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Evaluation of Heat Dissipation in the BPM Buttons

Description: Growth of circulating current in the storage rings drastically increases heating of the beam position monitor (BPM) buttons due to the induced trapped modes is drastically increasing. Excessive heating can lead to the errors in the measuring of beam position or even catastrophic failures of the pick-up assembly. In this paper we present calculations of heat generated in the button for different geometries and materials. The obtained results are used for the optimization of the NSLS-II BPM buttons design.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Pinayev,I. & Blednyhk, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A General Analysis of Thin Wire Pickups for High Frequency Beam Position Monitors

Description: In many particle accelerators, a large number of high frequency beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to track and correct the orbit of the beam. Therefore, simple, sensitive, low cost pickup designs for such BPMs are of widespread interest. In this paper, a general analysis of arbitrarily terminated thin wire stripline or
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Barry, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimisation of NSLS-II Blade X-ray Beam Position Monitors: from Photoemission type to Diamond Detector

Description: Optimisation of blade type x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) was performed for NSLS-II undulator IVU20. Blade material, con and #64257;guration and operation principle was analysed in order to improve XBPM performance. Optimisation is based on calculation of the XBPM signal spatial distribution. Along with standard photoemission type XBPM a Diamond Detector Blades (DDB) were analysed as blades for XBPMs. DDB XBPMs can help to overcome drawbacks of the photoemission blade XBPMs.
Date: July 10, 2012
Creator: P., ILINSKI
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of RF BPM Receivers for NSLS-II Project

Description: The NSLS-II Light Source being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory requires submicron stability of the electron orbit in the storage ring in order to utilize fully very small emittances and electron beam sizes. This sets high stability requirements for beam position monitors and a program has been initiated for the purpose of characterizing RF beam position monitor (BPM) receivers in use at other light sources. Present state-of-the-art performance will be contrasted with more recently available technologies.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Pinayev,I. & Singh, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase and synchronous detector theory as applied to beam position and intensity measurements

Description: A popular signal processing technique for beam position measurements uses the principle of amplitude-to-phase (AM/PM) conversion and phase detection. This technique processes position-sensitive beam-image-current probe-signals into output signals that are proportional to the beam`s position. These same probe signals may be summed and processed in a different fashion to provide output signals that are proportional to the peak beam current which is typically referred to as beam intensity. This paper derives the transfer functions for the AM/PM beam position and peak beam current processors.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Gilpatrick, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured longitudinal beam impedance of a Tevatron separator

Description: Twenty two separators are currently installed in the Tevatron. The longitudinal impedance of one of these devices was recently measured with a stretched wire. The stretched wire technique can only measure impedance below the cutoff frequency (500MHz). The geometry of a separator is similar to an un-terminated stripline beam position detector. The separator plates occupy a 13.5'' ID vacuum tank, are 101'' long, 7.8'' wide, and have a 2'' gap between them. The differential characteristic impedance between the plates is estimated to be 81 {Gamma} and the common mode impedance plate to ground is about 42 {Gamma}.
Date: December 9, 2002
Creator: Crisp, James L & Fellenz, Brian J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of the spread of the readings in the Linac toroids and BPMs

Description: The readback accuracy on the high-energy toroids is about 0.26 mA. This does not consider, completely, the relative offsets among the toroids, just the accuracy of one reading on one toroid. Similarly, if you remove the way in which the beam moves in the beam pipe and ignore the relative offsets of the BPMs themselves, then the absolute accuracy of the reading on a BPM is 35 microns.
Date: November 9, 2001
Creator: McCrory, Elliott S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of Beam Momentum at the Stacking Energy of the Accumulator

Description: The momentum and orbit length of beam on the central and extraction orbits of the Antiproton Source Accumulator are calculated from measurements of revolution frequency and transverse beam position. This report gives the results of measurements made at the stacking energy before and after the 1998-99 Accumulator lattice upgrade. Before the lattice upgrade, the Accumulator central orbit length and momentum are measured to be: L{sub c} = 474.0433 {+-} 0.0025 m, p{sub c} = 8819.5 {+-} 4.1 MeV/c. After the lattice upgrade the central orbit length and momentum are measured to be: L{sub c} = 474.0532 {+-} 0.0016 m, p{sub c} = 8803.4 {+-} 2.7 MeV/c. The extraction orbit length and momentum prior to the lattice upgrade are measured to be: L{sub e} = 474.1916 {+-} 0.0054 m, p{sub e} = 8900.8 {+-} 9.2 MeV/c. After the lattice upgrade the extraction orbit length and momentum are measured to be: L{sub e} = 474.1599 {+-} 0.0036 m, p{sub e} = 8886.3 {+-} 6.1 MeV/c.
Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Werkema, Steve & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF systems for the betatron-node scheme experiment at LBNL

Description: Two-beam accelerators based upon relativistic klystrons (RK's) have been proposed as power sources for future generation electron-positron linear colliders. These drivers are known to suffer from several transverse beam-breakup (BBU) instabilities. A program to study a particular technique (the 'betatron node scheme') of ameliorating the high frequency BBU is under way at LBL. Central to this study are the pillbox RF cavities and RF beam position monitors (BPM's) employed. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of the RF components. Details of the signal processing and analysis will be presented.
Date: June 22, 2001
Creator: Lidia, Steven M.; De Santis, Stefano & Houck, Timothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical sensors for accelerator diagnostics. Final report for the period September 15, 1998 - September 14, 2001

Description: DARHT utilizes a long pulse electron beam having a duration in excess of 2 microseconds. An electro-optic voltage sensor technology has been developed and commissioned to address this unique diagnostic environment. Over 200 sensors have demonstrated 0.25% accuracy. Deployment is expected in 2002.
Date: April 8, 2002
Creator: Yakymyshyn, Christopher P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alignment and survey of the elements in RHIC

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two rings with cryogenic magnets at a 4.5K operating temperature. Control of positions of the dipole and quadrupole cold masses (iron laminations) and the beam position monitors (BPM`s) during production and installation is presented. The roll of the dipoles is controlled by a combination of rotating coil measurements with the surveying measurements. The center of the quadrupole magnetic field is obtained by direct measurement of the field shape within a colloidal cell placed inside the quadrupoles. Special attention is given to the triplet quadrupole alignment and determination of the field center position.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Trbojevic, D.; Cameron, P. & Ganetis, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of beam-position-transfer functions using circular beam-position monitors

Description: A cylindrical beam-position monitor (BPM) used in many accelerator facilities has four electrodes on which beam-image currents induce bunched-beam signals. These probe-electrode signals are geometrically configured to provide beam-position information about two orthogonal axes. An electronic processor performs a mathematical transfer function (TF) on these BPM-electrode signals to produce output signals whose time-varying amplitude is proportional to the beam`s vertical and horizontal position. This paper will compare various beam-position TFs using both pencil beams and will further discuss how diffuse beams interact with some of these TFs.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Gilpatrick, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Enhancements have been made to the log-ratio analog front-end electronics based on the Analog Devices 8307 logarithmic amplifier as used on the LEDA accelerator. The dynamic range of greater than 85 dB, has been extended to nearly the full capability of the AD8307 from the previous design of approximately 65 dB through the addition of a 350 MHz band-pass filter, careful use of ground and power plane placement, signal routing, and power supply bypassing. Additionally, selection of high-isolation RF switches (55dB) has been an integral part of a new calibration technique, which is fully described in another paper submitted to this conference. Provision has also been made for insertion of a first-stage low-noise amplifier for using the circuit under low-signal conditions.
Date: June 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam position monitor

Description: An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.
Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold & Evans, Gwyndaf
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components

Description: We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
Date: September 18, 1996
Creator: Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C. & Steich, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV electron induction injector

Description: We are constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5``-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 {pi}-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4-kA, 3-MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.
Date: May 11, 1998
Creator: Houck, T.L.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.M.; Vanecek, D.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam distributions beyond RMS

Description: The beam is often represented only by its position (mean) and the width (rms = root mean squared) of its distribution. To achieve these beam parameters in a noisy condition with high backgrounds, a Gaussian distribution with offset (4 parmeters) is fitted to the measured beam distribution. This gives a very robust answer and is not very sensitive to background subtraction techniques. To get higher moments of the distribution, like skew or kurtosis, a fitting function with one or two more parameters is desired which would model the higher moments. In this paper we will concentrate on an Asymmetric Gaussian and a Super Gaussian function that will give something like the skew and the kurtosis of the distribution. This information is used to quantify special beam distribution. Some are unwanted like beam tails (skew) from transverse wakefields, higher order dispersive aberrations or potential well distortion in a damping ring. A negative kurtosis of a beam distribution describes a more rectangular, compact shape like with an over-compressed beam in z or a closed to double-homed energy distribution, while a positive kurtosis looks more like a ``Christmas tree`` and can quantify a beam mismatch after filamentation. Besides the advantages of the quantification, there are some distributions which need a further investigation like long flat tails which create background particles in a detector. In particle simulations on the other hand a simple rms number might grossly overestimate the effective size (e.g. for producing luminosity) due to a few particles which are far away from the core. This can reduce the practical gain of a big theoretical improvement in the beam size.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Decker, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

Description: The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-{mu}m/{radical}Hz resolution and 2-{mu}m/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr. & Kahana, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanometer resolution BPM using damped slot resonator

Description: A new type of high resolution beam position monitor called the damped slot resonator rf BPM has been installed at the focal point of the FFTB. It is comprised of a cylindrical resonant cavity with a tuned choke joint at the TM{sub 110} resonances. The BPM has a large dynamic range from the nm to mm range with a minimum resolution of 1 nm. We report on the rf cavity cold tests performance, processing electronics design, and some experimental results obtained in obtained in the high energy electron beam line.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Hartman, S.C.; Shintake, T. & Akasaka, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the CEBAF Arc Beam Position Monitors

Description: The first three quarters of the first CEBAF arc have been instrumented with beam position monitors. Thirty-seven monitors (of 450) have been installed and their noise measured. Resolution of 100 mu-m was obtained at the lowest operating current of 1 mu-A. The update time of the system is 1 sec, limited by computer interfacing with a potential bandwidth of greater than 10 kHz.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Hofler, A.S.; Bowling, B.A.; Higgins, C.S.; Kloeppel, P.K.; Krafft, G.A. & Mahoney, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department