Child with Autism

Description: This study evaluated whether therapist terminations of social interactions would decrease social terminations and increase social initiations during play activities with a child with autism. The assessment took place in two conditions. The first condition, instructed involved social interactions with instructions delivered, and the second, uninstructed, involved social interactions without instructions delivered. These conditions were analyzed with a multiple baseline across-conditions design. Interaction duration, initiations, instructions, and child terminations were recorded. This study showed that the therapist-removal procedure resulted in a complete decrease in child terminations, and an increase in the number of initiations and the duration of the child-therapist interactions during the uninstructed condition. Similar effects were seen in the instructed condition, but to a lesser degree.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Edwards, William Harrison
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

A Comparison of Group Systematic Desensitization, Group Covert Positive Reinforcement, and Test-Retest in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

Description: The investigation was concerned with determining the effectiveness of group systematic desensitization and group covert positive reinforcement, with a control group. The two treatment conditions were to be compared if both were effective in reducing test anxiety as measured by the College Form of the Test Anxiety Questionnaire. Three groups were employed, two treatment and one control group, with four subjects in each. An analysis of covariance yielded insignificant results at the .05 level. A review of the literature was presented, procedural aspects of the treatments were covered, and possible reasons for the insignificant results were discussed.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Smith, William Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Effects of Graduated Exposure, Modeling, and Contingent Social Attention on Tolerance to Skin Care Products with Children Who Have Autism.

Description: The effects of graduated exposure, modeling and contingent social attention on tolerance to skincare products were evaluated with two boys with autism who displayed tactile defensiveness. Upon each presentation step of skincare products the number of positive and negative responses and successful step completion were measured. Procedures included modeling, presenting graduated opportunities, and providing social attention for step completion. Step advancement occurred if a child engaged in a step independently, without excessive refusals. A changing criterion design and a multiple baseline were employed to evaluate effects of this treatment package. Children demonstrated more positive and fewer negative responses as they completed the graduated steps. Effects maintained in follow-up observations.
Date: December 2001
Creator: South, Ellyn M.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Effects of a Tactile Prompting Device on the Requesting Behavior of a Child with Autism

Description: In the present experiment, a remote control tactile prompting device (RCT) was utilized to prompt a child with autism to recruit teacher models and play suggestions. A multiple baseline and reversal was used to assess the effects of the RCT across three play contexts. The results showed increases in the number of requests for models and suggestions as well as increases in the duration of interactive play between the child and therapist, the number of contextual statements emitted by the child, and the topography and contexts of the play behaviors emitted by the child. Findings are discussed in terms of the effectiveness and generality of the RCT and the issue of teaching a child to recruit versus teaching a child activity-specific behaviors.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Russo, Lori A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Teaching Behavior Professionals to Use the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): A Preliminary Investigation

Description: We assessed the implementation accuracy and fidelity of two board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) using the open-ended interview from Hanley. Participants interviewed a confederate using the open-ended interview, and were then asked to use information gathered from the interview to create operational definitions of target behaviors as well as test and control condition procedures for a subsequent matched test-control functional analysis as is characteristic of the interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) strategy. Brief behavioral skills training (BST) was then implemented with all participants to increase the accuracy of constructing both target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures. Preliminary results show moderate rates of accuracy of target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures prior to BST, and high rates of accuracy following BST. The results also suggest high implementation fidelity on the open-ended interview may not be necessary to achieve high accuracy when constructing target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures.
Access: Restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Metras, Rachel
Partner: UNT Libraries
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